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OftheConftitutionofVenice - ....-• ja 

I . ' > 

Of the Conftitnticm of Venice - - .... 66 

.« ■ ' i 


Of the RepuMics of Of enii^^ GenoX) Lisicca^'and St. 
Marino --.----------96 

. ■ / • 

.-..■:• CHAPTER XX. 


CX the Republics of Ragufa and Holland- «• «*^ • 127 

Of the Cof^itntioa of HoOafad ' •* <- ^ .«; r - i$q 

CHAPTER XXn. ' ' , 

Of die Conftkntioa of England ( andof tjhe Origin of ; 
itsLawt - - --•------.- 193 

Cmtinuatioo of the Conftitotion of England - - 249 



^' '- CHAPTER "XXTV. ^^ 
Continuation of the Coi^Uotioa of England - - 288 

'. i-f , . CHAPTER XXV. . . 
Continuation of the Conftitution of England ^ - 326 


0^ tliP United States of. America; thejr Orkm: jiuid : ^^ 
the Events which preceded their Conftitution - - 365 

Of the Conilitution of the United States of America 408 

A Patriotic Catechifm for the Ufe of the French - 430 

Declaration of Rights - - ----*-- 44^ 

Declaration by the R^>r€feikatU^e(8;bf tl:^ United States 
^.-af America- -i .-.,41 ]fi,rr.:r: r: -. .t.'-. - -;457; 
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union - 460 
The Conftitution of ^tHe UAiftA ^tafcs of America 475 
IM:laratton -of Rights of thbdoQabitaxiti jo^ Mafiacbu** > 
fetts -------------- coo 

Abridgment of the'Conftittifibh 6f the fame State - 510 
Abridgmciit?oFthe<>Jttftifirt4«in^pf NewHaiMpito • 
'. \Rhbde-Ifland; Conne6kicut, -New-York> Ncw»- 
Jerfey, Pennfylv^ia, . Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
^mia, North and South Carolia^ and Georgia, 513, &c» 

T ' *^ . ■ '• ■ ....■•. ■ .. . • 

K ; ■ r- : . T -\ A RE- 







Of the Constitution of Venice; 

IN giving aft account of this republic, I (hall, 
agreeable to the plan I have hitherto purfued, 
begin by examining the origin of its government, 
and trace from thence the degrees by which it has 
been brought to that form of conftitution in which 
it now appears to be fixed. 

Venice, that Ibperb city, which feems to have 

arifen from the waves to reign the miftrefs of the 

Vol. II* B Adriatic 

2 Of the Confiituiion of Venice. 

Adriatic fea, Was created by terror, is now fortified by" 
her courage, enriched by her commerce^ embel- 
lifhed by the arts, and fupported by prndence. 

In the fourteenth century the Roman ennpire, that 
Colloffus of power which had fa Igng borne down the 
univerfe, approacttcdthe 'moment of her ruin. The 
fierce Attila, after having fubdued all the nations of 
the north, was advancirtg tdwirds Italy, there to ex- 
ercife all the fury of vengeance. At his approach the 
Veneti (a people ♦wh^ inhabited part of Cifelpine 
Gaul) not being able to oppofe the torrent whick 
overturned every thing it met with in its paflage,. 
took refuge by croffing the canals, in fome fmall 
Mands fituated in the botom of the Adriatic gulph. 
One of thefe named the Rialta, fervcd as a port to 
the city of Padua, but was fcarcely inhabited* 

When the ferocious Attila fofccrted by Pope Leo,, 
had abandoned the conqueft of Rome, and contented 
himfelf with making it tributary, thefe ifl^nders who- 
lived in a itiiferable manner on uncultivated lands,. 
forfcok their retreats and returned to their former 
habitations; but fcarcely were they fettled there,, 
when the fame danger drove them back to thofe 
iflands, from whence they contemplated, in fafety at 
le&ft, the ravages to Syhich the iiihabitants of the 
Terra Firma were expofed. On their return they, 
brought with thei^n thofe things of which they had 
\ moft perceived the want during tlieir firft fojourn ;. 

i^ and 

Of the Conjiitutm of Venia. 3 

fend thus thefe iflands' became at once the moft in- 
habited, and the moft habitable part of Italy. 

Men are no fooner united in any place of refidence 
than they per(!eive the neceffity of eftablifhing among 
them fome form of government: at fuch times 
abfolute power is the moft odious to them, and they 
are led by inclination to that form which extends au- 
thority to every individual, and gives to all an equal 
participation in the fovereignty. How is it that na- 
ture which infpires them with this fcntiment, fo 
frequently refufes that wifdom neceflary for it3 
proper dirqftion ? 

After having confidered and compared all the va- 
rious kinds of power, thefe iflanders preferred the 
tribunition : and as the body of this nation newly de- 
tached from the continent, was difperfed in different 
iflands, it was refolved that each of them fhould 
'have its tribune, who fhould be charged with dif- 
pcnfing juftice to thofe within his jurifdiftion ; and 
that all caufes relating to private perfons fliould be 
brought before him : that thefe tribunes fliould be 
(phofen annually, by the inhabitants of the diftridt ia 
which they were to exercife their authority j and 
that they fliould be accountable for their adminiftra- 
tion to the general aflcmbly of the nation, which 
ihould alone have the right of determining all affairs 
relative to . the ftate. 

This plan may rank in point of wifdom with the 
moft perfect which we find in antiquity j and while 

B 2 the 

4 ^f the Conftitution of Venice. 

t6e iflanders had the good fcnfe to adhere to it thc^ 
were happy ahd peaceable/ 

The Vandals in the irrujition Which they made into 
Italy, pafied By withbnt molefting this new people^ 
wlibfe retreat was endeared" to tHerh when they found 
themfelves inacceffible tothefe barbarians, ^nd'fecure 
from the calamities which were fpread over Italy by 
that favage horde. Gtrlferic their chief, more inflex- 
ible than Attila, could' not be moved by the fuppli^ 
cations of Leor he entered" Rortie, arid committed 
there all the excefles into which rage can hurry a 
conqueror who is animated by falfe zeal. Genferic 
was foon followed by Odoacre, who forced Auguftu- 
his to defcend from the imperial throne and hide 
his difgrace in the moft profound obfcurity. 

** Tlie delire (fays the Abbe Laugier inhis Hiftory 
-** of Venice) of fhaking dfF ?l humiliating ybke 
^' made new refugees pafs continually ov«r to this 
** new republic : but though it was of miich impor- 
" tance to the ftate to have its fubjefts increafe,'all 
« thofe who by their vices might difturbthe public 
*' tranquillity Were rigoroufly excluded : none could 
'^ be admitted who were judged capable of injuring; 
*' or incapable of ferving riie community; and pu- 
*^ rity of manners, and fimplicityof conducEt, united 
** wirii a difpofition to labour, were requifite for ob-i- 
" raining among this people the rank of citizen." 

Several bffhops who like true paftors were iin- 
willing to be feparated from their flock had followed 


OJ the Conjlitution of Fmc^. ^ 

the fugitive familij^s into this afylum, and maintained 
there the love of yirtye among them. 

How muft thefe iflandershave applauded thefr own 
courageous refblution^ and .how happy muft they 
have efteemed themfelves, while feated in the midft of 
the fea as in a fecure port, they learnt from tli^l^ce 
what was pafling in Italy ! In lefs than fix years all ' 
that beautiful country had been ravaged by the Hips 
under Attila, by the Vandals under Genferic, by the 
Heruli under Qdoacre^ and at lad by the Oftrpgoths 
lender Theodoric 

The Venetians availing them.fetves of their fitua- 
^ion foon raifed a marine, by means of which tliey 
carried on a trade towards the end of the fourteenth 
century in all the -.poets of the Adriatic gulf, and ren- 
dered themfelv^s ufeful to .the greater powers. 

A letter from ,Caffiodorus minifter of Xheodoric, 

is a monument which gives a juft idea of the fituation 

of the Venetians under that emperor. In writing to 

their tribunes tocouimand them to expedite a cargo 

of wine and oil, he^f^ys "it will coft you little to ufe 

** diligence, you \^ho /requently run overmuch im- 

^^ menfe fpaces. Your fituation renders navigation 

*' very familiar to you even without quitting home, 

*^ becaufe you go from houfe to houfe by fea. If con- 

^^^ trary winds prevent your hazarding yourfelves on 

/^ the main ocean, you have the conveniency of ^ 

^^ multitude of rivers on which you can embark 

c^* without fear of winds or tempefts, and run along 

B 3 the 


Of the Conftituiion of Venice: 



neighbouring coiintiy: while thofe who obferve 
you from afar fuppofe you marching over the 
" meadows and paftures." 

This minifter of a king of the Oftrogoths had 
fuch a propenfity for animating his flyle by images 
and defcriptions, that he could not forbear painting 
to the Venetians what was in reality under their eyes. 
Your habitations (fays he) are placed like thofe of 
equatic birds : after their example you have dif- 
perfed your dwellings over this vaft fca. You 
unite thofe fcanty domains which nature has pre- 
" fented to you : you heap up the fands you find 
*' around for oppofing the efforts of the waves^ and 
** this weak rampart is fufEcient to refifl the violence 
*^ of the waters. Fifh is the food common to all 
" your inhabitants, for with you the poor and the 
*' rich participate in every thing. Even the unifor- 
" mity and entire fimilitude of your houfes banifh far 
^' from your citizens all idea of a diverfity of fortune ; 
*' and this equality prevents all caufe of jealoufy and 
*' of difpute. Thus are you happily guarded from a 
*' vice which begets every where elfe fo much cala- 
^' mity ; and have nothing to call your attention fronri 
*' your fait houfes which are to you both lands and 
" harveft. Salt is more valuable to you than the richefl 
" money, becaufe it furnifhes you with every kind of 
^' provifion: for men may do without gold, but they 
f' cannot without fait, becaufe it is the neceflfary fea* 
*' foning to all our rnq^ts/' 


Of the ConJiUuti$n of Venice. 7 

. . . ■ • • 

* lihoh who Ifitend to give an account of the origin 

^f a nation, are fortunate in finding fuch portraits 
*<Jraw« by their able cotemporaries : they caft nnore 
light upon antiquity than all thofe monuments disfi- 
gured by time, and all the fables coUedled by cr^dq- 
•laus hiftorians. 

It is not ordained for man to poffefs the power of 

"keeping himfelf forever fheltered from misfortunes 

and perfecution-: to whatever corner of the univerfe 

he retires injuftice will ftill attack him, for flie exifts 

in all climates. 

The Sclavonians, a barbarous nation iflliing frona 
the fozen regions of Scythia, after proceeding along 
the fliores of the Black Sea, divided into two parts; 
one part turned towards the country beyond the 
Danube, and the other after crofling that river, efta- 
'bliflied themfelves in Dalmatian from whence they 
gained their way by degrees until they reached the 
borders of the Adriatic Sea, where they built the 
•city of Narenta^ and afterwards extended themfelves 
into Iftria. 

It was always the fate of the fouthern nations to 
fly before thofe of the north. The Iftrians, in order 
to avoid the yoke and the fury of the Sclavonians, fol- 
lowed the example oftheVeneti( Venetians), and took 
refuge on an ifland very near their continent, where 
'they built the city of JuftinopoHs in honour of the 
-emperor Juftin who then reigned over the eaft : it is 
flow known by the name of Capo d'Iftria. 

B 4 The 

Of the Conjlit U tion ef Venues 

The Sclavonians when they had rendered them- 
felvcs formidable by land, beheld with regret the people 
whom they had driven out of their poffeffions, take 
refuge in the neighbouring iflands : and being de- 
termined to extirpate from the earth all thofe who 
had ever breathed in the countries conquered by them, 
they conftrufted yeflels, exerqifed themfelves in afts 
pf plunder and piracy, and thus gave great alarm, 
to the Venetians. Tha.t people foon found it necef' 
fary to arm their veffels of war to proteft their na- 
vigation againft thefe pirates ; and in their firft en- 
gagements with them, they Were convinced, that 
thofe who have nothing on their fide but rafli courage 
and a rage for fighting, are much nnore likely to 
triumph on terra firmuy than on an element whcr^ 
fo great an advantage is derived from manoeuvring. 
The barbarians not hunribl^d by one defeat re- 
newed^ the attack with redoubled fury; and thus 
t>y obliging the iflanders to be cor^tinually eniployed 
in defending themfelves, they made thena more able 
as well as more alert mariners. The confequence 
yras that at the end of a very long and very obftinate 
war the Venetians had conquered Narenta and aljl 

It was a fpeftacle truly worthy of pity to behold 
this great empire, one of whofe feats had been tranf- 
ferred to Conftantinople, this i^nmenfe body, whicl:i 
fcenied under Confl:antine to extend its two arms 
•ver the univerfe, with one of thefe arms torn ojj* 


On the ConJii!u)icn of Voiice. p 

by the barbarians, and the other members bewail-, 
ing its lofs. 

Juftinian, who had fucceeded his uncle Juftin, con-* 
ceived the defign of recovering the weflern empire 
from its laft conquerors, Theodoric was no more ; 
and his daughter, much more worthy than he of 
governing Italy, had been put to death by the per-* 
fidious Theodat whom Ihe had raifed to the throne. 
Juftinian feconded by his general Belifarius had re-r 
pulfedthePerfians \ and had taken glorious vengeance 
on the Vandals and recovered from them Africa, 
whither they had borq the fpoils carried away by 
Genferic after he had made himfelf matter of Rome. 

Theodat intimidated by thefe fuccefles, which 
prefaged an invafion of Italy, fent a folcmn embafly 
to Juftinian for propofing to eftablifti with him a 
perrnanent peace: but the anfwer of Juftinian was 
that of a prince confcious of his fuperiority. " Let 
*« Theodat," faid he to the ambafladors, ^^ quit Italy 
** and her adjacent ides; and let him render himfelf 
*^ without delay to Conftantinoplc, where I will award 
** him the fate he deferves." Theodat, however ab-. 
je6t, did not choofe to yield to fuch conditions : but . 
pot knowing how to ftop Belifarius who was march- 
ing againft him, or to put^imfelf in any ftate of 
defence, he remained in Rome as if waiting only for 
fhe arrival of the conqueror to deliver himfelf into* 
|>i5 haqds. 


to On the Conjlittition of Venice. 

The Oftrogoths, incenfed at this timidity^ depofej 
Theodat and chofe Vitiges in his room, who Ihewed 
himfelf at lead worthy of comparifon with the general 
of Juftinian; for he befieged him in Rome, and forced 
him to conclude a treaty which Belifarius afterwards 
eluded, not believing himfelf bound to obferve faith 
with the chief of plunderers. By a fecond deceit> 
which has no more claim to approbation than the 
firft, he rendered himfelf m after of Vitiges who ha4 
retired to Ravenna, and led him prifoner to Conftan^ 

After fuch great fuccefs, if feemed probable that 
the weftern empire would be reunited to tliat of the 
eaft, and that b6th would fall under the command 
of Juftinian ; but it was far otherwife, for a period 
marked by the moft horrible calamities was at hand. 
The Oftrogoths having chof^n Todlas for their chiefi 
that ferocious warrior recovered in the abfence of 
Belifarius all the territories which Vitiges had loft; 
deftroyed all the Roman foldiers whom he encoun- 
tered ; and marching direftly to Rome, befieged and 
took it in the fight of Belifarius who returned too 
late into Italy, which he ought not to have quitted. 

Jt was under Totilas that the capitol of the world^ 
experienced the moft cruel deftruftion. Its walls 
were levelled to the ground 5 its houfes delivered to 
the flames; and its citizens all in tpars at feeing no 
|:€mains of Rome but the ruins and the heaps of 


Of the Conjiituiicn of Fenice. ii 

lafhcs under which fhe feemed for ever burled^ were 
forced to fly for refuge to the fields. 

Belifarius taking advantage of theabfence of To- 
tilas, rebuilt the walls of Rome, fnrrounded it with 
a deep ditch, and fortified it with intrench ments. 
The difperfed inhabitants came running into the midft 
of the ruins, and exerted themfelves fo arduoudy in 
repairing the edifices deftroyed by the flames, that 
Rome appeared rifing out of her afhes to new life, 
and was in a ftate to fupport another fiege againft 
her implacable enemy, who returned to prolong that 
deftruftion from whence he with redoubled fury 
beheld her thus rapidly, afcending. 

Thefe events are not unconnefted with the hiftory 
<)f Venice. They prove that the Venetians, formerly 
dependent on the weftern empire, have juftly ac- 
xjuired the right of governing themfelves by their 
own laws, fince they rofe entirely by their own 
courage and induftry ; and thofe who pretend that 
the emperors of Germany in fucceeding to the rights 
of the fovereigns of Rome, ought to preferve the 
fame fovereignty over the Venetians as their prede- 
ceflbrs "exercifed over the Veneti, confound all thofe 
principles which form the bafis of public law. The 
Venetians owed no further obedier.ce to the weftern 
empire, from the moment when that empire, 
fo far from protefting them, could not defend 
itfelf againft the barbarians ; but reduced its vaffals 
•to thp hard acceflity of abandoning their countiy 

12 On. the -ConJiituHon (f Venice. 

country to feek a new habitation in the niidft tjf 
the waves. 

One ftate can only be dependent on another while 
4t is maintained by that ftate in the pofleffion of its 
rights; and while it is protcfted by its arnns and 
^ided to repel its enemies. Such are the ties of feu- 
rdal power : where there is no more protedlion there 
is no more a lord paramont and vaflals : confecfuently 
the feudal fyftem muft have been at an end in France, 
rfrom the moment when the lord had no longer his 
fortrefles i no lotiger levied foldiers at his . own ex- 
pence ; and marched no more but as the foldier 
of the king and the nation. 

The new republic of Venice received -neirher fijc- 
cours or fupport from the legitimate fovereign$ 
of either the eaftern or weftcrn empires j it was not 
to them they ov/ed the afylum which they had them- 
felves created, and thus in no refpeft could the re- 
public depend on them ; but -on the contrary (he was 
able to afford them great affiftance iby aiding them 
to tranfport their troops to Aquilla and Ravenna^ 
as {he did when J uftinian fent a >confiderable army 
into Italy under Narfes to replac-c Belifarius* This 
Jiew general, more fortunate than his predeceffor> 
Jiadthe glory of reuniting Italy to the empire from 
which it had been feparated for fixty years. Totilas 
fell in a battle with Narfes : Teias whom the Oftro- 
jgpths chofe to fucceed him Ihar.ed the fame fate^ 


Of the Conftituticn of Vented, 13 

arid the troops then fubmitted to the law of the con- 

It frequently happens that events which in them- 

felves appear little worthy of attention produce im- 
portant confcquences^ If the Veneti had not takea 
refuge '\rt thcfe iflands-: if the abfolute privation 
of every thing produced on the continent had not- 
reduced- thefe new fettkrs to live upon the produce 
of the fea, and to procure every other article of con- 
fumptioa by exchanging it with other people, they 
had not had veflels to offer to the' arnny of Juftinian ; 
and Totilas. who had taken care to poflels himfelf 
of all the paflages which led to Ravenna by land^ 
would have flopped Narfes in his rout, and Italy^ 
would perhaps have remained under the dominion 
of the Oftrogoths.' A new event contributed much 
to aggrandize the Venetians and incrcafe the popu-* 
ktion of their iflands. Juftiiiian at the conclufion of 
his reign faw reunited under his power^y the courage 
and condud of Narfes, the two empires which the 
imbecility of his- predecefTors rendered them unabla 
to preferve^ The cmprels Sophia and her fon 
Jufbin, ought to have loaded with favours a general 
who had rendered fuch fignal fervices to the empire : 
but on the corvtrary he experienced the moft dif-^ 
gufliog ingratitude at their hands* The courtiers 
jealous of his merit and his glory, excited fufpicions 
that he aimed at reigning in Italy : and the emprefs> 
as haughty as fhe was fulpicious, infilled upon^ hec 
. . fuii^ 

J 4 On the Conjiitutkn of Venice. 

ion recalling Narfes : (he at the fan^e time aggr^* 
Vated the concern which that general mufl: feel ort 
being recalled, by adding infult to the injuftice (he 
had done him. She wrote herlelf* to Narfes to defire 
that he would return to Conftantinople : and faid,that 
he might not want a reafon for returning, the charge 
was confided to him of diftributing thfead to the women 
of the palace^ an employment better fuited to an 
eunuch than the commander of armies, the governor 
of provinces. 

. After fuch an a6t of ingratitude, who fliall dard 
Complain of the injuftice of kings ! 

Narfes fevere in refentment, revenged moft cruelly 
Upon the empire the affront he had received, he called 
into Italy Alboin king of the Lombards, who was efta- 
blilhed on the "banks of the Danube^ and invited him 
to take pofTefTion of the fineft country in the iiniverfc 
under a promife of his fupport. He afterwards 
difbanded his beft troops, and left fo weak a force 
for his fucceffor, that he was not in a condition to re-- 
lift the warlike Lombards who were the fifteenth na- 
tion of barbarians which afflifted Italy. At thd 
approach of Alboin the inhabitants were feized with 
terror : the patriarch of Aquilla haftened to take his 
flight, and to bare along with hini the treafure of his 
Cathedral : this prelate eftablilhedhimfelf at Grado, 
^jvhich from thence took the name of New Aquilla. 
*rhe city of Padua having been taken and pillaged by 
the Lombards, all the inhabitants who were able to 



Of the Conftitution of Fenke. 1 5 

fkvc themfclvcs took refuge in the ifland of Rialta. 
The inhabitants of Odczzo, treated as inhumanly as 
thofe of Padua, threw themfclvcs into the ifles of 
Jezulo which were nearer to their (hore, and afterwards 
built there the city of Heraclea- 

* The territory of Rialta was now infufficient to 
contain the new fugitives : it was foon increafed by 
uniting with it all thofe iflands which feemed floating 
around j and by conftrufting their buildings on piles 
at this period, the inhabitants gave to their city that 
Bngular appearance which it retains to this day. 

In proportion as a people increafe in number and 
power their government muft become more com- 
plex and more turbulent, unlcfs it has originally re- 
ceived io pure a form that rJl its conftituent parts 
are fubjeft to one regular movc.rxnt, which it is not 
in the power of any of thefc parts to interrupt. 

The tribunition authority was fufficient to regulate 
all the iflanders while their number was confined^ 
but it ceafed to be ib when multitudes of fcrangcrs 
flocked thither, and brought with them their paflions 
and their defire of domineering. The mutual ac- 
cord which had reigned among the tribunes v/as now 
broken: each of them willing to govern dcfpotically 
Within his ifland endeavoured to prolong his continu- 
ance in power ; and by exciting diflatisfaftion in the 
people under hisjurifdiftion againft thofe of the neigh- 
bouring iflands, the general afTembiics were omitted, 
and there was no longer any centre of power, 


i6 Cf^tle Conftitutiat cf yenice. 


The Sclavonian pirates took- advantage of thefe 
divifions for difturbing the commerec of theirrivals: 
they in part deftroyed their marine; and if they had 
been allowed to proceed, the Venetians muft have 
been reduced to the moft deplbrable diftrefs ; but 
their extreme danger awakened them': it was agreed 
to convoke a general aflembly to meet at Heraclea^ 
whithdr each ifland fhould fend deputies for adopting 
Ib'me new Forni of government. 

tn this aflembly, the moft numerous and moft to-^ 
' ienin which had ever met fince the eftablilhmcnt 6f 
the republic, the patriarch of Grado who was en- 
dowed with great eloquence, the more impreflive 
from his high reputafion of morality, convinced all 
thofe who heard him, ♦^ that a plurality of chiefs was 

* **^ g. fource of divifion: that the tribunes inftead of 

i^'it'".-'— ■ ■.. 

V^^ watching oVer the fafety of the republic had torii 

'"*^'its bdforh by their rivallhip, and exp( fed it to the 

^ *^ dinger of becoming theprey df its barbarous ^nfe- 

"jnies: and that they'migfit caflly have repreffed 

^^'*"thefe invaders' if 'they had fent againft" them the 

^ "*^ veflels which ought to be al'^ys in readinefs for 

^' ^ ■ 

"'^ guarding their coafts." ' 

*' "^ The patfi^J-ch then explained the advantages 
^ which ail the citizeris "would ^njoy from having One 
chief/whofhoilldfee the centret)f the public authority^ 
and who would devote himfelf, without being trou* 
bkd or contradiftedy to'the intcreft of the ftatCi 
^^ You hare (faid he) in this aflembly a great num- 

Of th Ofi/fiMm 0/ t^m€i. 17 

^ ber of pcrfom capable of performiog what I pro* 
^^ poTe : hafttn to cdiufe one who fliall take into 
^^ fats own band the reins of governnoent : give 
^^ him not the name kA king^ but the fimplc one of 
** duke, which is more fuitable to the man who ts 
^^ choTen to be your chief, not your mafter. L6t 
** this duke have the power of afTembiing the na- 
^^ tion when there flball be occaGon : let him appoint 
** the tribunes who under his authority muft admini- 
** fter jirfUce in theiilands; and let his tribunal b^ 
^' the fapretne tribunal to which appeal (hall be made 
**.in the laft refort. Chufe a man fufficiently ge- 
•' oerous to prefer invariably the intereft of his 
** country before his own 2 fufficiently impartial to 
.'^ exend his care alike to all the citizens ; and fuf- 
" ficiently mafter of his affcdions not to (hew any 
:" regard to the ties of confanguinity or fricndfhip 
^* when afting for the public good. Behold (add-« 
'^ ed he) the only means of re-eftablilhi&g this 
" ftate and preventing its fall.'* 

This difcourfe which wasunanimoufly applauded> 
made fuch an impreflion that the people proceeded 
immediately to the eledion of a chief: and.tfai^ 
majority of fuffrages being in favour of Paul*JLuke 
Anafefte, acitizenof Heraclea, univerfallyefteemed 
for his wifdom and probity, he became the iirft 
duke of Venice, a title which by corruption hM 
been changed to that oi doge^ 

VoL^IL ^ . C Tii«i 

18 ^OfiH^^im/iiiiit^^^ 

i ? Thus' ended- the tribunirioriiforin of government 

in Vcniccy after, it had prevauied there abo¥c two 

'^hundred years. The docal government^ as it wscs 

* 4hen indicated nearly approached the monarch ial ; 

'jfor. the finft doges difpofed of all places^ and'dr« 

iedtcd. every tking withautjconfiiking any pedRjns 

butitboie counfelloyrs who 'were cho&n by^them- 
'felves : and ic belonged xo tlu:idogeBr>alQuie tQ> treat 

of peace and war. / 

.i*^.'It. muft. faawi^been :^^feys: ihe Abbe.LaiTgicr) 
■••^^ ai cxcdisuof ail thoTe evib cmifed: by a confofed 

<^ deipkocricy^thatvCQuid.pFbdufce fiich afurprkmg 
:'.*ix^blmic3{n:anlohg>itbirfe.arcpyblicansy the extra- 
7^*^^Tagant eoeiniesidf cveiryHdking whicli bad the 

.fV-oiriof fiaFvisudc^fj v.; ••;■>, ., 

J ;/. Byi fethc fiiigular;&tiality We always find that 
'!ȣ the: p]i^ple^ knom Bx^ hoyr to seftrain them* 

felves within the .bqumis of' well regulated libcii'- 
iiyytbt men whomith^y invcftrwitiifovemgri. power 

are/fcarcely ever >difpofed) to., keep within the 

Jimika.iif. Keafonabk .lutliority ^.lan as on one 
; £de .. f ree,i -people ^^l way S>. tend ;i:o licentioufnefs, 

on the other cvory ;<fhief tends towards dcfpo^ 
.tifim.:. front jwhenccrityorefults, that the govern- 
;tticat?xihicli canrat-cheiaim tinie hold the people 
tin.ot^ienceAOsthr laws,, and the chief in the.ex- 
:ecution ofijcbeoi ; fnd which mak^s of thofe laws 

the:centro of coiumon .bappinefs.and reciprocal 
.^^fiatfyi may>pafs«for^ (:he£ d'ceuvrerof human crea- 
^.ii// tion. 

V^ iba^^Qm^uii^ i^fKenicik 


ticOi/ >^Wet(hattib^ whctbcS' the 

Venetians had :attaiicd>thiStxaipoitant end. 
^ ^ The &ib do^^jufti&ed' by his ppudence and bis 
finnnef»^ the choicbwhiab bad been made of him 
fot'one^bodng order and ipeacroco the republic. 
ryp0^ hit fixm|^ his refidence ^iHersK^lea that oky 
becanyft tfoe Capital of (the ibM which we call /VTc- 
'^^ian^ti^oughx'iiS'badaDtiat that period received 
the name, 
'^he iflandtrs ^ko w)it 00 'ion^ 
^ th^ tlieCa$^ri^ij^€y was cetitered irt one chief, had 
'^UtiU'feafon to^ appfaud't^ifethfelresibr chaoging the 
gWernment di^rihgiche rd^s of their ifirft doge and 
-Iris f%ie€^or. U'ftderrUrfo die^icfatiii^ doge>: they 
were covered with laurels by tbeitaking of Sjaven^ 
i^ >i^hich they wrefted from •'tber^mbafd^/I and 
is&^rwards gafve it up eo cfaeiextrcb who^governed in 
l3Daiy in iHe name of the empire. - - - '' 

) ' 'Inflq^ed by fyJccefd^ the tbii^d doge rendered, ^i| 
^Authority foodiouS'; that 'h^Wvived in the Vene- 
tians the femimentfettifiiUbePty^ they aflailed the 
i^rant in his pakcb^^Ahddfvehged by his death the 
H^i^ he had made? of bis power; * ^> 

i^^I>he;govcfrnment ofVenice n©w uhderwent another 
^j^d^nisevolurion^ Thexdbdtifbof thelaftdoge had 
elTactxlfrobi the minds of the people the happiaeis 
ihey^had enjoyed* 'under his prcdeceffors y and it 
' 490^ agreed aftiermuchdeliberadon^ oo fubftitutein- 
fimikafnar^toitaAent kfiieif^' 4ri -annual magiilrsUe, 
iKiiT ^ C 2 who 


Id 6/ the Conftimm ^ Vti^ee. 

who ihould not be ftyle4 eUhcr doge of tribune, that, 
hp might noi recal th6 rfna^inbrtpce pf natties be-, 
come fo them, butw^^r (^/f^ military for^ 
res. Five magiflrates govefnfedfucceUiTely imdj^r thii, 
titlci: un<iil John Fabricatio the laft;?w/?^a^/)^ mili^ 
tar^ forces having excited ytry great difcontentk Jt>^ 
his con^ud, the people oif Hera^lea were guiky of *. 
moft.^^rocious aft jagainft him.: tfiey de^prive^ jHiin 

The troubles which'prevailed. at Hii^clea deter- 
mined the repubjic to co.ttydkc an aflembly of thi 
ftafes, aqd,to hold it at MaJamoco ; and the Vene- 

• - •»-• 'J .», •■. . . ' I : 1 

tians now difgufted with an annual magiftracy i;e.* 
turned to, jthe fyftem of a perpetual chief ;,anjt^ 
feiie^ied Theodat fon.of the doge whom they had 
tout to death* Tlys fourth doge fhewed hi? ^e4 

fentiqent for the tragical end of his father,: in, <i^ 

•'-•■•"• . < . . . > ...... ^j 

other, way than by removing hi? refidcnce fjrom 
Heraclea and ^ At Malaraoco, which be- 
came by that means, the. fecond capital of the 


.....-..•■ ■ « ■• ■ ■ 

- . This fourth doge experie;iced the danger attach* 
j5d. to . elevation among a people, turbulent. and 
cafily impofed upon. A man of faftipus. fpirit 
named Galla purfuaded the muhititde that the in- 
tention, of Theodat in caufing a fort to be, con- 
ftruded pa a river which emptied itfelf near the ifle 
of BrondelOj? w^ to,, open -a courfe to. arbitrary 
pOT^ifr* This man io well underftood the art of 
• ' ^ ' deluding 


. iBf the (^nfiitutitm of Fenicp. 

deiuding the minds of the people, who are cveiy 
Wh^^ TcreaiifouV- tf^^^^ elcfiiy b be feduced, that Emt 
febtii^HhW i j(>arty formidabie enough tQ attack 
T^etid^t, ^nd af^er pufti4g dut fais eyes/ to ete^ 
tHeir)g^kdbr1U!d4^rb^^ But fd horrid '^erinie^did 
nof palfl lbnj^*tatf*p^ : the harWarons B'r6ncfchk 
c?b^i^J«A-c^' '<k>i'^«ar 4fe^ Ac fame 'piuiith- 

BklHt^'^tf^wi^^aifii^ khd tbmtemiieti< t6 etili. '• 

■^^^th^^l^^iaJ&S^^ rfViry^ieaibri^andfer fli^' 
fear of feeing their chief ufurp too much ailtlibnl'^ 

Mihg^ifeAiiV ' ttfs Aid;,'pf6ud ii^^^ an ardcior 
tii*ipei^,^iei3^lif ti^eMu^ wliich they hdl 

j[5l^i:c?tf;oh fris'aiithorif}' : he feewcil the itidSipsti 
ftd: difdain of the two counfdlons who had* bcfeii 
glV^ hiiji'V' ifid cdhdading hii^^ with as miicH 
!ijt\j^^htFA'efs ks itApnsA^iiOtiii betam^ )anf6ther yii^ 
tSti (if'^pufo'fi*fen«nent, aiiiiMered file ^flrfii 
di6pl(lraWi^X^^atibh\rfii^^^ two of ^ 

predeceflfor^ in darlcnefs. 

' Wa6 It 'fe^6^ eridogh to cauft tHc chief whom tiiey 
^t^edlto ^ifpofe to defcend from fovereignty infjb 
i' degraded ftate ? Could there be a neceffity fot 
'4iiA:?^ l!hfem* irt et4;rhal night ? But tti^n were ^|: 
ttfkt* pfefi6d fb barbai^ous, fo blind to morality, th«t 
^filef ^Rwed it an aft of prudence nbt 6f croeky 
Wk^llh ftom a' prince 6r a geherijl thf arfy '^onfd- 

a» Of tte C<mJtimio» of Fenk*. 

lation which remains to the unhappy ; the IWecl 
pfeafure of contemplating^ the i^arks of nature and 
amufing themfelves with their wonders. It was iq 
cdiifequence of this cruel fttipidity that Louis^lc- 
D^bonnaire 'flained his life by a iimilar a£t of bar^ 
harity executed on Bernard his relation* 

••Until the time of the fertntcenth doge th^t dig- 
nity had liecn ' neither hereditary not divided^ 
D6ge' Maurice after having governed the repvftolic 
with" itouchwMiotn'^ fir* moi'c than twenty yearsi 
afid having condliated'^th^e afffeftions of the ppople,^ 
denaanded^^s'thtf^re^ardbf'his fervicc^r the privih 
lege bf afibclitfh^^iis fon^ith-him in thegovero^ 
sicnt: and the Verierians 'not fottifecing the courj 
lii^cncfes of firch a faVbur j which might probably i 
nskkethat dignity hdretf^tary whtch vfas poweiec* 
jciwfl Consented to it. * - . 

i/>.lt t^ls daring the goyerjtttient of th^fe affocia^ed 
^iefis tha!t Charlemagne, iJonq^ror of the Aqui- 
tiiih^ and oi the Saxon^^ ^ytoccd into Italy, 
attitched agaixifl: the iJombards., defeated them, 
liade their ting Dediei" his- captive ; and after 
'^Sefeding him a^ifoner' into Ft-ance, went to Rome 
to. .be there prdclaiihcd- tpmpcror and receive th^ 

■ ^ Doge John fon of Miurice did homage to the 
-|it^tknpcror,and.ttcated with him concerning the 
bmmdarfes- between the Venetian fiare and that of 
Lombardy ; ami the rcfult wais, tjas^t the ftate qf 


wts.»oft ,qf,rf:<:^fc. }^ef;ik^. dpjfljjaJQx^ of. .Charle-^ 

.^^ffl^J^^e,4Ba:d^^Q^(,y|A\lr'x<;Cf John pretended to. 
thfrifiiRe f4ijojj{;,w.l^Q|]i jiis.feflicr b,a.d pbtained,,;^n4;: 
afibciated hi$,jC9/ija§ j[i^,hka{elf .j)a(^ been afibcia.ted,,^, 
BiM^ifii^B ;twajClwfK;^ag.P9fi\ooger,reftra,iaed by 

iHJimjV^to,^'^ fjfi^^l^fiafinf^e^^ytliiQh they w9u|4ri 
hayftheffa.iwadetftiexpJARK byr4a,ft^,enfl, i.(p?r- 

s^gaM4 £)»e gSRPWii ij}4i£n^9Jji^f%; had'. n,Qt, fl^cJj 

lecio^ w&p ^ft4.:paS;|d. foajft-y^ars at ;He, £Qur^ pf , 
Ffaucto^ Qnd^i-r X<»,.ay<)id.; ^he..y|rng9^^e pf ,<ipft^^ 
Joha^and bis- fwji..sKa$ eled^d ,ia ijj^i: ^e^^ ; ,tj^^, 
vnfoity^^telyfor tys couij^ry he h^4 ^oJ^.Xet Char-. 
lcmag»e..8gainft she twa cbjiefs, vfhpip h^ Ivjt?^* 

fU)d; Jiad^ jntt^ledj ^^» -^qi Jijich aa .apprehcnfiop, ,1^^ 
f9iaeiintgJ)jgeR§§ij}{j;.y^eathej5mpej-pr,of the Eaflk, 
apdJjfeie y:^e5Jws,;a^^j*?i;njin^ that, prince to r^r,, 
coniBieod tojiifi;^ I?epin,vyh5>ni 1??, had affociatcd, 
v^itfeJiioi; ioutihe^€^>p^re of Ifajy^ ^p be yefjf.circumr, 
fpedl ia.otxferyi/ig di^ gpn^uft pf ,tl)9^yeiietians^ , 

Pepin who had fornied a defign of poiJViiipg, 
bitnfelf jOf-vQalmatia fei«d f.ha; oppprfunity. rof 
aflllf iag fcjmfci^lf of their diipofuion,.and propof^^ 
j:0:th#© £9jjdeEa(-h themfelves. frqm tk^. G/^eks ^q4 
fQi f^y-Qftr twis expedition. , , ... , 

)ia;/ C 4 The 


The people of Ywice^notwitbflbndiiig.the criV 
treaties ofObplcrio, rcfpfcdixi^nteriptothe dcfipte 
of Pepip ; . and perhaps they might behold the iieiir 
jiaafters of Italy in the fame point of view us tkc 
l^rbarians who bad rendered themfelves ^ lenaflait 
oT the empire^, ^ However that was, they paid dcir 
Tor their refuial: fpr Pepiu gave orders to tb* 
tfbojw which he had. ix\ Iftria^ and in Friule,*to 
hiake every poflible, effort, for penetrating ifttt^ the 
"territories, of thefciiflajaders^ :, . » . .- ::■ 

* The commands of Hepinwfsre bwt too weHextrt 
cutcd : ,the French trpops advanced to the cities 4>f 
Heraclea and Equillo, befieged them, carried tJton 
by affault, fet fire to - them, and reducedr thwA to 
a|h^s : an4 the inhabitants who efcapdd this; dir^ 
hage were fcattei:ed over the territories of Mal^. 
inoco and Rialta> and in any iflands where they 
could procure an abode. • f » r - T- 

Pepin appcaredfatisfiedwith this vengeances Un- 
til afterhaying forced Nicetas general of Nicephonid 
iiniperor of the Eaft to-jrercmbark the remaiiid.eff 
of his troops, which had not been cut to pieces be4 
fore Commacchio, he learntthat the Venetians had 
jgiyen a kind reception to the defeated army, lyhiqh 
was repairing its loffes among them; and thi^ 
rekindled fuch vengeance* in his heart that he re- 
folv^d to complete their deftrudtion. H^ expe-t 
rienced in this attempt all the advantage wbiclx 
their fituation gave to the inhabitants of -Rialmj 


tfjf^ Vi'&'Sf^^i Hftjinj^ently '»aVancing too' near the 
ii«ildfititb fta!l6^- ^'y wefe ftrandcd whtti.fhfe 
tUfe Tttfctdj ithd' feoitfla-'not! move, while thcr ' tighi: 
wfeffels of HWftchiftiJr feo^rtd aroiirid them, an^ 
c»*tf«^jrertfi>#k* th^ftr'd^ the foidiers wlio were 
iktk iip^Sn ktttodv(id'j]^f6nsiintirthe^^r^^ fci 

<i*their ^reflfels^'2iflo^,vihd-)fe them to re- 

Mra htdf deftroycd-'tfe^Malatrioca; wK€>e Pepiii, 
^d'^tlep*ttd*a'^''thfe^ fuc^efeTs ^i6f tHe <;ip^ditibnj 
became fo enraged at ifeidlttg' his hopes dif^p- 
poifttbd W>'t6'b^ gtrilty/iraas'df cruelty tbwkrds 
the^tWhiJldfaftfcf^bF^eT^fy MftHd 'yMi:e he found it 

c::r A^tMaty'fiiftd'e femi'tfftef betvHsen Chi'rteriiagftc 
tttid MSOe^ilWSV bj^Whit*n^^ of Italy 

ackidMitedge'ffitf Vei¥rtians to pcrtam to the dlftl 
em^em^fiift, -^c- an^dto'the 'firft war of thcfe 
iilanders with France. 

iiThe- V^Wtfeihi'wl* Md loti^ furpe«cd ObeferiQ 
^^Wing^rfio**^«ttc'B6flM^ ihtercfts of Pepin 
thkfl'«0^thofe'6f ins tbiintry, now depbftd and fcnt 
him t(y<r<>!iftatfcihd|ifc-yan^'d^ediii his Head the 
-gett€M#^4ika-aavir<M^the inhabitahts of Rialta 
fO'fiKa(kc^a*#ig6r6\iS' re ha:d cbmmande<f 

fhe^fl*<t^whifch was- viftoridus' over that of Pepin. 

'11lis'tt*w -doge, celebrated in the annals of the 
repitblic^bf Venice under the name of doge Par- 
■tfcip«tib-,*^lK> could not ' refide at Hcraclea nor at 
;Vfisktii^6>, b6<?aiife*tiie one was reduced to alh'es 
'-'■':'"■ and 

y f 

aa(J tfeft Qti^ear. nearly Buipcd: by thft.I?jfsiicb,ifew4j 
bis refidwce at,Rialt*j wbKh^* 
time th€k,ii4tof*^, and h^;b<>r!Jt|?:thfenaf9i|.j 
pf .Veai^ :*3.q*f>icai pf thkc^yen^iajn ftate^. , [c^^tm 

I have r\jq jt)fr<^ugh |4^^rip^.'ofiBeai5'ifo!uri^^ 

cornfc wmhdrd :apdjr|lfie»gUie(ncd by tj^rrog j^ ^ogii - 

which the fav^jNpigi^Ay wa& *pi"eferve^^i4yail t^P^^tk : 
zcns; charigeiihte(€^fti^^^tioO;fo fayqpr^felp tOfthc { 
pitikitudje j > ar^d prefer th^ auihority of «onc jdicdtiwr 
chief; alter this again, and fubftituDe.thc .pfWi«8ftf, 
a^:snim«V:comqqiaadQr itjcturn to^the dotoinionK>f 
ooc pcrf5^tiiAl chief-f' eade^ow to itijtmpcr - 4ihe . 
power ©f$bM<:Jikf, by ^nitiftgjwith? bim tw^ itd^ * 
bvai«^ :;iUEiA itiliia gteoftj^^ry inftaocC/deceiy^d in 

i l^arai mow come.t0»Jib^ t^ femh doge. The tliird* 
wasafTftffioatcdiiitibis.hQufi^.ti tbie fouftk^j.the.^fi&b^^. 
^hd ;the fixtJi, ' ibfifeiredi: tbasr horrid . puaiAim^fit^ 
which Xecms to fepa^tc «man< from; ti« cr^tioi);. 
.jhe, eighth was with his aflbciated fph qbligcd; to 
feok iafi^y by voluntary Ipanifhmenc; and the nintb 
was depofed., and conducted to : Gonftamingplei. 
Thus, : o\\t . ftf ixinc^ chiefs .chofep jliy)the -pflopfc/. tx>. 

Cf^CdijifiiiUHmiifV^Ue'^^^ ^7 

Ijrf^tliiirf ^d^ttfior'^if we bahoki feven- who hafr^ ck - 
tbWiperiftifed^cftlgV' tht'rcfettttiferir of thic'peov ^ 
p^f ^ A' Vt0. teikleil t^^ii* c^Mer of power liioit mi- 
ferably : and' df %hefr^ fiite i^Aiiual dommandefs one : 
was 4iot perrnHftibd t^ b^tioW th4 <toy which «(hbul4 
Jbave teriiiinated his ihort authority, but was jdc^ 
pi*r*d of the? light bJ^hl5>feH0*i?citiicn$. 

What a fourte^f rcflediodis-hei^ p^efciited ?^ If 
pien did but knew l?ow to* j)h>ftt by^th^jeUbftj they 
may gain firmiitiiiie^swdfmmhiftcr^^ ho^w iittlc-^votild 

tli^ id«jSwtb'^bdf^aifea'by-^6'p^^ dig-. 

nitl^s I h<JW AWclif Ifefs ftill ^o^ the fapreme kuthori-. 
tyl^i At(^ fcowif^r 'preferable wouldthc^obfcurityctf' 
^Pt^VS 4i& Bppftaf to • that • fplendour . pf :po wer j 
'«4Mcfi*bffends th4 d]^^ of eniy^ and^excites To much 
di&oAtent iind hatr^t'i :- /; - : 

*'3ut tb|& arci flot che only refleiSkions ftiggBfted 
\>j 'Chp eyjentis I have li^eitt Telating. We peroeivc/^ 
by them b<!>w vevy^di(fiiGiult it; is for people to fcrrm- 
fttch a^ conftitut ion' as{ WillpleaGi theih I The Vcne*- 
tians were not barbarians; they were eniighiened 
nhen; come ft^flty ihe >te!fjr? bofom of the arts and 
fciences; andyet^ itt' the^coxlrfe of four centuries, 
tUfiy^^^cottld npt find One f6rnk ofjgovernment which 
cooid^give fttbility to thrir fight^, thdr privilegca^ 
^ttdittislr-^profperity, • - : . J r!. 

1flFbet«'isone.fkQ>which^ hate not yet meorion* 
edViwisafe^ir fiyeliry to the Eaftern Qifipir^fiveta 

%^\ was 

i8 Of the Conftitution rf Vmef. 

was defirous of fending troops into the Weft, in. 
order to drive the Oftrogoths out of Italy, the Ve-' 
netians, favouring his delign, tranfported the army 
of Narfcs; and it was to them that general' owed* 
/, his entrance into Italy, and his fuccefles there. The 
tombards laid feige to Ravenna, and took it : the 
exarch Paul fled for refuge to the ftate of Venice^ 
and implored affiftance to retake the city: the Ve- 
netians armed immediately j piittofea; and rccot 
vered for the empire that important place. 

After the expulfion of the Lombards, Pepin pro- 
jefted the conqueft of Dalmatia: he was formidable 
to thefe illanders when he folicited their aid to fe* 
cpnd his vie>ys oiF conqueft : yet the Venetians re- 
filled his demands, and the infinuating arguments of 
their doge; and rather chofe to expofc themfelves 
to all the vengeance of Pepin, than enter into a 
projeft againft the intereft of Nicophorus, whom 
th^y always regarded as thelawful chief of the em- 
pire^ Thefe are traits whicli clurafterize a nation,' 
and which are feldpm fuifficiehtry remarked by hif^ 

i have placed in contrail with this pifturc of a 
new born republic, the terrible and alarming image 
of the deftruftioa of the Roman empire ; arid fHewn 
tha,t . mi{j:refs of the world aflailed atid fulyugated 
i]l^(:d^y^y h]{ five barbarous people, who carrie(d 
(ire ipd />vp;^d' wherever they inarched: yet ftill 

.J -■ . i: 

«•. '^'f^^ i •. I 

.tiftbt donfiituticn of Venici. 29 

Ife tfue^it 18^ t|iat nature triumphs' over ill ber cne- 
fiiies. Kddcie herfelf^ buried luider her ov^n afhes, 
iprung up^ again more nobte^ more highly orna^ ' 
mentedthkh before; like that fabulous blrd^ who 
is'ifaid to afccniA' every tiftie with more rcfplendeht^ 
ptucoagjs from thie funeral pile which confumed hcii: 
former body. 

^Wnot is it that has imprinted immortality upon 

this empire?, It is the idea of her former grMtnefs: 

it is the (purity of tade .which fucceedea to the 

aicrt^deiicy of force: it is the enormous alTemblage 

x£ her riches which exites the admiration of every 

foreigner: and ic is that refped which is attached 

1^ the dwellings of thofe wife and virtuous men 

who formed her higheft glory. irRome hadha^ 

tinly generals to boaft of, her name would have bt en 

Torgptten with her triumphs; if (he had had only 

fejgiflators, the republic which had given lavvsLto^ 

Europe would npt have furvived by eVen a niore pef- 

fcA-legiilatibn : but (Jie has had orators, poets, hiftofi- 

ans, and artifts, who have hot yet been excelled; arid 

(he exifts by them in the fplendour of their genius. ' 

' iFrahcehas in common with Rome, a- great part 

dfthefe-permanent ornaments : let her not adt with 

more barliiiamy towards them thati the barbarians 

tl^eniietve^ did towards Rome: let no feiltiment«; 

tj^Latred, /of vengeance, of rivalry ever niakc her 

ci^useni fprget the reverence they owe to th6 firi^ 

iiQtsV neither let them faaifice to principles of too 


great mifterio^ that . ^dach > confti tutes the glory €f 

an enlightened nation : and while they di^utei^kh 

' all the repiiiblic8X7f£hetr<iFUl the honour of having 

> the ]tx!K>{l wiie eftatdifiitiieiits^ end the^ ttioftiftiT 

'::maveable.conftitutioa> leicthetn a)&) xii^utethe glo«* 

ry of offering to talents, ^aiad to lth^4roic^(?esi^riihc 
l'-.moftattraftivc^afylum^-^r:. . r •::;•, iq ■\>ni :'jA 

* » ^ I^t: idle .traveller >iaftct: • havaig? r^^ ^ .thitedgh 
.^&xstiti iiiptesi' andii-Veiiice bei^ilkrda Jivirh^uiMr 
ladmicaGbiYiati tieholditigi^alb the) ^uibliflitiibntibvt^ 
France: let her hofpitals give theihi*thfci^€a;'qc)f 
more . bai^^^jand } tnorfe aip^ent ioit' so) 'honefti ind%encc 
thto jfaehas rfouml cUej^hdrbi ; ■ : ^ » "■ /icjj; ua 
i 1 Let hcr^prifohl' appeaa^i t6 him left tfeeifdjot#AA<)f 
^iilt> than' the* retreat of fufpedted i^r^noceh^. ( ^^ ^ ' 

Let the ft ranger view with furprife the cdi^e 
^deftincd for' improving^ the art fa beceflSiry fot" the 
Ttdief of human > fuf&rings r ytid b6 W\\\ mote ' hi^ • 
\y grafcifiad^. by attending the difcoveriefl'^nade 
there, and the fecrets of nature which atre thfere 

Let him feel more refpeft at the appearance of 
hermagiftratesdifpenfingjuftice, than he ever found 
in examining the external beauty and harmonious 
arrangements of the temple of the goddefs. 

Let him forget the.mufeum and the library of 
the Vatican, as he day through the im^ 
menfe gallery of ^France illumined ''by heaveni 
and tapeli^ed '. by that jrich colledion of, pidures* 


I • 

V-^QOol^uigibuskdiiniob&aiscy^ or expofed to the ca-^ 

3^nrviuee(irim JiendM. homagCi to ithc; French ftage; 
'xM^i^natrl^dge its rftiperiority over all others in 
'd^6€i^.>i!^bfk Iiie^b^i^d^^ the reprefentation of her 
:?!4ra|iwok^!obdfed'ocuvircs.' •? 

Let him proftrate hitnfelf before the images of 
;i jbcrfillgrQtii fWritCffBr of Ertocey ■ whofe bold genius 
vifld iM.« i»v$>llltioil inxdiieAhoughts jQ^ha- qitizehd, 
t<^^k^biiiftUd(MKfe dajrt changer ithe; deftinjndF .ail • op^ 

d3;i iMt}^ tbt]^eo<liuzcti& 7negibe<Sb:(JU>thing. jsrhich can 
multiply the charms c^iife^^jbndizaake thejf^oduc- 

>'$imi9rpf • gwiul^ 'aiid({ thofeuof rwifdom^ conciar with 
the pjdbli^ >hai^iti«&i>for) tiftabiiflyng the national 

;^<l; j^fld, iii^y )iibQnty,jmore^proUfic thaa the (head 
^if hf)(;h)gavis *btrthctO)Minervdi droducoiat'onceboch 
'4h#i^<>foe which repulfesf,eneinia!> and the grac^i 
/,S*^hrWtiA<ft3alUe8k'... v: >::..' -i •;.;; r-'\.. .->..:' 

'{.1 :/Tx;iuil :Mb {«/•.. ;::;i./; •.■ r r* : .;-*i<i^ .r i:l :'^v.i . 

,^.0'ia:t:jiq I0 nMij:)Mloj ii..»i: 7;vi1j .vd b'jiiibqju bii£ 

.30 Ok iH Qa^Umim )df.^Ff9&i. 

great awftearicy that .MAich'Conftit^ glory irf 

an enlightened nation : and while they di^ute;with 
{ ail the repuiblicfli<)f thear^urldthehonoiirof hahring 
rthc ilm>ft wiii- eftat4ifl«p^ ^aiidthe' tdoft iftx^ 
i^noveableconiftitatioav k!cthetnal&)xii^utei:be glo«* 
ry of offering to talents, .'aiadi to IthtefdeYidesi^riihc 
l-.nioftatt-raaivc'afylum;-?-'f:. . ■;t-:.\ i,-,! rj.i 

■ i ' . . Jbec ;tlie JtnraVeller /laftci: * havaig' v/rOft- ' ^tlfttet^h 

-ladrnkatidiY latitieholditig^ialh the) ^uibliflnubntib^of 
France: let her hofpitals give thethr^fc^i^Wntif 
-more. baT;e,4:and i taort ai^ent iioit to) 'honieftl inid^encc 
thto ih[eJias :fou(nd cifeM^kirtJA ' ; ^ ' * ^«' /iqii^iHi 
i J /Let licr-^prifohi' appea*vi6 him- hd tfee^fdjoi#tli<)f 
^guilt^diani theti^treat xrf fufpedtediniiidcej^ ^^^ 

Let the ftranger view with furprife the cidi^e 
ideftincd forrimpn^ing^the art fafaeceflSirjrfot' the 
rtadflef of human fuf&rinrgs r ^ &i^d b6 0!iil mote ' hi^- 
iy grafcifiad^ - by attending the difcoveriefl'^nade 
there, and the fecrets of nature which itfe thfere 

Let him feel more refpeft at the appearance of 
hermagiftratesdifpenfingjuftice, than he ever found 
in examining the external beauty and harmonious 
arrangements of the temple of the goddefs. 

Let him forget the/muf^um and the library of 
the Vatican, as he day through the im^ 
mefnref gallery of JFrance illumined ''by heavenj 
and tapei^cd'.by that jrich colledion of*pidures» 


^ntpoolju^bucicdiini^^bfcuiity, or expofed to the ca- 

snrviutflchim>JieiiJd«ii.;homagcr^ta'jthc: French ftage; 
-rundi^njMrl^dgje itsrftiperiority over all others in 
'd^9fi^^:)i!^bfk^)^ the reprefentation of her 

^/^raiiwok^ioh^.d'ocuvircs/ '!^ ■'•• •• • • ^^■ 

Let him proftrate hitnfetf before the images of 
;ijllicrfil{grQti/f writer Frtoce^ ■ iwhofe bold gdnius 
ifhsA i^^ x»ff^x\^ ia(d[ieAh6ught8tJ0^h<^ qitizehd^ 
tfiw^k^biiifiUckMte dftjrr changet ithe; jdeftinjndF >all • op^ 

l^pXll^SBdjfeoptenl- -vrc^ .,>r} v:v! :.-= ,i..i-..ii, 

? D n ^^fa^ thtlfe oclitizctni 7negibe<Sbt cnotbing. jsrhich • can 
multiply the charms otM^im^makt the^piroduc-f 

>'$i9il9t(>f tg^mu^^ laiid(< thofetof rwifdom^ coaciar with 
the pi|lbH$iiai^iti«&^fb^^ tiftdbiifiyng the national 

.^ H J j^fld^ fWy ) itbofltyj, > moro^prolific thaa the. ihcad 
^l»i^ofoe .which repulfes tjenemiofy? and the gracai 

;>i(ifh{¥hrWtia<ft3-allie8k>... t-^ ^:.'.-: -^.i; I;-::. .^) -.;• 

» • •'' 

• rni t>ii; fl;>.fO":.^ :i\i '.r. -)i)r:] Oil ./; .i:t;)K;:/ ?ri»: 
,<iO'£ui:>iq 'lo^ noii::)5llo3 li.'i: haU /;d b'ji lil-jqr, j brj£. 

( s« y 

r • 

.'.\ V , 


Of the Constitution of V£jiiet< - i 




SHALL c<^htiniie to bleiid the hiftory <rf Vcirie* 
iifttli'its cbfiftkution, and p(Ani out thofe evcAti 
which hairc led to any changes in the form ctf hif . 
^vertfnrieht ; beeitife that i^ the only mei&»'eFi»e* 
, l^uathtii^g thiHelVes with the caufes of inftitutidili 
which ttiight^ without fuch knowledge of theibtlrte^ 
froJW Whence they fprung, appear extratagaJlt crt 
con^radiftory to the laws of juftice- ' '^' ♦ 

I left Venice under th« dominion of Doge Parti* 
it^itio. This thief, who had conquered th* fuf* 
fraget cif hisf fellow ckizens by the vifltory he bail 
gaih^ over the fleet of Ptpin, governed the l««t. 
public eighteen years with as much wifdom as firm- 
ndft. It was' under his adminiftration that the city 
acquired that extent which it has at thi« day, by 
cfnbr^ting within its limits the fixty fmall illand* 
which^ lay round Rlalto, and forming a commurJf- 
tattdif with them, by means of bridges thrown over 
tSiC canals which feparate them* , 

"^' -Thebeft princes -are not fecure from hatred and 
*co^ffiftcies, -Panicipatio difcofered a plot fltgaMrit 


I. ,. 


Of the Coiffiimtm tf yemci. 33 

Ibis life ; and the criminals were dete&ed^ and cdn« 
demned to die. This example impreffcd fuch ter- 
ror that no other attempt was made againft him; 
and this doge had the good fortune, which was 
then very rare, to have his eyes clofed apparently 
by the hand of nature. # 

His two fons fucceeded him, which (hews that 
the Venetians were not at that time fo very far from 
s^l^qpiiigthe ducal crown hereditary. -Tb9,fir|t 
i^^^iedj after haviog reigned two ycarsj, withQut 
^itft^rbaace and without glory. The other, rafter 
h^jvi^g, givfA proofs of hi^ bray eryji andliaylng.tri- 
iunf^^e4 over Obelerio, who had returned from 
Qc^i^fta^tiinople to difpute with him tl\e dignity of 
4og|?|.,wa3 furrounded by the rebels in a churchy 
carried off, and Ibut up in a prifon^ where he.die^d 
ipftn* lifter his captivity, 

i.Uj^r doge Tradenigo the republic experieiiced 
|t)^e^ greated misfortunes ; and fuch .loifes as evmc^ 
Ijjbbfit in the eighth century, it had already arjfen to 
^f high degree of power. Bafely . abandoned by the 
^^ekt, .whofe fleet they had joined with $xty 
^cflels, )n order to attack the Sarafens, the Vcne.- 
jiians could not alone witbftand the eflbrts of^ their 
^Aezaies, and their fleet was aUnoft deftroycd. 
i.WJhenthe Narentines and the pirates of Dalcqa- 
pa were informed of this defeat^ the feeble condi* 
,i|Ofi to which the Venetians muft be reduced by it 
Jqpbbolden tl^eaiy wd they fell in concert o^ their 

14 ^f ^^< Oonftitution of Vmicc^ 

flag : .but the republic did not ccafe to refift thpfll^ 
and was foon again ir> a ftate to give laws to thefq 

' * ■ . . 

'the doge . Tradcnigo governed during thirty 
years, and might have hoped to terminate his ca- 
reer in peace, but he was aflaffihated while goin^ 
to church, notwithanding the zeal of his atteiid- 
ants, who could not fave their mafter from the fury 
With which the confpirators fell upqn him. 

The republic, which had hitherto permitted thou? 
to go unpunilhed whofe hands were embrued In the 
blood of its chiefs, becaufe they were confidere4 
only as avengers of tyranny, was fo indignant at 
the outrage which deprived the ftate of this vene- 
rable doge, that three commiffioners were appoint- 
ed with full power to try and punilh the aifaffins, ; 

Thefe triumvirs acquitted tberafelves with firm- 
liefs in this important office: feconded by the zeai 
6{ ail good citizens, they difcovered the aflaffin^j; 
arretted and brought them to the place of execu- 
tion; where the people, Impatieht and animated 
by furyi feized upon them and tore theip to pieces'.. 

Ijfrfus Participatip, ele<5ted after this iausfiiftibjjt 
Kad been made to the piemory "oT the X2^6^o^^ 
^ formed an alliance with Charles the Bald> arid was 
thefirilwho united the armsof the repul>lic Wltli 
tnofe of F*rance, t?is_ipn^ by repeflmg the;^ra- 
fens, who.hadiQ^de an atta,ck upon Grado.^exoted 
lMQH;gradtu^7n;thi nui>4s of th?; V^|&i^ .t^ 

UJtbe Cmjliiutton e/ Feniee. %^ 

i^ey aO'ociated him in the dignity with his fa- 

Oa the deceafe of Charles the Bald, the empire 
of Italy was fepacated from the crown of France j 
aiid among the many competitors who contended 
fi>r it^ were Berenger Dukeof Friiill, and Guy Duke 
ol Spoleto ; and this conteft for dominion renewed 
in that charming oountry ail the misfortiin^s frptn 
yhifh it bad been exempt fince the rcigri of C|iar- 

; while the two principal claimants exhaufted 
tKemfelvQS in this (truggle, for the governmcnc of 
men/ who neither knew how to govern themfelves 
o^ to repel ufurpation, a new horde of barbarian's 
pi^ej^ed to fall upon them. The cold and barren 
Serbia fUtl contained within its frozen region a^ 
, ^olohy^of rnonfters, ready to bnrft from their con- 
£uic$, ^nd fprcad terror and death over the fouthera 

A lavagp people made their appearance all at 
Once Vn the beginning of the ninth century, which 
were called the ffungre, but whbfe name has fince 
been foftencd with their manners. Berenger, upoii 
their approach, determined to difpute their enter- 
ijig Friuli ; but his army was unable to fupport the 
Oioc;k of the b:irbarian$, who carried with them fire 
and fword wherever they went. 

Thele plundercrs^had learnt in their own coun;^ 
t^ch^ th^' Vftn^tiapt were enriched by comfflercei 
^d M a dtfirc of booty was xht sootivc of tbeir in- 
D ^ vafioD, 

0- m 

36 .^/^^^ Conjlitution of Vmo&. 

:> i\r 

vafion, it was againft tliat republic they pftrt*?Hl*l% 

direded their march. - < vr. >! 

,:Tlic city of Heraclea, which bad been: reb^^lt 

m _ 

under the name of the new city. wa5 -thpr'^ft 

. that fufTercd from the ferocious rapacity ofthefe 

barbarians: her wealth became the ; prey- <)f 

the pillagers, her inhabit^ta maflacred, aJjd b?r 

iioufes fett on fire, (hewed what-ira? tO:,^e €;xpeftacf 

^from tbefc cruel enemies ; \Hjo,' afterbahring f^l- 

cifed the fame fury on the other iflandsj wdifUf- 

niflbed themfeFves wirh barkij and boats, ybichichey 

eaufcd to be built for thent, prepared to' pai^^lj^e 

kgunes, and make themfehrcs mafter of Ve^ip^, 

where a general confternation was already, fpi^ftd* 

But the doge Tribuno, unaffefted by the- tiCRfpr 

which furrounded him, had ' prepared a? nuiflWrous 

fleet, amply provided with foldiers and aajflliiriti- 

: tion, and having animated the foub of his-nijen \cf 

'■■ his words and his countenance, he went out t<>'439fiet 

\. the Hungarian fleet :• thefe fatage^ no fooner-ii^w 

\ the Venetiansr coming .tiowardsithjem-^ian they; ad- 

\\ vanc-ed with intrepidity^ and fenta Ihower of darts 

amongft them, dire<5ted by their aWeft- n^ai^kf- 

.•'lanen.. • '••; ;••■ * ^ ■,*•.' 'C' 

The Venetians, long praftifed in maiteorriiig 

tlteir vejQTeUy and accu domed to maintain the cm- 

* pire of ithe feaby their fkill, foon threw intflr cdn- 

fofionaoA diforder'^a fleet :^ire6tcd -by. iginolraiirC^ 

V 7*nd blind courage r ahd the Hungarians, broken: 

■•■-'■ '• * " ' . • ■ • 'lit 

^ • f . • / 

Of the Qknftitution of Venict. % 7 

^ «' 

in all parts, and reding on their veflels, fo^ind 

lB!i!tv6&&^^ c^biiged' to ^y from certain deaths and 
leave the Tea covered with the bodies of their war- 
xio¥$, aild the fi;agnients of thqir barks, to the vie- 
xdrious enemy.. 

This iignal .yiftory dclivened the republic ficom 

**hefe redoubtable invadersy who avenged on the 
jp¥d«4^e^ of the continent the difgrace of ch^r de- 

'Je^^ lttd''pr4x:c<dadq^^ to .efta^biilh thetfi- 

^iflK^^ttl Faiuioybia, wiiich fjrom them has the name 

-iifHuagrie;.'- • 

/iI:could ,wifli in thefe hiftorical fketchcs to bring 
jferwii^ ifotbing but what did honour to fovereign- 
tf ^ btit^i 'fiiid . fovercigns fo frequently abufmg 
^tbei^ |X»)^cr^ xbat X know not where to find au- 

-:tli6ii.tveiBu . ■ ■ 

Ho«if could the conduct of theVenotians to- 
trtU^ tfaiir doges, which I have related, be cac- 

v^ufiUlle, if what they have fuffered from thefe 
t<y<eis were not explained? And yet how is at 
Conceivaible thart.all thefe examples of - Icvbrity, - of 
cruieky, eicerciied on tyrants, luve not baniihed 

^ iyr^nny from a. ftate where ihe has experienced fuch 
v^Hj^eaace ? Never did tyrannical power fhew it- 
felf more bold, more audacious than under doge 

;,£cter/j€andiano, who repudated his wife, that he 
flight* efpoufe Valdrada, the gcand^daugliteit of 
r^erioger^ who brought him in dower large eftatef , 

f:|uul'ti]PC^propefty of feveradj^ 

^ Of. the Ctxi^iuaim if Ftt^t- 

No doge before Cindiatio had a guud io bis ^ 
l^e, but iie' Slimed one, which rendered bimmoiilB 
instcceffible and moreftbfolutc. Some of the Veote^ 
mns incenfed at this meAacing ftppendtge, oridfft 
out, kill the tyrant a>id the tyrattfty, and advanced 
towards the palace : their ^clamours dttw together 
a prodigious multitude, who feeming determitieti 
to force the gat e9> they were fepiilfed by the guardi^ 
who fliot at them frqm within ; this irritating tHc 
^people ftill inor?, they pofleffcd themielves of ail' 
the avenues^ fet . fire to the palace^ and kt a tittle 
time the whole inclofwe was enveloped m frnokc 
^nd flames^. The doge finding no paifage by tiorMch 
he ought efcape^ came to the gate of the paiiacCt 
a;nd conjuring the multitude to fpare his Itfo, fhcww 
ed them his fon^ (till an infant^ whom he held: in 
his arms; but it was in vain that he endeavoafed 
to excite their pity for the young vidim; the pefe 
pie were inflexible, and in their fury facrificed bbdi 
the father and the child. . ^ 

Although the dignity of doge has fo often cotif* 
du&ed thofe on whom it ha)5 beerl conferred to'^ 
tragical exit, the defire of filling the higheft pltudb 
in the republic is not extinguiflied by that ci^iSf 
deration in the minds of the chief citizens : fo tttfft 
it is j that the fpirit of dominion is inherent Id; the 
^uman breaft. In vain may the feCfet voioe iH 
iceaibn warn an ambitious man of his iiilpi0t6iioe» 
acid of t^f dftpger attached tp:ft(hUihi<w:lie .# 

^ -> * > ■ 

^il^^oi^lMlJte'i^ ^ 

pe«H«lir4ii^^; thiEP^^ iA l^h^ rift ^ ^ng ^Mu 
'dfiicitid^fOctitlieiice) and df p^rilhmg in^hts felh 
t1^ F^Mh anif '(letiftps haiire one^^ but too 
inocSi^iwfon *€OAiHiited of Khi% urath. ' Tlicy 
^'WiikjiM ttieii witkciiK leiiGM/>Iedge; * ifitlibut eslj^ 

fitte^id^tte^r^fchtmwit' <Sf the* ^^le wlftim they 
IJtdldw/i«lft ihc^^ife'dttllJ^H: dP->beirig'ipaift<geti 

*&e5n<hduld'^rWW%avfe^mer^cA^* ^-^^'^^l' -^'J'^* -^ '" 

^.^ew of the biftoryctf Venice is^ tfcrfte tHfe fSopfe 
4>eiMhfcnf]lig tKeni^elv^s fbr dges *^b ffae condia<ft of 

ififteadof eAdeav^^rinig'iH^^ltmit thA aii^orhy Whi<!h 
lAetff fe*w^ fofreq^ientlf ibuftd. ' • -^ ' i '^ > 
ii:*rdm thie ifirft deftidn of a tiogey «ntiLthe*y^ 
1 173, if we except the five i^t*s th'whith tbe^(b»lft 
<]f~ llm^aigrtity was imefrtf^a fey-fiertiidWiiife the 
KmnnMi^&4^tke MiHfary^'F»i^y .the^dwdal ^pdWrr 
^luqatoiA ui^init^d : 'iu^ ^^^fhdt Wa^^xtint 
guiflsedy the reptiblicaii fdvereignty refumed all kt 

4b»>ew^ •:::■!■:;■ '-■ /^ ^ ;:-■'.... ■ 

^•f TMie 'people, though tubKiitiidd to^lie empiK 
itf iPdoge,^had fwreferftd gWat'^iTtlegefl. iliey 
gHwe^idiMrfufrmge in- the ^ffiimb^: ^tll-magflleH^ 
idii[iker?m»ejsu^ffi^ ^es^uiilin^ 

^^ D4 other 

iff M^be CmfiiiMtkm }ff4^Hh., 

j[H^er cefpedb to the iaobles> chqrt iiad tfao Advaai^ 
X^c of pofle01ng A grqa£cr^4iumber of i^iSx^%tx^'U• 
. , it was ne«ffvy t^ wip ihe fovoun of tkcpopn*' 
^ice in or4ier to oJxain any^hpnours ; for they pod^ 
f$ir<;d the ppwer by their accUmations <^ confer^ 
j^g even the dogalfi^aty from whence their ioflu^t 

f^ions could alfp maJko .the chief defc<;nd. > 

I ; f ^ A people X&y«t *^ : A>W: X^uguief ) who have 
^\ fo iargi^ a fli^e in ^the government^ find thesii^ 
^f fe^v^ free even when they^ have appointed maf* 
^f.ter*. QVf r. thcHi ; wd they^ regard thofe wto 
*^ govern them lefs as fovereigns whom they oughtC 
ff..;K> ob^Ysr th^ as officers . accountable to them, 
f^ and vfjia ougjbbt- to fear th<pi." , , •• .: 
^<The inCerior ^^Ifkfs of the people do not find ic 
their intereft; to change thjis Sourm of government^ 
>^^ufe if it ,pr5>duces trouble and anarchy, xkvsff 
enjoy by that means an opportunity of exercifing^ 
icheir.d^rpp^^^ ^^ order and juftice are die 
iS^vUt, .(they h*yc teafon to .applaud thcmfelves 
i^ their ; choice ; while the foyereign does >not 
-wound them by the weight of his power^ -they 
will take pride in fupportixjg what they have 

xiut^rd/ •. .'.. -^ ■■ ^v"-'. 

: This is the reafon why extreme defpotifm in* «> 
pfiwe i^.perfedlyreconcileable with extreme li^ 
«S*ti0u(hefc. ip. tjie multitude: Ict^ the fovercign 
Jj]^:ftn>uftithemw.ith.fpedacles, procure them bread, 
t^id: indulge tbem in iidleners^,^a44iie'may.exercifQ 
... .:.. over 

cvwriiheATid^iaftd thenobte the irioft Tevere niii 
thomj^i-ifae iiiay"4tuick $11 thei^ privileges^; he 
aay^ ;make ■ them fupporc all the public expences; 
am) if he fays to tha people, / fake f)xfit them th'cst 
fuperfimtieji^'thcU> I way kcwt yau necejfariifs, 'his irt^ 
juflice will be always applauded, and woe to him 
who Ihall daw . to nTurtn^n - Fortunately how^* 
ever for mankiiul^ defpbtifini^ noft a better reafoner 
xfaan)lite]itiQUfmr€^'r^tb€!K >£tfe ¥wc^ bkihderers who 
faaye IhxliM^vriihoutika(l€/>il'fK^g '^^ 
and' fc^ccormng in c^U<fl'<Wertifhi-eiach othetal- 
tcfapaDeiyw:' niC.\v .'.r.:i /:^v.- . i, ■. - -^ .■•.r.:j 

. < Aiti(bocracy' 4^ «qfiich 'm^ clear-fighted : flic 
confiders her courfej-flve'obftrvesh^r enetbies; flic 
ia cautious, and* only advances when it is iieceflary: 
flic fpics out the occafion for makiflg ufe of her foiw 
4^os; and when ihe has gained the advantaged flie 
CQcfaaoos both liberty afifddefpotifiii. * •' 

J Sud^has been the<:ondu<3: of ariftoeracy in Ve^ 
eice : :it was by rfieie nianoeiavres that^flie eftablifti** 
ch^e afdVereignty which fix centuries have not beea* 
abletofliakeu :- ;.>. 
' loL 1 1 73 -Venice cx^ri^ry^ad a mod dreadful ca*^ 
l^ity. A confiderable armament, which had- 
been fent to fea to obtain juftice of the emperor 
Manuel) was deftroyed by the plague: and dogcj 
Mkhieli brought back only feventeen vclfels,* 
though he had «ever come to any engagement.' 
7ho in^ diietdbark^, entcRd tlie-City,^ 
■ -.. municatcd 

t4^ •'^•<)fii'e^JHi^im\if1f^t^. 

tetinicated to tte InhiBkafitt the lk)rrjMc'«i!aa^ 
*Whith lifted tbcfti : i tnAihiwdc t^f fitttilted '%effe 
foon fciKed^h^ and dit*d of thfc plague, ah3Vc«ife% 
:was in danger of becoming a deftrt. The ptte^lc, 
idVsys difpofed to- atfritwaftc chtir^imrrfoTtiittcs tb 
^dmfe whd govctii thWhy'affaHed the doge, whdi*^- 
toesjf ed 4 mortal Woutid in endeavt^urittg t6 a!V6M 
Aw rage.-- -' ■'••"•^= •.■*■■ '-J 

J:: Some citHitfmavaUed themfclves'of this^inteniegk 
Hum^ a^d 6i^ t)ie general 4tfflt<ftion, for pmpoKitig. 4 
pew ibrm^^^^icemment.^ Them «ras at that ttmt 
<io permanent tribunal, but a body of foFty judgea 
*03^bli(hiedfor tlrying both oiviland criminal oatifes^ 
WmI irhidh wa^ liaii^d ibef^rty. This tribiiir»t wte 
*be' foil fin which the firft germs of ariftocracy di(l 

r ^Th^«irifettflal of^r/j^iiwde a law, that every yiar 
£|ife fix quarters of th4<:ity (k^uld ntoie, at the feaft 
t^vS^int Mkhal> «wo ele^ori ete^ dial thefc 
e|e(Sb9ffi(i}nitiag5,to i|lie ftumjbef^^of twelve, Ihbuld 
thufe among all the citizens indifcriminately font 
hundred mid feven„^ cpuoielbo^, wha ftouM fdrm 
a- body to be Ham^ the ^tmti cmmtit^ whkh (hould 
Jitelermiae eve^ thtfig formerly deternuBed by tte 
general affemblies^- > ■: ^)^'^ 

%:fubftitimi^ rfiis ftduiidl, kfi» ^of riictu* 
i|>^feLi(}ii}s<:rawd of the peppk^ the tnuli&tude wore 
r«move4#=ani.tH€|;n0wkdge<tfa&n^^ byeh«ffe* 
«^&t^j?aui)ftlfeH«^-eveiy y migbc 

,L?3ioq entertain 

<^^«n»uif lihe hope of a. pliuM bi tiie coimcHt Md 
|3y fht^j^itfleSisicAis beiffg- made in ^^^tUbrentquair- 
4^'«)| MpKMa oC |r«^^ t 

- 9^be peopple^ w{k> wcipe not aWire tkat'tbis ipfcs 
4lie|irft ii)d|p-6f t^ chftki vbich w;^ preparing^^ 
l|»e$K^T gsviFeto .thefetegulaiions the moft tmifMfcl 
MlpfMrobfttk^^. ftnij AlH>;/ri*»*tf/ ^fmtf^ encoovagcbl 
iiy tbe fuccefs of their Icheme^ tnade a (ec^KMk eeglh 

fire u^Dttcl^d^a^n, thietrfor ih&(tkM»)iiy,hiffll 
tmhopt^^ketljbinig'ceinfidertd Afr^^fi-^fidUM, %wt^l¥fe 
irtdaingcommillionersihould bechofen frblMlkm«Ulg 
tiie ^ei^iis beft^qualitii^d for ttodlEoe, ^hoiftioyld 
cftifoiftcd^feby^ote : *nd' tAat the canfdidal!^'W)to 
had nine of the twelve fuffrages ftlotiklfib«:5el«*!4fe 
Wtre^wrpI^^ »t M^ fiitv^^ftldk in afflkbi^lilld tvbo 

ttefci ^^fdghr : 6f whietl ^hef *ad - teedn fof ^ag6s k 
|>tif&ffio0j'lae4tMired'^lft> M ihia^^€(»d «egid^ 

tiief fiadiAkis foiiged )aidoiifa4e j^inlc^ th« pi^e; 
ifcfcyfthiHight kifibceflar^ ttAkidoiie^fbfaft-cJliSif 
whom they were going to appointr ■ • ♦ '> * ^ ' ; 
'Tfae^ tnbtaefe of Ithe iflea 4brtf«d^ eb«^ dis^^s 
o(Hinc3i)}nBkisjrrwer(3 apjpK^hled bf Mm^^d tttfe: 
a^Jvice hr was>di Hbctiy**lfeMeir*^t€Jd^.^ 
Jrik^ml of^fim^ made 4i thind regulatl^ whi^ imv 
-.iLii^icM^ ported. 

44 ^f tU Cm^timm of Fmce. 

potredj that the grand council (hould every year 
i;iai{ie fix counfellorsj one for each quarter^ without 
the advice of whom the doge ctmli not do any thing : • ib 
chat' any command of his which (hould not be 
fan^ioned by the approbation of thefe fix magif- 
trates mud remain without ctkO:. Thus the- au« 
thorify of the doges became dependent on thtfe 
fix-C9unfellors> who were aiicountable for their coii- 
dud to, the grand counicit, who could continue but 
H^ne.yeajT ia o^ce^ and who were to be to thi? doge 
,a fet of dangerous bveirfeers, fubftituted for thofe 

'iidiilatbrs with which th£ Chief had been hittento 

.^ . " ," • 


\ ' Tiiis laft defettnination was not likely to be op- 

jpofed by the people, Whofe rights were in no re- 

ipe£t' invaded by it: nor could it be contradifted 

by the doge, fince there had not been one elefte^: 

fc^fideS the nation, rfiftored to its former puifll^nce 

during an interregnum, had an inconteftible right 

*Vo*fi± the* conditions' oii which the perfon who 

ihould in future "poflefe the confidence of the pfeo- 

pie, ^ (hould t>e raifed to thip dOgal dignify, 

;"tl\efe regulators Had rh"<9 tautian to be^iii by 

formihg'the grand Council, biefore they proceeded 

*to the cleiftidn of a doge: artd fixty of its m'etn- 

'bers, who' were to be' chahged every year; tvefe 

■ ippomted to fofk the feiktc ' where nH ^iih if 

.;ft»te ^d{t fo be tfJgiiraiif^W, • ' ' ' ' ' • . - 

1 * 


Cfthe ConJiituHon of Venidi. 45 

.,;;^!p i^v^lie]rs.f^^thi^.new fenatc,. more cttaj^fffliy 
jfid, a^id I^s.^^eECii4Apt on the doge than ttiofc' 
iwhobad , before pcjffprmod . ih^, fgq^iqns of tcn^- 
toi;?^ #ijl rdjain^ed. the p4nn^,qf />;wif^/. (the jprayers), 
^y jUMne &^c^* to, .^j CiSitraordipary conydcations 
IR»4e>y ^.4Pg9»:On urgent ocMfions, fey fenijip^ 

;S6gifef^?.¥li!Xo^MFb,t^ey,h?4 m%P. r^^K^^yc:.^ 
•i5oT%J^«»rte:> -^^s, ,w. ^o^''?.«f,;the fix coim- 

4<«f.R . aflif <> , ibi^ covngl. tj^^y ,gaVc the name of 
feigneitrie as being the firft reprefentation, o? the 
f4?pqblic,^ .T^hey, afterwards n^med the twreire 
cjleftprewlio. were to cleft ;he new doge : anil each 
:Of'.thcfe,cp|nn3i0ioners took an o^th to pay no re- 
gp^jDQ ^qjr priy^tejntcr^ft^ but to give his fuffra|c 
,tj)j.iJ^^.pqrfQa wlipm^ he beljcved .to be..the^iw;# 

, ,[ . . A y.txy, fin gujar^e%^ent prp v,ed the pr pbity of thcfc 

ple4tp,Ts and the, good chQice which they had made. 

In takii^g:^9 ygt^.^^r^t^jo. fufijrages appeared in fa- 
, Ypuii;5>f, ope'of tb^ir coHpages named Orio Mali- 
ljB^^fvir T^i? .refp^<^able citizen feeing himfclf 

deded .without expeding the honour, reprefented 
^^g,^is !^Q(^ftjw.eots, that in the fituation m which the 
.Tepufeljic thea was,, it Kad occ^fion for a chief more 

able than he was to raife her from her misfprtupe^ • 
.;5hgt it was neccffary to have a man not only well 

mtjfoS^Af but fufRcientljr oppulent for defrayiifg 



tjbofecxpcDcei xvhich Vlte Miftioh o^^^'Mitk^M'. 
^ed iiievftabler; and Kc propofcct ikil^^'^Ual*-^ 
^ian Ziani put in noiiiiiiatiolil' "■' '" ■ '■ '';^"'^'r^-'^" 

ihdthe^itizch whom he hid poihtcd pfut ibpcaredi 

■" ' '• '• ,'-■•■ '^T' i"llT -'il'r? * 

ft worthy of theifr faffragcs t^^^ he >as ejected py^ 
tIkftlT'tiiKtnimotis voitreV atid tliu^ end^*d thc^ ^rft 

^ScftioAoF a doge of Vehice^by v^te^; *" 

It is gratifying to meet in hlftbty 'ivitVfuc^^^ 
ttJir^ of virtue : we ma^ apply to them t|(e vferds 
^ a modern writer; and fay with him that Vii^i^'^Jv^ 
f^ejh motim to the blbbd. 

It was under this new adminiftration that the re- 
public of Venice acquired a degree of fplcndqur 
iirhich placed her on a level with the principal 
^wcrjr of Europe; and gave rife to that 'fotcmn 
alliianee which is how regarded as ah abfui'd feercV" 
*ony ; but the caufeof which, as it makes part or 
*€ conftitutioh, it is icfcumbent' oh me to <ix:^ 

.... ..... ..-,,,, — ... . .-•:-.-' iV^ 

plftm. - 

The chief of the church, l^ope Ateiisihder III, 
bciti^ petfecuted by Frederick who had befiegect 
|iini in' Koifne, and having been a Wdiiderei' througtf 
jhrance ajad many towns of Mlj^, i^e% feet refugee 
^Veiik^ where lie ibtmd a {af& ^fi^^h^hBiikib^' 

■.-.....•....Li.*.: iJ^'il.--M.i . »-^.. -> 

fi-. » -. 


to^,i9lqv,pgi^^0ge ifi< lawfif^ chi^^ 3ut the c'mpqW: 
con^ijgig fp),X hiji.ppdc an4 his hatred pf Alea^, 
ander, replied thus to the amb^adors-^*' Tell yo^f, 
" prince and. yourienate that Frederick emperor of 
** th(; fiLomaps demands frotn them a fugitive wls^ - 
H IS Hs cncn^y , ^d . that if they fend him not ift 

^ jng ipiimedi^tely, in good faith I will avenge, tluj 

'\' '. ^ ''-ij^ .•-.■...«.'.• ■ * 

♦f jjjmj^l^^ i^ne piCj^ hy befiegjng them by Ui>d 404 
^f by water ; and that I will plant my vido^i<H|» 

' SuMark/v ,, / 
Alexander tremble^ 
Sut it 4i4 DOt intimidate Ziani, ,who affurcd him 
ihac the republic, which they began to diftingqifll. 
^ di<5^,title of Sqgneurie, was in a coijidition to fup* • 
port^jAe^protec^pn which it had grafted llim,.,.;:.^ 
/Frede^icl; nc^ finjding hioifelf pbey^fl by ikt 
Yen^jjipins^^^^^^^ fij^ty gallies to be ^rpi^d againft 
tltem^ ithe. jcpmrp^nd of which he gave iq his fpR 
Otto.,, Jthe Venetians on their psirt loft. no d?^ 
inpreparipg ^p armament; capable pf fv\ftaining 4^9 
fliock of the naval force of the empire ; and Oth^ 
^?yii^g Jbewft himfclf on the c9aft:Of Iftjpa, 
^iapi wqnt put with h^is ^et, a^tackiSfl tl^e enemy^' 
ap^d w^p^ j^.we|i iecpnded,.!^ (aidie«,ti|at.aftflj. 

%H??^^jS?^^^^ P^ %erai hour5> wb»t.jreiftaiB?4 
9f ;^e if^ was. obliged targrrei>d«.vaw4 

^tijani returned triumphant into port, foUowfi4:^V 

' ': • ' The 


4^ 6/ /he donjiUktm of P%ia. 

The pope at the Tiead of the fenate and cttfgf, 
xvent out to meet the conqueror; embraced him,' 
and prefcnted him with a ring of gold faying at the 
fame time, '* receive this ring ; ufeit as a chain ior 
•* keeping the fea in fubjedion to the Venetian em- 
pire : efppufe the ocean with it ; and heneforth 
every year on this day, let the celebration of this 
'* marriage be renewed by you and your fucceflbrs, 
*' that all pofteriiy rriay know, that the Venetian 
•* arms have acquired dominion over the Waves, 
** and that the fea is fubjefted to you as a wife to 
'* her hufbands/* ^ " 

England, blecome the enemy of Rome and of 
its pontiff, has broken with her navy thefe bonds 
formed by pride and puerile credulity, and forcerf 
this inconftant fpoufe to become faithful to her. 
Yet ftill the doge, mounted on his hucatttaur every 
year makes an offering with great pomp of the 
jing of gold, and gravely addrcffes the ocean in 
thcfe words, ** Sea we efpbufe you, as a fign of 
•^ the true and perpetual empire which we have 
*^ acquired over you/* 

But what gave the finifliing touch to the glory 
ipf the Venetian republic was to behold, fometimc 
after the victory which its arms had gained over the 
imperial fleet, Frederick who had threatened to 
^ome and plant his viBorious eagles before the portal of 
St, Mark^ acknowledged in that very church Alex- 


Of tbt (^onftituthu of Fmc^ 4f 

A04^: t)fif nid. as lawful pope, and prodxating 
him&lf before him* 

Thus, under doge Ziani, was tlie republic fuf- 
6Giently powerful for granting a iafe afjluih 
to the chief of the church ; for eaufing his elec* 
tioo, after conferences had been held within its 
boToin upon the fubjed, to be pronounced legal; 
and fibr cooduding Alexander III, triumphant 
orer (be hatred of the emperor^ to afcend the pon- 
tifical chair. 

- Oo ihc deceafe of this doge it was not eafy to dc« 
termine in what manner to proceed to a new eledion, 
T^hnc eOuld be no difficuhy in iuhjcdiag the t^ew 
dp0e to the plan of cooilitution confirmed by there; 
fpeft which had always been (hewn it by ZianL, buj 
the^ point tras bow to pafs into a law the provi£onal 
segulacion which had excluded the multitude froA 
the nomination of the lafl doge* 

That it might not appear their intention to cfta» 
Idifli what bad been declared to be only introduced 
Uga one occafion, they judged it prudent to mak^ 
fome alteration in the mode ; and it was agreed to 
name by a plurality of voices in the grand council 
Ih^ix eledors, who in a private aflembly (hould chufe 
ten cgaimi0ioner$ each, which commiffioners fliould 
#led the doge by a majority of their fufTrages. 
; The votes of all the electors united in favour of 
ibtt geaerous citiaei\ who, preferring the ince: cfl of 
Jhis country to his own aggrandizement, dechned the 
V^t. II. E honour 

5.0 Of th^ CoTtftitution .V Vm^- 

honour pf being its chief himfelf, that oae .might-be 
chofcA more, capable of jaifing the ftate out. of tbc; 
misCorttiJies in wJiich it was plunjged. 
* .. At. this time . two n^w magiftcrial . Qf5ce$:. 
were created :, the firli was that of the three 
mj^\ocat$ri^ vfho ivere to difcharge the func-* 
tionV^oCpxibiic minifters; to be the GonferverS>. 
of the, laws ; to proceed rlgorovifly againft all thpfe , ^ 
who. fhould dare to^ deviate froi^ them; .ta, , 
determine,, from the nature of caufes, before what, 
tfibtinah they ftiould ,be tried ; to oppofe ilie re- 
giftering ;attcj publifhing of all ordinances contrary , . 
to the general good ; and in fine to be the profe-j, 
ci^tQ?§ oji tiofc who .flbould violate the, eftabliil^e.^ .^ 
oroer. - , ^ 

i-The inftitution of this office was well imaKioed ,,. 
for: .ftrqQgthening the new conftkution : but^^€^, 
fliall foon fee another created to render it imm9r.,j 
veable. . ,\ 

^ The .obj^ft.of this fecoad eftabliftunent wa? td , 
hear" and determine all.procefles between the citi^.,. 
zens and foreigners, or between foreigners with*, 
each other. . . . i 

• - Thefe new regulations were ordered by the grand ::\ 
council wichout aiking the people's confent,; .. 
and thus did the citizens by degrees lofealLdireft,^^ 
inAu^oce in the adminiftratipn of the republic i,. 
Nvhileihe doge part, of the Authoiritv- . 
he had loft* . . _ . , ■. : ^ „ ., ;.. ,^m^ 

... - ~ ■ . The 

^ ' * * • . 

t>f the tonjiiiution \if Venice. 5 1^ 

' Th& ariftocracy in the mean time ^as increafihg, 
aMaCiquiring new force between the two powers' 
which it held inchaihdd r but it had hot ftill attained ' 
the Hfeight to whifch it defired to rife, and to which 
it''did>ife at the ^iid pf the twelfth century. 

Qfvi the death of Jbhn Dandolo, the people, be-' 
come fenfible of the injury done to their liberty by'' 
the'^gfaild cbiihdl,' refolved to recover the ri^fit of 
ele^ing'tll^ir doges; and with thardfefightfiSJr iril" 
ften^^, befoffe the council had ndmed the elefting' 
coramiffidhers, to proclaim James '/Thiepoio, ahd ' 
ftAifigty mfifted 6n the validity of his eleaSoh r feuf^ 
theif'ttew-defted doge, lefs confident lii the tla*-" 
in8^f<i\i^" ahfiirantes of the multitude, than abaflied 
by the calm oppofition of the grand council, dared ~^ 
n<5<?6tJfeV^e himfelf doge; and left Venice to attend 
in^k i^treat the iffcie 6f the ftruggle between de-' 
motVacy and "ariftocracy. ' ^ ' 

If this man had poflefled more Courage and more 
ctfitfld'ehce; he' ttlighr pdflBHy have rcftored the po- 
pufar'powet'' tb vd former height : but whoever 
abfeifts hunfelf from the people will be foon aban- 
doned by them : they muft fee their idol ; his pre- 
fefi56felkfl:atnes their hearts, and cherifhes their at- 
tachineiitj' bur if he removes from their fight he is 
fo^Ottert:T^^ exemplified more than 

ciicer'thofe Avho"~have been followed with tranf- 
pctt 'by'tht'iiiuiritude; *'who have" received from 
mmCi tlic moft flattering titles ; have no fooner diu 
" ' E 2 appeared. 

52 Of the £mJlituUQn of Ve>nce. 

appeared, than they have become, the ol^cft^^o^ 

the moil iajurious fyfpicioas ; have, enti^eiy: loft*^ 

afcendency which gave them fo nw^ich power ;^ ^jptc^j^ 

by returning, they, would have exposed theojife^eii 

to, the danger of being feized upon in the view |C|f 

theiir Ute adorers, without feeing orj.e in^lvici^al 

ftand forth in. their defence, . ^ ^ 

^ Xhq people, of Venice, aftpr fearching^ft^r Ifh^:- 

polo to place Jiim,. in fpite of the cpyncilj^ on tKc 

thrpneto which they had raifed him,, and nc^ be- 

ingable ta fia4 the object of theii; ^vpur^ grew cog^ 

in the bufinefs, and did not think of e^e^ipg aa- 

Qthpf; an4vthe grand council availed tjiiemfcives 

.<]jf this, calw,j foi?. proceeding to eledioii accord- 

i^ig to the form which it ha,d adopted* 

. . Eeter Gradqnico, who was unanimoiifly cj^ofen 

agreeable to the new regulation, avenged moft 

cruelly upon thp people the favour they had Iliewn 

to bis competitpr, for he deprived them of all 

.htpjpe pf b/eing (^dxriitfed to the grand council^ or 

gf .^a,Wng any part in the admimftration, by an or- 

4ma»nce. which he caufed to be iffued, importlog 

,tbat all the membeiis who then compofed. the- graiici 

council fhould continue to compofe it in perjpetui- 

^tyy ibej and thirdefcendantSy without , any occauon 

foi;. their being rechofen in future by ballot oi iny 

other fprm of eledion: thus adniiflioh to the. 

' .graad cpuocil became an exclufive and hereditary 

Of the Conjiitutkn of Venice. j j 

right; in the Camilies of the members of which it was 
at thU time tompofed. 

This danng enterprize againft the right of the' 
pisopld, which for ever annihilated their fove- 
reigiity, was only one in a train of misfortunes/ 
The republic of Genoa, the rival of that of Venice, 
Kad gained in the courfe of a long war two fignal vic- 
tc^es over the Venetians, which had fpread confter- 
natidQ among the people, and depreifed their cbu- 
iiktx and when a nation is humbled by its cne* 
mies, it is eafy to carry oppreffion into its bofoih' ; 
fot* its pride is loft, and nothing fedms to meet its 
view 6ut flavery. 

' The blow, which had fallen fo heavily on theci- 
tizens, was deeply felt by many noble families, wh6 
were not members of the grand council; and it ek- 
Citea a fecrct indignation which foon burft forth 
in "4 violent manner. 

■ * * ■ * 

\\" A perfon named Bocconio, a great partizan of 
liberty, conceived a defign of facrificing the doge, 
jind exterminating the grand council : he engaged 
feveral citizens in his plot, and was preparing to 
execute it by the means of confpirators, when one 
ibf them difcovered it to the doge ; who, without 
becriyiiig the lead alarm, caufed flrift but fecret 
enquiry to be made into the affair; and when he 

' had gained all poffible information, he laid the mat* 

ter before the grand council. None of the nobles 

hsui titf kn<3^kdge of this confpirpicyi they all 

**• E 3 trcm- 

5* Ofjhe GorylituHcn of V^w^j, 

Uembled at the fight of fuch imtQintot)>dangei!j| 
^.nd inftantly gave orders far feisuig BopconiPi^nd 
his accompiicp^, who not having aay apprehenfioA 
of difcovery, had taken no prQcaiuioa to l^ure 
themfelves* This fortitude in th« doge, anditihis 
diligence in the grand council faved the arifto- 
craqy* . ■ -. ^ . - :_ ../i 

The criminals, /when iQ : confinement, acknow* 
ledged their g^ilt : jheywpr^pTTri^ jand condemufid 
die fame day, and-^n: the nexi. day they". ^jrefe'^U 
executed. -,...;.. •.■■■. ■. .■ . .-.f , .uii 

■: This fevere punilhixient having fallen on ob&uxo 
citizens only, did not preferyc the repMblic frptisiiii^ 
ftill more dangerous confpiracy, which. aimed. at ^^ 
yolving the Venetians in the jmoft hornd Civil 

/War. -y. LLIV 

, The excluded families pf die noble VQoWawtt 
always indulged a fee ret hagrfidand envy Agtittft 
the doge and the grand. covinqil.. . ... -li. 

Venice which had been fi^/erviceaWe to Alcjdan^ 
der JII. which had replacjefd d;i^:chieCof the church 
in his feat, and had ni^ited ^^f nal gratkude Jnon 
the.cpurtpf Romej fou^d herfrlf ftrucfc with excodi?t 
municatipn, for having ppppfed, the pre tenfions. of 
Clement V. on the city pf Ferarat A imJIk fwH 
his holinef^ deprived the doge jm4 the r^p^biM 
of all the pfivUeges.whiph hj^d been gr^qtqd DO £hem 
by thjr l^ly fe^i abfplved,all their fvibj^djs from; t4io 
oath pf J&ielit^; ^deciar^^ all,?Jbfe.§iti;^ns^infi^^^^ 

; ;i incapable" 

ifltOipabl^' of 'Tf ecdviiig or beftowing any thing- by 
teftameiit' t'^df iBX^rcifmg any public jarifcliftion op 
ftitrtafett^-nnde** pain of nullity; and forbid theif 
eteRfeJerf, eVeh'to the fourth generation, being ad* 
ttfift^to-^y feculai' or ccclefiaftical dignity, 
-tt'is aftoniihingthat in fuch a fuperftitious a^ 
fuch a bulk fliould not occafion the leaft trouble in 
th<5rej)Ubli<Ji^»'eV4ft hinder the Venetians frOm<ie. 
fertdittg ch^ city-of Fiferara, -and marchiilg agaifift 
iheT^pe*^ ailmy comlnahded by Cardinal Peligrue. 
But thefe brave republicans, who had vanquiflled 
ttpori'uhe fea:t^^o feifeperors of Italy and one of the 
ca/fty^^.'^rtfe iiow defeated on land by the amiy of a 
p5q)€f(Jorflmaftded' by a cardinal. 
:'^'^hfe:*defeat obliged them to abandon Ferara^^ 
and left them under the prejudice of an excomntii*- 
nicfidonTerydiikdvantageous to their commerce; for 
ftiwasftocftfffifcient that they themfehres (hould brave 
an excommunicatioriy it was neceflary that thofc 
¥ndr^lu>m xhev^had- ahyeb^nexioh Ihduld brave 
ibalfb^ ferfiiperftitt^n,' which involved all Europe 
«ociiat' tiftw in darfcftefe^ (hut up all ports, broke 
^MfS^i aftd annulled ill treaties fbraied with thofc 
tehcr.vwijnt excomrnuhicated; and they were confi- 
di«r4^ ^S'peribns tainted with fome plague, which 
i»fi^i^ be i^omthunic^ed by the leaft intercourfe. 
ifiSiicfeiAfr^^ the blindnefs of mankind in the thir* 
tdttiCh-'Cteflfory ! And yet philofophy is <:alumni- 
at^^^'havifig opened the eyes of ignorance, and 

£ 4 diffi- 

11/ ;4_'. 

5^ C^tkeC^nJiUuiim^fyiHic^' 

diifipatcd ftupidity i Nayi ibc is 'fwn-^iiecufeijKif. 
occafiofting all the eviU^ all th^ divi{mn$,-tff whi^h: 
flifs is a ftranger ! ■ ') i : h^' ■; / 

. This <iefcac, and the iofs of Fer^ra, infpiri^d: 
great difguft againft the chiefs ^i thc^f^uWic, 4ImI. 
occafiof^cd many fccrct 'conferences on the Hew 
govcfqmcm, to which the people attributed HI 
their ousfortuncs^ ; a^ if tht^ had i^ot e^pf^^oed' 
ftilifisvecec -ones under the ancieat fyfteoii^ <;.:<: u 
^ The : malceontenj:®,.. vhQ. were yetfxxvms^^Wu 
took the rcfolution of.depofijig the doge^. aboliflih 
iBg.the grand cduncil, and potting ^i t\(^r^ 
death v\xfx ibould oppole this la(l effort of dQtsiaf. 
cracy, : ■ j.n -ja: 

: ; j^raioot Thiepolo, fon of James ThicpoloiWho 
had bKQ prxKilaimed doge by the people, ;to<^kr\qir 
on hici^to xaadui^Lthis emerpri^e to its leckmplti!* 
tian:i and majsy noble, families^ among which were; 
that of Quirius, ^tercd into.uhe confpiracy. Thcji^ 
choiir the place de^Rialt^/for the riendessvousi ictf 
their, troops^ from whence 'ihcy were tOrOiaccbto 
the place de Saiilt Mark} inveft che palacey fbiioe 
the gatea^ feizc or kiUr the jdoge^ and continue) in 
the palace until they had made all the changes; on 
which they had agreed* , t / .;:S 

One of the confpirators was to bring a^ bod^ of 
trobps from IPiidiia; that in cafe the party, after 
iiampg poiiedicd. .thcmfelres iof the pdace fhonld 
bt blocked up there^ this rax^ ^ :;ni|^r«^ might ap» 

^i^il^'dliCdic^Mi n fctrcc /equal to 4Aiat 6f tte cnei^ 
iH^v/][%oc:dftjfr')|^ihtdd for 'executing: this plot 
was the 15th of June 13 10, which was not diftant^ 
a&d/IA thc^iAt^ival; ums weite diftributed to all 

^'TJiefecret was fo well kept, that on the morn^ 
iitg (il^the' t^th >of June nothing had t^^anfpi^ed^ 
ftue iY» tbii courie of abat^clay* if was Oibfen/edy tfaab 
a concouri^ of people 'of all tiMilditions ftole /uooeC- 
iiwty^ifiiocettain hovrfes;' pad^ulaerly into; tbdfi of 
tte tuibies who were^jd:if(t3A:.adverfe to the doge, :^ 
iecoiMNi of khis fufpicioDs circtinifta.nce-«was carried 
dtt^ly to die palace r but it wa^nbtundl the even* 
ing that this difcovery was made, - : > 

piThedbge inftantly conununicatcdi the affair tjo 
tbeptincipid' members^ of the grand couactly ap^ 
prised them of their danger^ enjoined them toap-* 
prixe their friends immediately, atid to aflemble 
ipm^ in the palace before the. dawn of d^y^ He 
difpatcbed' couriers at the. fame dme to the goven 
nori ofctbe? neighbouring cities, with orders to af«> 
femble ^hat troops they had^ 4nd to come to tl^ 
fuoconriof the'repidblic: and thus, in the- iilence 
of tbaMght,'ahd in'themidft of apparent tranquiU 
lity, was both the attack and defence preparing^ • *i 
lo'phefiaqRietit^now'.apprcBched when Veneuans 
twre to 6ghttagainft Venetians, and when their 
fcdmiiry vais to turn*the arms of her fbldaeis againii 
4he bi)weils^oflyer^tiz€ns^. .: ' ^ : ^>^ . : ^^<. 

•y''-i Scared^ 

o/,<i^ (^niSH^im^^'^^^ifi^ 

- Sj:arcely: bad thfe davm 'appeatced: whon ^ n deluge 

of rain and hail, drivi^a by.«thetiaioft.itBpetti€Ha^ 

viindf md accompanied withLmce^Dti fialhas of 

lighting, iremendou$ chps Of tKundery and ths 

mf>& horrible roaringjof the wiyes^ became the pre^ 

Jju^;^ ihisr^blopdy iirenei . , ; r 

. .^fh^s ^^mpcfl: retarded the^firfl: efforts of the coh^ 

fpjf^torsi »but as the ^y advanced,; and ihcrfloral 

ftjfUrrXontiauedji Thiepolb ^ gave the order Jvfcte 

inai:cbJfng^'^nd troops. )of armed men foam movcii 

by different ftreets towards the placc: dciRtaltJKj 

ininglkig> 'With »thecraftijof thunder, : the fottttff oi 

th'eir^ trumpets^ and a conftjfed: claflftour of ^odces^ 

Tviiieh added ne\r terrors tQ. the fcene*. . Wlien 

ifeeferitroopfe were affembled in abodyv Bajamjom 

gave comm^andi for pillaging -tJie cceafiaxytoahA 

magazines, which :wai3 executed with:. too aawacb 

^atf<» ; iTlji§:.order.fliewed jtbe.cplundeiTr,aiojra^ ; 

thegepeva^ijrifcg^vetim^ fpTuthedogerJirpuehiiiij-: 

felf iif^:3:ft#t#:iQ|^,4^fqnct^ira^ Jaiftiniani| whoij^ 

tliC; bravery ;:ipd«^tb«^Ml4n«QfvJtei^^ ♦iiCr«.ee'foldie% 

hav^Dg ,, tal&€a>:)t^§ i,4:c^;©i»^ncl, ip^de^ .tjte .peceflacy. 

arrangement, and foon eftabiiflied, -amicMf:thi% 

general' iCpnfvfioa^i^ tiM^i^nwft.^regulw* »ordi?c^\of 

battle* ' ;. : ■■■d t- ^■b£n>;> •).<-■ .. ><::.. 'i tj -^Cil '>J:. 

^ /Thiepolo fe^vij^g^ liriafched to ih«Hpi4jc^ t^cf ?^iintl 

Marl^,. tb^ figUt ^f , -a^n .^my dr^wn iw witb a icou^^ 

rageous afpeft to receive his troops did not ahafhj 

him; and being determined to (lake the fuccefs of 


V6^ejkcv\ai3i&KykiMt^^^ lie drew' up 

ro Wh^ hei^Of^cnaking thiB difpoficion, the doge^ 
iltiiibas of {faring the b^d of the Venetians, de^ 
putediicbrOTf^i^bleS'Of his party to ex:bort Thie^blft 
not to dilhonour his nameby tcafiftg the fecS^ii 
itfcl^s^coatiriy->KrbitfeiK:)Tef|ftj£b'the \\^ts of hii^el- 
loroiiioieiktr tUisu exhotrcaridn htfd hdvi^ivcfTo' little 
tefiidtj^thac diere wanted? Ii0tialfilbch^i«^ 
aMft»c©irfpb-htoTfcatjfi5fn:Iie^dep©fitt df tbe^^<!3^e'' » 
Iwlm^afcredaiiq o.r .:Sr:r//G: rt ).-.■'"' v^nvflu^ v?*» 

10 Tiw«5i btingriaimdre hopa of i^c^dliflRibn]^*^ 
tiuwqpflR-tfes charg^d^ek^^^her'^ fdi? 

naitf^oun thfe pkce de Siaittt' Mark was converted 
intmiaffeld -of battle, wWch prefented, frcto the 
Aifcordibf^die fatne]>edple, alf tbe horrors erf?! 
cfanatoarbetween tWohdftile nations. ■' '' *' • 

nrForume, whiich \«asf5^ forme time uncertain ,- it 
laftfibaridonei^" the fide- of the cdnfpiratonl, ^vha 
liegjan l«o give v«riiy, J«ftin1anl pfefled them vi-= 
gcmr<kiflyV'dhd ptft thena^^t^^flight r Thiepolo, fee^' 
ing'ihk people' touted; nade^hisr'efcape with all 
poffibte^lpwd.^-'?-^-' '^■"- ' ->■'■" 

?o A; party of cte corifpirator^ threw thcmfclves o* 
the fide of Rialta, and having made a breach in the' 
jjiidj^e: -pi^pated to defend theirtfclvest but th« 
govenaor:of ^iofe fell up(m and pirt thett^- to' tht 
fsfeard^^'' \ ''.'.'- ■.. ■ ■■'■'-■' ;■' ••• ^ -^^ ' 

. _ 1' 

6o Of the Conjiitution of Venice* 

The fugitives were purfited in all quarters, and 
a great number were t^ken' and put th imhsv^fli* 
l-jBft difptrfeil,- and fled for fafftty 6ut.'6f the V^hfe: 
iuti d()nli!iiotis. Some noble Venetians we're f6uhd 
Wpoii'the 6eld among thofe who had fallen dri 
TO^'^fidd^of the confpirators, but the greater hum^ 
%ci-6f t'lte de^d weremenof the loweft tlats/''"' '• 
^'^The'ne'xeday Ume on the trials andcondemfia: 
Vion'of tlie citfeens/-*fhofe gfeiteft crimcNi^as tKm 
hisVitrgb^en vanquitfied : but the triumptiahV party 
Id^nfidered them in the light of enemies to-*tkc^te?> 
^<A*whbtii k was licceflaty to make an * ex'aniple. 
'Thpft ^vfe were found mod guilty were cohdcftin- 
'td ro> deithr and others \Vho appeared to have feccn 
^lieed into' the cohfpii-acy, wer6 either exil6d or 
iffiprifohed for life. The three nobles who i offer* 
c^riid were beheaded, t5ut' the obfcure citizeiirtcr*- 
noinitcd their days, in the moft ignominidus man- 
ncr, on the gallows. ' 


Thiepolo, who had fled out of the rcpiibfitf/Zwas 
acclared infdnidus', .laaa-Sa eherny to "his country; 
'ihdhis houfeVasf^fefi. ■■■"', ' ■'■' .■"' •' " " ' 
• It was detefniiriedfo perpetuate the rem^m^ 
« this melancholy Went, and to declate the grati- 
rode of the repUWic, for its efcape from fucH uff- 
Winentdangey, b/a folemii feift, whfch'Is cejcr 
%mei evefy yeir 'on the 1 5111 of Jiin^.''". " '''"'* 

It was' on this Occafioh that 'doge (jraqonico 
"btopofed the namrng of ten induiiitod'of ftate, for 

, • ' , '^proceed- 

t . . ^ ' 


■'.■-•■■'■ . .'^ 

Of the Confiituiion of Fenue. 6x 

l^^ee^lfig algainft all the feqret accomplices of die 
conipix^fy; Mid the council readily adopccd <^ P^^^t 
wfapfi; obje& wj^s to make known to them all fuel} 
pNTrTom as v/ere fufpecled. This new comm>^Qi>p 
iphiq^ w^Sj tp have, been only tempotary^^ appsar?4 
fo Xkece4@^ry ^i a (late^ almoft continuaUy e:cpoled t^ 
the difcowent o£ a m.uUitude ftill animated by. the 
remcmbra,nce , oJt tbe^ .arjacnt liberty^ that,,.^f 
?»s^ren4ered ; ..^anfi fcqm .., thence,,, «r 

a,cc(^dip^ to the .Abbe L^ugien, arpf^ the Te^d^ovibitr . 
able council of- teuy ^^ th3i, tribunal (faya^hf;) i^ 
**; bo^erful^and Co. dete.fted; whole jvirifpnideni}f, 
'f pl>(cure,aQd ieyere, iacrifii^s a^ individuals; to* 
^^^ tbefaiety of the ftate; places in the rank ^fth(t. 
\^JgjCK?i^^ ngic4 in4ircdt, fwJtftrjigjUlft 

V^^^-?^^'^'?^^'^'- .confi4cr? all thofe, as ^accawplifi^ 
* ^ in a .plot yriio ^Q ^ppt give inifprmatiij^n, o^ i t j j^ndi 
^^ makes every peribo, who is accufed before tbem^ 
^^ regarded as a loft man/; . ^ , .- 

The advantage of conibinap^ accounts of the hif. 
tory with the conftitution ^^,every ft^t^c^ jsco^fpi- 
cuou^j^becauie it is theevent^s^whicRhave happen- 
ed which j;ive pfe t9 the fundamental laws of every 
govefaD{jLentj,,and we fee throughout this .accoum: 
of yciiiqejt that, all the changes which, have takeA 
place in that republic have been, prgducedv^ Q^ 
compuuided^^ by occuring circumilances. 
^-Thq ,cribun\tion power, whiqh was the firft^ b^d 
been fuggefted and adopted by the fiicyation of the 
Vianedans, perfecuted, s^d obliged to diftribiue 



6± CftBt X:onflimivn' of V^tO: 

themfclves on fmall iflantis,^ wVicA ^ircf^ VlcJt Witt^ 
as efecy-are at this'^d^^/ttftit^ WTifh< imi'd&^L '''-' 
iThd abiife i^feifeh- ^the triBtirife^ ^bmcfc W"' tHef^;^ 
powfefy ^nd thfe'Tiiiftimlef {landing ^HicH^ei^tfraf^ 
among ^em,= and ^ which exptrfed th^ iflahtfs'tb'^ei^ 
fiKceffii^ely attk<rked ahdrtiined^by Vhbft'^^^erffle'jj*^ 
whom they might havfe^i^'pc^ired by aftS^'^n- c<^hS** 
cdrty detieiteintd-the- in&Ubitahts id fiih&Stbtt^kiic 
a«diori^: ^ one: dHief inftcdrf of -this^-^dWidi^f ^ 

• Th^ tyf aiftnicaP dohriimtibii bf tteit chief; ^"by'iif^^ 
fending thfe pQbKd'Hberty, hiirti^d thc-eirfz^g^ri*^^ ^ 
to 4ih<5fe'ddplorifelfc cxcefffc?, whith pifM'^- fi6d tcr ' 
fo many doges. ■' *' ^ ^ ' 

The:libefty of the j^opie being frahsfortHed^hto 
lioc»tiouftefe,^'ahd kitb^ habitilal cruelty; thfe'^iib-'^- 
bfcs took advantage of ^ caJamity, iand of'Vh*^^ 
coftfterniution: it ot<!^fion«d> ' for f enticing tHfc iiifitf^ " * 
ence of the people jn the*^adinihHli^atWtt,^ahd-^!ii^^ 
the eleftion of the chief of the ¥epiibHcrt(n3 fbr 
fixing limits at tfre =6trrfe^tfhie'tb the ^th6rffyW 
that chief; Two d6gifs>^moit^ animated '^^^ 
defire of feeing their (hWritrypfro^f thin of dd-^' 
mineering imperioufly, -S^fc^e ib^far froirf brekkih^ "^ 
dawn the impediments' bpjiofed tb tKei'^''^pd'trery'^^ 
thatrheygaVe thetri addtcibnal fit-mncls. '■■ ^^ '* ^ '^'^ 

On the de^i?h^f doge Dandbto^the j^plfe 'w(?r^^ ' 
determined' to refbmetBeprivilegewhfch^had bc?en • 
torn from tHiem> '-imd: dg<ft Mi fucceflofr' bbi'ther-*' 
'•'i - attempt 

attSfnptonly j:^i?xnpve(J them further £roa> the attaiit* ' 
ment of t;h^i:;Tend; and they loft at chat crifis the foiaU . 
fl^^^they i^U pofleiTed in the adrntntftraiion of 
a^^^,;.for, ;by a new ordinance^ the places indie.; 
g5^4.^P^O<^ii ^^^^ rendered, perpetual and horeni 
diic^, .apd their hopes of ever arriving ac thd ho^. 
nopi:;,Q£,lpeiag inembers ■ei>t4rely deftroyed* • . *v 
^'Jfiic^.jxq^ple rofc on this occafion, and drmed: 
th^^felyes.againil the ^thorsof the blow given (to»: 
their right of reprefentation ; but, ill dirccfted^ait' 
cod^t^ed in tbeir'inCurrj^ion,r they .funk sunder 
thc^ p^ferpri2;e5 / and expiated* -th^ir. temier ity by* idhe 
c^(il|ge . of civil , war^ aB4 \ the-^ (haine of '■ pamfiK«» 
ment. " '^- ■:* •i\;-*;? • 

^Xl^i$ ...1^ fuc0ef$. eniboidened ^ laf iftociacJyl;*^ drfd 
all^tonff^ t^qre wastfecn^i^a arifct id^the nj|idfto6tber 
repji(i|)lic a.^^ribyrviJ^f^ blpoid, ibe^/^Jngle iinew .o£. 
whfj^li^jCait the. ^^h^^ Q^i^roi^,:\x^^ only i tbroifgfa:) 
thpfe ^;ijif }jo ^tteippt^ J ; but, rthrpvig-fcl -all jvho? medi- ^ 
tatf4 She,lea{t nefprqi..;'.. i. \<:^[i\j ..;:? ^. :v^'jv>-.> ,•■:: 
l|[^h):;? ijt;ii^tJiat,9ircuni{]Unc€;?,qftnHnand every thing ' 
in. republics a^ wel][,moM.rehios1 Never has 
any ft2U;e cwan^eixced with th^e %mRc<?aftijtucion by 
wh^ph; ,ii; . \j/as govetoed after itpi aggrandizement;. 
and.fhe^.JDejl.or the worft laws have been equally 
produced by caijfe^ fuperior to human reafon.? The 
Fr^p]^ will one day.have occafiontto fee the jtifticc 
of . ^I^i3 pbfervation, in calling , their . icym over - . 
xhfi^iy.ojwji^ country ! . Hqw hapRythen.fti'^jjthe.^piPQ-.- 
'qrn')!:*:; r^ 

64 Of ibe^£mi/Umm4f V€uH€. 

pic wh<]f havc^ at oncie mibd tbdm^iiBHrts libcnrc 

tbe infiiience '<tf; events ; Hrho^ fup^rkM' id iiU 

powers, to aU kniaediate adv^tages^ and lin|rlM% 

their pafficxi&iu iiMcgd^)»> caa'c^mly coUed f iMtir 

tb0U|gl)^(sj cap-cdniiddr wtU the coumi^^ifeF'wbidi 

tbey are to extend juflice and lair ;• combine lil 

th^ means of accomptifliing fuch. a gentnd good, 

»nd of levelitfig all obHiacloi^ Wlikht impede ^their 

defigfi; and who thu9^aife^tOftanfevea.£auiid|ttiott, 

tht^ediBce of public' feticky I • - r » fii •. n l, ; 

It ivtU undoubtedly give paiii ta foafihlevuadi^ 

to fee the property of feme individuals faoiiftofdan 

Fraace to ejsoeUent rules a^id . regular foroii 4 ' but 

"^bughc national glory to fall a vi&itn tocranficftt 

coafiderations ? Wodld not poflerity reproacbthe 

Frehch legiflators with parfimonious weaknc&y with 

a poerile coHrfliifctoficH^ if out of regard to ibmc 

^profent iiitereft,' thoy wece txx tgolate their firA; gocat 

'rule^ th^ pf eftabliHiiog harmony among all the 

parts of their fyftem< ^-^ { , ■ 

f • Let theoi rtoiember that Europe haa fiaod bar 

jealous attemibn on their work; that it b' by-fiii** 

rbpe they ^Ul- be judged ;^ that that juil^ mil:*fiat 

make allowance for the obftrudions they hb^tt^ttijpt 

withj if thefe obftruftions are not overcome ; and 

let them remember that the obje<St is, refloring 

France to the fltuation which (he fo long held, 

of the flril of nations. 


^4 t ■» ■!.> 


Of thi Co^^ihOm ^ Vmct. 6 j 

It is4K)t bjr yiftories^ it is not by conquefts that 
llheinuft at this day acquire that auguft pre-emi* 
;|Khtej ibr the ^lory fo obtained is as precarious as 
iti'foiirce; but it Jtiby good la^^, and by a form 
. !of goremnent which all points the idea 
' of foUiine wifidom. 

' Il^lreK to be wiflied that in completing fuch^a 

tDdnufiit|it>: rlifed amidil public happinefs^ all the 

(KM^enitorft had laboured in concert and without 

paffion: ic had then been iba&effiilUhed; and the na* 

.ikm voiiid'Elraidy hart experienced its beneficial 

jnAsoMie^ but this they mull learn toexpeft^ nor 

idXlnrb by their impatience the councils of well in- 

^isteedand perfevering reafon. Let the nation take 

Moafaaple from its chiefi and imitate his virtuous 

isftlmileis: they muft endure^ they mud alfo know 

nhow to fufier ; for they cannot arrive at legal U- 

iberty^ without experiencing privation^ And 

{fihall they have the ingratitude to complain of 

thefe^ when fo many people have^ after the 

fiiciifiee of their blood, been fubjefted to def** 

petifm } It .has coil them lefs to become free and 

.hftppy^ than it cpil thefe to be mifetable and op« 



V«, F CHAP. 

t « > 

; CHAP. XVrtlv 

Or TBE C0N5TITUTI0N OF VEtH-e*r* ' ' 


-Eleft V^nfeein sftateofagitari'on. n^^^ 
from the difcbntehts ofthe lin^leicitizeufi, rec^^', 
ffufti-died^m their erKl^vOnrs' for recove[:iDg.[.tI(bj,, 
ftiare they once had in the goretnment, but frapjii" 
ihe-cefeiwrftefltof thofe nbbies.whd faw, with niijc^,«- 
'm^^TOxi&k-f flie places in the grand council bceoojjt- 
hewditaty '4n^3ther families. ^'' ' ', 

iTie^dogev who had *3de this change ma^^s^' ' . 
pecceiwng Aat,"whiie-th& pettpfe could dad (up-; " 
po^cfi-omi the 4iflatisfied ftobles^^there would al- 
waystb?; iediaoiw* "to- fear, riotwftbftanding thc^ 
watchfqlnefs of tMelfenatfr ahdthenew iuquilitors,, 
ifi'ned^aaopdi'Balficfi-^r aStramng all the nobles lo- 
the-grand"c6uii?il^:an4 tHira divided the republic-^ ^ 
inta:tW cfelTea^ the onJr'ciafe'didlined to 'Wj^fayi-'J 
mafld^ aiid tiS;6tli«-K>bbey."- 'r- . '^" 

From that •moiiienteherfe'wb-aBnc of demal^a^'^'"' 
laoncisariy traeetl-betreHJ thfr nobles^ and Ti*h'it:ii' 
call^' ti»:^oj9^;-aiid aH<lfcirrdemmficatiorig(^'t-' ^'"^ 
ed t0;t^ hiOai^^ s^ihry^Sax ^ Idfs of its-^i ' ':' 

-dL-l ' ' "^ ' '■ ■ ■ 

bf the Conjiiuim y reiiuk 67 

ticfltfpvereignt^^ was one honourable appqmtmeht| 
tliat of cJianceliof, a place diftinguillied more by , 
the "afiptarance than the reality of power. This 
fingld plebeian, in the midft of nobles^ tiiufthsivc' 
ieetned in their eyes like a falfe Aone. encircled 
whh brilliants; '' 

The feicomiiiunication pronounced by the pop* 
dgainft this republic had given it a fevere blovir, 
and' degraded it in the eyes of the catholic powers ^:. 
ah3"^eWyji)(lgc of the injury done thfe ftat.<f*by; 
dui'temjJslc ientence, from the iuniiliations' it fub- ' 
iniS!ectfpm order' to rernoye it^' ; - 

Tbe'doge.tencanainba^adorto Avigtion> where . 
PbwTCfcnient then refided, in hopes of foftenipg , 
his'cwIpliSi^re. Francis Dandolo was deputed .01^ * 
this eitiba^; anid when arfived at the court of the 
pontilT, he demanded an audience, which wasj:^- 
fuf^ i^m with the nioft infuUidg haughtinefs : buc 
ihis,generci\]S republican, like another Decius, de* . 
voted himfelf, for the, falvaiion of his country, to ' 
the^aft degree of detwfement. He ftized the mo- 
ment when the pope was ac table, and, entering witk ' 
a halter round his.neck, threw himfelf at the feet of 
hishonnefs, declaring that he would remain thcK 
until Clement had pardoned the Venetians. 

Hi^pry. inform; us^ that the pomifi'was fo crticl 

as Ho Jjjttulge his vanity for a cpnfiderablc time,, by 

kefepjng^thjMnb^dor in this. 4if©-4Gefed .feua-. : 

tiod V^^ ^length however be iieas touched by his 

■^ F ft fah- 

<58, Ofjbe Cofifiitution of Venk^. 

fubmiffion, and . confented to withdraw* the inter- 
dift with whtcli the republic was oppreffed. The 
veil, .was then removed,, which had obfcured.,the , 
character of Dandolo, and he appeared in all tbe* 
c^gnity of an ambaffador. ■ . 

"When we recoiled that the Venetians had .givca 
aa afylum to . Alexander III.; that they had ex- 
pofed. themfelyes to all the fury of Frederick, in Qt- . 
d6r to maintain the chief of the church upPA Wff; 
feat; that they had at laft borne him back trivica^... 
pfi^ Rome ; and that they had by thciir,CO\>f . 
ragiffermihated a fchifra which divided chrifl^anti^yp. , 
we C4n fcarcely. conceive how benefadprs qiwld,. 
ftoop to fuc|i difgrace in the perfon of their an^bafr % 
fadbr,; or how the prieft, who was enj^yiag^: the 
fruits, of their benevolence, could act with fo npiuc|i , 

\VJhile ariftocracy, .like an enormops. Coloflus, 
was thus cruDiing down liberty at Venice, we h^ve 
feVn two confpiraqies produced by expiring demo- , 
cracy : but another attempt for accompliftiing. the . 
lame object produced a very different fcene in the 
republic. It was not in this inftanee the pe,Qple 
whoTought to annihilate the council and the feqaie, ^ 
itlvas'thc doge himfelf who, at fourfcore,,-q<HX;* 
ceived the bold defign. .^ v 

'In 1355, tlie doge having received an. pffoqcc^, j, 
from* a noble Venetian, and in a point where ^14i:.» 
m'^n (ire moft fufceptible of affronts, the honpar^^pfix 
.- • ' ^ a young 

Of the Coufiittitnm v/ Voiife. 69 


» I 

a yoAJng wife, infifted upon having the offender fe- 
i^ely puiiifhed* 

"*1rhe iribmal cf forty not entering into the doge's 
refciiahent^ cohtemed themfelves witli fentcncing 
the criminal to two months iraprifon;nent, and onfc 
year -s exile. 

The doge, ftill niore irritated by this dcciCon, 
which was infufficient t« fatisfy his vengeance, 
did' not diflemble his anger: it would probably 
however have died away without producing any 
eflS^s^ if, fome few days after, one of the chief ar- 
ti/tofcof the arfenal, named Ifarel^ having received 
a hlonr froni a noble, had not gone to complain to 
the doge^ and demand juftice. The old man, who. 
caiiW think of nothing but his recent injury, thu^ 
re|>lied to the artizan, ^^ What wouldft thqtt that 
^^ I (hould do for thee ? Obferve of what infolent. 
'^%<ri*hing5 I have been the fubjeft; and fee how 
^*' little account the/or/y make of me/* 

•^^ My Lord Dogie, laid Ifercl in his rough Ian- 
^*^^^€?, if you are willing, we will bring all thefc 
** -nobles to reafon. Promife that you will fecond 
*^ mtf and I will render you maft^r of Venice', and 
" dieii you may punifh thefe gentry as they dc- 

The unfortunate old man had the weaknefs to 
accept^' inftead of rejefting, this propofition : and 
inUhe iiext conference it was agreed, that they 
fiUMild chu(e> 6bai aihong the mariiles and aitizahs 

8^^^'^"^^ F 3 emr 

7<j OHihACon^UiU^ ^ i^**y<* 

employed ifi the arfenaU fextwn pr ftveatecn i:hieft( 
wHp ftjouW be difpfcrfeti in. different quarters of fhQ 
city; that of tjiefc llfOul(J..haye orders to «f- 
furc himfelf.of the aid of a certain niinjber of braye 
and well-armed njen, under pcetence of rendering 
fpme feryjce to the ft^tc, ihe knoYledge, of udjifift 
muft be kept fecret frpm ,phe ^wblic; ind .t4^.?i$ 
foon, as tljey had mtelli^ence\h^t, ihis.^|s accqm- 
pliftied, tHc bipw (iiould be gjyeii,wtuch yi^\\Q iffi-: 
pjolaic all ttie nobles. i. 

Every thing was already difpofed, and jt.KD)^W- 
cd oj\ ,^gree upon the figoal and ag^oiat the 
the (Jay, whict] was fixed for the i3t;|i,of Aprilj ■- 

Or\ tlvit day, when each chief wag r^ady w(tlj his 
Uoq'p for aftion, the doge w^js to cayfe the Sd^s of 
^jm Aiark to be runig, jis if^TO give npticc of xUc 
unexpefteji ^fcarance of a Gepoefe fleet. K.t vm 
lignai thc^confpirators were to haften to the place 
before the [>alace, and to mafl^ct^ all the .npbl^ 
who were the council. ,^^_^ 

TThis olot, con^cert^ wfitlj equal ^rt ^nd, fecrccy, 
■was neyeithelcfs dif(:o.verwl pn the 9ve of tljc day 
intended for its ?xccutipn. One of we c^rfj 
named ^ergaraafla, much att^hed to the.ripbjlejG- 
oni, and wiiUng to prcferve his life, went t,cj IjiflVJn 
the evening of the. i^jh of April, and bef^cl^d 
him, whaticvqr mi^j happen, not tc^ go put.^his 
houfe the next ^y. , t-ioni, anxjojjs to ,]i_q^rn (t^e 
caufe ^this f5^t|^,, wj^lclj Bpr^nj^*,:^Qii^^^ 

.» ^ 

'it^th^' Co^JltHiiwn'of TitSce. ' 7* 

'tttdJSfs he '^s ''idqtfflnted Vitli tlic iflotive which 

fhould confine hinu Bergamafla confented 'to rfe- 

ik^ it to littfei ih coiigdcnce of feerecy. Lioni, 

f^er haVihg diftoVertd the whole affair, and m- 

'ibhhed hitafelf of v^ the particulars^ thanked 'Ms 

iriftjftnfcri b*at, inifte^^^ when 

fe t^^JCs'^^ifcbtlt to do fo, he caiifed 'his .dbmeftics to 

•ifci»hl l^min his hoafe, while "he^ fin to th6 pfii- 

cifwU tioblfes, brought them to tlie houfe, and'again 

i^iwfd^ie;^^^^ their prefence^ ' 'l*hcy 

' t0€^ doiftx his dejjbfiuon'in writing, and aftetwards 

wpalrift Vtfith 'him to ^ fcdn^ent, from wliehbe they 

;ftlit 'tlKfifitr billet-s to the awoc^tori and to the 

^^fi^ibei'fi ^af "the Mheil hf ten, deiGring t^gfti 

■^ (^«i ti th^ comreht without delay, ahd'iftlft 

%i l»riBg Vtin j'jppviblic while ijt ^Ai Veit in t^Lfek 


• " Ail tt(3& piatridains haftCTed^'t'o 'tl^c place' ap- 

tK>tnted> ^nd Bergamafla V^is exarftbed a thfrd 

'*ifiic hdott thcrai Ifnllhi^iohs were afterwards 

ftiitto the mfeffibfci^ 6f the 'm'W^r'^/^^^^ and to 

ihi toa]giftf1ites 6f the fe qilartcrs, to g^v6 iqimedi- 

iate /j^rders for all the troops W atfert^ble iniimedi- ' 

4t*Iy airtiied ; and alfo to fend dctachwiedts to the 

'fibbfei oiF the different fcon4>ira?ofs, to arreft them. 

' Evfety ihring beirig tkiis difp6fe3^ the nibbles, 

who Were aflcrfibitd at the convent, prdcecrded to 

dU palace, in order to place guards at the gaites, 

F 4 and 

mdtfi forbid^ uiidcr tb^ &ver€(tpeDftkki|t)iciH&Us 
of^Saiat Mark to be rang oa any pretends wlnMH 

Theie meafure^ cjEnpIoyed: great pare of thtmgJaZi 
and were noc executed without gtviag fome aljMrm 
to (l^ confpirators.'^ Maxty lof lbe|n^ ^siifonPQdc of 
^b4f was doiag» pr.eyemed by^fliglic jche (ucccifii et 
thfl/order given, fqrfiirprifiog thetu^ but ITarel^ au- 
thor of the confpiracy^t.and Calendaro ht$ /pauM&'t 
pal acoomplic^^ -were not :ib for^uiute as to t&tipt : 
they were put. to the queftioa.(inter^ogated'iiadtf?« 
jortuye).and' executed immediately*.: < , ..-v?j. 

The greater part of^tho^e who had been feized 
were acquitted, becaufc it appeared thar-they kncir 
pocbiag of the confpiracy ; but that their affifUn^ts 
bad been demanded uuder pretence of taking mi^ 
lefaftors, by order and for the fervice o€ ith« 
y^/fHtfKriV (the grand council). ,-.. li 

There ftilkcjnaiqcd <»c great criminal to pufiiftii 
All tb!e.4<?PQfttiotts ^shkbiha^ beett taken concu«-> 


rcdun^itBPHftyjJninQPWiLcfcing. the doge; and it 
w*s prffv^^hat; tiv<. cqjafpiracy had been planned 
undcr^;hi%ey«; underfed by bi^ confent; fu& 
;ain*d by his foppQ« ; aAd direded by bis ordef&.- 
. G\uufd,S;b*d \^cn^^fcd4y placed in his aparti* 
niew^w^ere they ;beld; him. confined; for thoogb 
his dignity demanded rcfpeft, the nature of his 
crime rend<;redr;be ; obf^wvance of it impoi&bl.e« ^ 

ij« >'• - 

4^ ^i^^VMJ&^'^/^lrA > • 73 

huSiftt €!)€f rMN^fbteii'" Tkey libw^er cletermitied 
to proceed in it upon thefc principles: ** that tftc 

ffiijdg^i ilthoWgfe '• chieF^ of »th«> feite> ^bfeiiigJ btit 
ttliit fifftiu|)^6^of thei|«pQ to bc^H- 

^^aMe^'like-en other dclzcn*,-t6-'^h'« rigSiif of 
^ fite'few9^"^h«ft her^nd^ars'hiAife^ 
^fj iqir towards hfei ' t ou^ryi'^: :4ttd kftf th^ft^' |)^infci. 
ftoir^wasiagftfeitko^rjfiihirai:--'^ ■* -' - ^- 

^:I%rit a irial^of &eh^kil^it&9fee.f^hr be^ con- 
dtwSted iri^^ Che- greater eqftity;: cbe:^«ri/ of ten 
demanded to haYe' t«^@nty ienato^rs^ tm^ t^hd (hould 
hwe»:cOflfoltiw ^ices only; iinited ^ich them. 
They afterwards \:atrfed twa relations of: the ac- 
ckffed'^^oge to retire Jrom smiong tbem^ and then 
tfaie: emml ^ ^^# and cheir adjunfts irerift^ the 
dkarges. :-'■•: ■ ■" "'^ '^^-" '^"'^ ,/:■■:• 
It was already night, whfitt ah officer anri6^iiiced 
to the doge, that he was cxpefted at the trifiurial ; 
upon . which the- old man ^«p^red "befcyre his 
judges' in bis dogaL 4?obet> ia^ iubmittedtb be in- 
terrogated; but not 4)eing abte to invalidate the 
proofs vptxxluced againfl:^ falfn^ he ^as oblig^ to 
confirm them by the itiofk ^uikiitiating confedidn; 
aftec which 1 he: wa« recbnduded to hh apartment, 
ilod the determination of the trial wa's-pdftponed 
tO:the next^day;-' '.>.•..•.■> ^■: \-m: . :■ 

Onrtherc^fiembling of the- ttiburial/all the^ vbices 
cdncurring unanimoully for a fentence of death, the 


, J4 Of tbrC^inffitmiBf Ktmnl 

vdecrce wis pronouhced, and the next day (ttic 

17th of April) was fixt cfi for the execution. Afc- 

.fiordii]^y on that day all the gates lof the pakce 

'Wcreclofely fliut, and the><w«ff«7^ /f«went Jn^a 

body to the doges • apartment. Thty firft depHvWd 

^ht^i in -form of the dueiil crown; and theii^ cgtt* 

^u6ting him to the pkce where the doge^ ^i^e 

erowned, he was beheaded. '■' 

After the execution, one 6f the membcfrs i6f the 

€<3micit irf ten ihewed hiinfelf from a window of the 

^pakcq, which looks co the ftreet, and holding the 

45loody Jfivord iii bis hatid, faid with a loud voitae, 

p;e are cvmefrom Mrfgjfifiice on afraid. ^> 

The gates of a palace were imcriediately throWh 
ope^, and the people flocked in multitudes td viiew 
^he feddy -of i&ic -doge, which remained upon the 
-place of exeeutioh until the evening; tken it 
-was plajced m a goadola, tarried without jp<Aiij> 
<6 the place tdjeftined for ks interment, imd thk 
^^taph' was ittfcribpd upon the tomb: Heine lies t%i 
^doge ^f :Fenice^ ioht^ for endeamuriHg to dejkoy M$ 
itikmti'yy lo^ his fteptrej bis hm^^^^ and hi^ life. * 

Such ihras the iflurof the greateft kft of fcrve- 
reign ty e?rer etetcifed By the arifkxrracy of Ve- 
'l>ice : and th^ people were no more confulted in 
the juridical deflruAton of their chief than tfaeyliad 
vbcen in his election. 

- I (hall not exaniine whether the emUicil oftm had 
dr b^ n^ta right to cond^n to death tirt chief 





^^{m.i' f^^* Jts 

4<?ge.w^. ?.P/^9?;e: tl^^ j;^ ilr^.ijjajgiftratc, the ianjic 

.iii^W)y^^>:S^^ af^p^jorpr a, :CU««i 

tQ^c^m^^tli^ cxifljc pi*.W#n ^y death, W5>rtl4 

5 5igu^Jy , qf?;cn4 .to the , chief .of the^ magiftraq v^: :}^t 
\t ^o\^14j^ye.b.e^fi)9fe^^^^^^^ in.confidcraftvaBi 

hkve.depofed him, and ;CW^eoi^94'JI?j?^ ^9 P^^, ^ 

x^n-fe^fi^W i^j^^y? ,4ft.?^Pi^Wic?i r^ore infliped 

^W jfexB^HJf j^jl^n-indi^gfioce ; ,the wly differemap 

ijpqt^jreeja it ?nd pop.ular jpQvyer fsjis being mopc 

f ool in ex€f:;yit^flg yeng^aQce*... The Vefietiaa arif- 

jtgcracy.^foctn ^aye 9. ffelh. jr^of .of t;he juftiqe of 

, ,I^^fhe )?SSJ5Pfflg of ri^ J4th^ccntftiiy iibc Veue- 
,tian§^ f o^i^Jif^rf d JP^4ua ; andiFijancis^^hc IL apd 
^ j^^9 jpf Jh^§ /foQs ,w^ff fla^de gf ifgaiers, M -extra,or^ 
djna|ry coujiciJ oi ^ve Jages w^& ipxvf^ fof |the piur 
poljb .9^f ffyif^g; 4xet» : axi4. ixi the proceedings 
.fjbef^ l^jrincps .jyher^ ijQt <;of^idi?red as yanquilhed 
fovereigos, bfkas perfon;^ prqtedled by the fepui- 
^Jia tQ wh^ch; ;hejr pwed iaiqh . ^nd ,homage,. an^ 
^Ji,o^^a4 3a:e^fed thf titlie of ojohle* Venetians* 

: . iFh?. ^f j^^ijf ^? p4^9? of Carara wa« his unioa 
,|»[fb-)cbe je^ij^ipica of fh^ republic, by havjngyowcd 
faith and homage tp the government of Genoat 

'T?¥S|\ W^f 9J?fi^.J^^4 ^^^ CeJ^flyj.^ the princo 
B4.J?ki^iPi?s .jsr^reol^liged tq,appear,ii}^ the ci;i. 


f ■ 

7* Of tbi Coti/iituim tf Vmc^. 

minaV chamber^ whcrc^. they all three caft thenw: 
felvcs at the feet of the doge^.afi4.tjhicJ&ther pro- 
nounced thefe wprds, lh0W:fimedi I^rd.ikavt/j^ity 
wjae^ ; Thp doge^ after caufxng them to/ifei^ftdT; 
dreffcd them in a very -feyere flylc ; rqeaiinling: 
them of all the benefits which the houfc of Qv%Tk 
had received from the republic, and of their Mviog' 
t^ien ali repaid with the moft pnipnfterQus. i^^^ti*: 
tude. . * V You have ((aid he to them iii con^li^^on). . 
^^ iv^tf been willing to depend upon the Vreneti^As 
•* for. your falvation : you will now. find your di^r 
•^. ftrudion in their juft vengeance,'* • ■•/::-'... 

Thefe dreadful words were but two wcllvefifiedi 
the three .captives were condemned to deathj ^an^- 
the only indulgence .allowed them was ta ,fufleit m 
prifon, III order :to fpare them the fhame^ft -pu- 
blic, execution • What'a melancholy favour t ; . s : 
The tragedy Ijegan with the father; hiafentence* : 
was, read to him^^d aconfeffor prefented.i. Xh©\? 
tenji^ppy princCrTeeing none with him but .tlid- 
prieft, indulged a hope- of &ving hiq^fejf . by put*--:?, 
ting on the habit of the perfctfi left, to confolc him ; 
and he darted. upon him furioufly with the dcfigav 
of killing him; ;but the cries of thf ,eci:iefiaiftic^.n 
which, were. heard by the foldier^, brpugbtiiin ftfcfr^ i 
executioners* .-. Carara. beconaing. more. ;0irtmi»i^ 
gepus upoA. feeing them, feized airchatr^Jiandii- 
{hewed fuich. extraordinary coinage and'/ftrengcBil* 
that the affiftance of the foldiers was neceflary?ft>|i^: 
.^ fubduing 

f«A>dding binay 4hd 4i6 tecdfa^ his d^ach, flrug-' 
glifif x»d-6^ftfflmg' witk' r&gei.* 

vTbcioldeft- fon'lhcwed no lefs; violence than hi$; 
fafher; but th* younger fefigncd h«nfelf> and mad^^' 
the fetrific-e of life afe unavdidable. 

-^■-Tfcus 3rhefe three princes fell Tidirns to the arif-"* 
zatiet^f-^ irhkh'had arrogatsed the right- of' life and 
deiuh^ovcrtbe chief 6f the republic, and 'over the' 
(ovcMlgns whon\ they regarded aJ their' valfals, 

!niis efxecution, which the governors of Venice 
wiflied to conceal, appeared t<> many princes in 
outrage to the law of nations: but the houfe of 
CamfJtliad renderdd itfelf fo odibiis' in Italy, that 
the- toufmurs Which were rdifed 6n all fides were 
not followed by any afts of revenge. 

7?t^efc rigor(dus decifiohs, and the ftriking oflt* 
auguft heads in confequerice o f them, added to the * 
terror infpircd bythe criburials of Venice; and ha- 


bitiiarted the people to regard them with drfead, 
while ^ail their thoughts were employed by the ' 
few: of incurring their feverity. - 

.Yet fdffie plebeian families obtained the favour, * 
inr?eward of iimpbrtaht fervices, of being railed to 
the rank of nobles, and o^f feeing their nanics en- 
roled in the golden record. Their admilKon to 
thetcooBcil nourilhed the hopes of other cirizr^ns, 
and; attacl^ them to a country where virtue and " 
difiajDcrcftedfiefs might conduft them to the foye- 
reigAty^t '• •• ; ^ - '■ • ■ ,- 

•* • i \ • i ^ f' : 1 ^ 

78 Cff the CM/tifMM if Fihice. 

■ Jt is eriHeait thdt'the TendtMs ' liaise' p^iVeat-' 
that aflFeftion for their cdtiiitry, 'w^itn^ffacHes^^^ 
poWiCans to thfefr gbt*^nW6nt,'' eViri^ wK^^^^^^^ 
ceB^fkto be citizens i becmdh Veriice, ii6tWithtlan<i'- 
ing all her defeats, and th^'frelqltent Ravage's which ^^ 
th^ plague has rhadfe in the ftdte; is'ftiU foMd able 
to'Tcfift thegreateft eflbfts m^deby'f^^^^^ ]^o^eii ^ 
for her fubjugation. This republic has c5htehdecl ' 
with Spaift^ and" Fi-arlce- tinder 'Lewis' 'thp'^X^ 
agaiftft all the fort^ei^of Italy: agiftift Hungaiy 
and Auftrii; ' and 'agairift all the armdi^ents'bf''^. 
thftPortei ■••'•■; ) ...,vj. . ....... ^. 

The V(}nrtiafts"hkve gWtti aii ■exafiipIe"to alf" ' 
chriftiaf! powert 6f the moft'coriftant oppofitiofi ia ' ' 
the court of Rodte : thty were the firu 'to'baniffif *'^ 
the Jtfuits from arfidng them^ and to bfeal^" the '^\ 
bonds Which ftibjcftcd the religious to'' the •coin>"^'^ 
'-mand of a foreign fuperior: they have alfomaSf-""' 
tained;th(^r funfipttiaiy- laws; and forced the"*Bat^' . 
bariams'to refpedi thtif fla^l * .^ 

The difcovery of tbc' *t)aflage to China' anff toT* " 
the Itidies' by the Ckj^e^ of 'tjood Hope gave * a 't^/i\ 
verc blow to^ their' corhfti'erce :' M'. de Moritefquioif '* ' ' 

.-.'..■l ./Vti v.t^ 

has exprefitsd this truth whh'that energy' apd ]?red-" , 
iion, whichtharafterize his writinfe'S;*' ' ' ' '^ ' ." " , !^! *" 
" The Porttfgii^fe (fays he) na^gatingtlSl/ft'- " ,. 
« Istatk^- difc^tJfiM th6' mb'ft 'fodthertf poim^'of '* 
«* Afrfcai^ ^rtd fount! UiV^ft-ttccan H^hitft t)6ffet%em^ ''^^ 

•* to the-»Biai?Iit(fies- The Vrnttfii^^^ * 

' ■ . " then 

■VtheKixaF;^if4c^ tjbct cQiGem9rpe;of the Indits by. 
^< the cooauyy£..theTuck;3j».aa<Lpurfued it in the v 
^' .naft4ft of iaf^Us. and outrages* By. the difcoveiy , 
*^ (^thc Cgpe of Good Hoj>e^ and another which - 
'^ jea^ m^f}6 fon\e..tiin^ after/ Jtaly ceafed to be 
*' t^ center of the coovnercfal world ; fhe wai^ as ' 
^' it were . thrown into^ a. corner and there flie :> 

It, ^ was .qoomi^rce /which enabled Venice tt> ' 
maintain I^r,nw^ine9 and fupport ,the fptendour s 
of ^ her republic; while her poflefiions on Term. 
Furma fiipplied her with proviiions : but perhaps^ * 
even with ,thefe advantages^; fhe ; would not have 

exited ibi long , under any .tether ibrm of goivem- ' 

» *■ ■ ■ 

mtoli' and it is equally probable, that fhe might 
have ,be^ the prey of powerful rivals if her iinari- 
time trade., had not pr.efcrved to her. the empi,re of 

It'w^s not (he intereft of auy power tofubjugate 
the Venetians: neither cojuld they- calculate io * 
what J(brce of refiftance any imminent danger 
xnigl^ roufe thofe republicans,, who believe them- . 
felves free becaufe they have not a monarch ; and 
who are' reconciled to the cot$ncil of ten becaufe ic 
only mterdi^fts^ confpiracies. 

The. laflL cox^fpiracy which happened in this' 
fiatey and which has been fo elegantly defcnbed * 
by:th^ j^b^;deSaint7Sial, appears to hayeib^cx^;^ 
arc^:oiDe» notwithOiandiag what has be^<fai4[^ti^7 


8o Of fbe CeuJHtutidn 4f Fenick^ 

Hkt contrary "by M. Gfoflcy,-in tk-worlc'cntiAsd^ 

This Writer, who has liricc giveh us a lifcit^r^ 
work on England,* pretends that ** this fkmbu^' 
*' eonfpiracy was only a ftftitagem- c6ntrfved by* 
*'* the Venetians for gettiwg rid of a Spanilh ^-'' 
**-Haflfador, and removing fomc fufpeftcd peifohs* 
^'•at the fame time. I one day communicateff' 
" my doubts (fays he) to an /j^i^r^/or^ to iJ^honi * J 
•' lMid"'bccn recortamended; and mentioned wri-i 
*• tings which I had read' upon" thb •ftibje(ft*; "life* 
^ enquired; wkh-^ fome enibarraffment^ if ' thefe^ 
'* writings had been circulated in France^ ^nd iP 
•>* 1 knew the fttithor. As to any thing^ clfe, C<in- 
** tinned he, no peMbn is better abl^ to giVoyiJtf 
•* the information you defire than I am.* TTh*^ 
*' keeping of the archives of the ftate is one of the' 
*^ offices belonging to itiy appointment : i'Wlff 
** obtain for you pcrmiflion from the fcriatc'td? 
•^-confiilt them ; and yoit may convince yofurTclf^^ 
** as I have been convinced, of the truth of aH? 
** which has been written by the Abbe Saint-kekL 
' ** The cpuvocatore appointed me to meet hirti fdt* 
*;* the purpofe of fearching the archives ; btit Ta4 
*' did not keep his appointment. When IfaWllim 
^ afterwards he made a multitude of excuffes ah3' 
** promifes; but thd'e were all I could gititotti 
'* him during the whole month which I paffed it* 

Of the CmfiUutim ^ Vmcu 8r 

All lliat. appears from. chh account is, that chc; 
mvyecatorewMfi too forward in promifing to initiate a 
ftranger into the myfterics of the archives of the re- 
^t)Uc ; aod that if he did venture to aik peroiiC* 
fion from the fenace^ his requeit was refufed. It is- 
thei$£»re not the lefs certain that Piere de Toledo, 
gpyaropr of Milan ; the duke of Ofluna, ambaf^^ 
iador ff!om Naples ; and the marquis de Badmar, 
afi|l)a£Cldor from Madrid to Venice, did engage in a 
^lot, in the year 1 6 1 8, the defign of which was, to 
blow tip the arfenal, fetfire to the palace, maflacre 
the nobles, penetrate into Venetian Lombardy, and* 
entirely deftroy the republic. 

.The mode of procedure at Venice leaves room, 
i)Obappily, to doubt the proof of guilt, and confe-' 
qpently to fufpeffc the juitice of their exeai- 
ti^qoa^, but it is not probable that in order to re- 
xfiQ^re an ambaflador, whofe prefence was difagree-- 
al^le, ;hey (hould accufehim of treafon. Befides, if 
tl)r marquis de Badmar was innocent, why did he ab« 
fiion^, nQtwithftanding his ambaflkdorial chara&er? 
}£ the. duke de OiTuna had no concern in tho 
C9i}fpiracy, why did * he afford an afylum to all the 
£^gitiyes, and give them his protection ? 

, |ja fine^ unlefs we fuppofe the tribunal of Venice 
to l>et)^e moll atrocious of all tribunals, wasitpoffible 
t^ it^could, under pretence of a feigned confpira- 

Sy> i^iiyfi,^?^!^^ ^^^ cafting into the fea, Piere, and 

Langlad, who had embarked in a Venetian: ve:Qrel, 

. ,;yoL,II. G and 

tz Of the Cmjiitutim of Venice. 

4tid caufe feveral pcrfons, whofe papers had been 
fieisied^ r to ^ be ftkunglcd, as thefr tecompliceflf.- 
u^ However this might be^ it is ibr the hei^KMUr/c^ 
dates to (acrifice all political confidcratioits to the 
^i^r. of troth'; and not to actufe or dondtaln anj 
ftxSon without throwing upon the 'accufation txA 
ebndemnatioA^'^all the light which is neceflai^'tdi 
filfiKckiarly thecrime anddlt jufticeof punifllliienW 
But it is time to turn our attention to the peiSbtic 
9pt))ftitntiba:.of'V«tiieei.'^'^ •"■ ^" ' •■^ ' • - ■•'■■'""'* 

inXfae tiupreinis aothonty n^ in the nobl^^ w^ 
armiil Jiumberiabcmt'thlrteeii hundredr -^^^ '''" 
> E^tsy noble Vepeitiaacwhm ht lias a' child^oriiy 
eanfes m/name to be'emt>lfed in a l>o6k Vhicli 1^ 
called^, the gulden v^um; without which i^ ¥(iCS^ 
lity wHuld jwt bo achno^ ■ -'>^^' "'--^i 

Though thcfe nobles are all of the ^h^ 
eoimdki andthoughttM^iit titled ^u-e^^aBt}^ &(^e^ 
JDet^1dla:e:is ?a:ftii$bi,e:4ifiel^iite in -di^ ranlc'o? 
their families. The moft^i^^giiiffietf ^fhUs^^c^itf^^ 
p£rit€ndsitfaofe>old ^^^tkmi WhbfeaiitcASMii^^ 
odia€l06ei%theifoft4og»^ ^d«(^ t)tei^e?tfiS^' 
are ftyled the eleftoral houfes. Thefe are undBii&t^*^ 
ediy, as M. Jck I^Vdtallie ^U^k^^^^ the^^^^- 
cient 3iability;.i»t Europe/ fihce xVffj^'fm^^oiii^ 

ftefcentbeyondckefeyMth century. ^^- -^^''^ ^^ 

Theri0condicla& darts ks 0!%iiiir 
fdka^mlien jdoge GtBat^(» decreed thflkt'^i^|^ri^ 
^moailiiiHaakl W $3imf^: <8Hii^d(ed' <« tM^^fini:^ 

. v". ■/ 

Of the ConfiittttiofH/ Fenia^ 83 

&miI|^fiji^^9ieinbQjr9 of this ;cla& were enrolled 
Igr ^l^^m^A ^^ ^h><it: tbqir namei inscribed in tbi 

ynTl^f^ '^i^^i ckfs k compofed of thofe Citizens 
Wk9j>r>0'J^iAb^^t when the reptiblic had c ^rerf 
jglfe^gg'xOjpca^H^fofvmoney^ purchafed* the nmfc 
oCT^^l)Qlite5> -Bki »'rhMAd£ed jtfaou&iid':Veneristt 

Befidcs thofe nobles who foxm^tbd^otrenagnrbodfj 
^pfie^iAffBfrAphl^ &b9«9$\Mriih:(ilicittdcK:of^^ 
and marqui${ ^U(> ija^(e>'4Uhf>Vgh'-<of'!adcicnt iunU 
^«>r^l9^y ^pt ^Qtar the (ame d^i^fafoconifiddra- 
^il »l^ /t^ . three higll^daflStsT? jK9r.'pbK« are 
Cf^j^ro^ >?poii them }: and(<^ they: 4reobiig6i to 
fhew refpedt to the loweft noble Venetian ai C0'a Ai-f' 

'f . . - . .' '■ f »>«, rl* ' T) ■ • - 

. I ' - ■ 

^^p^ Yfiietiaa; noble is. : ptniittted' td go inter the 
if^f^^Qt o^ifuiy jcii)g 9r l^t«igR: .i)rtiicc> or even ta 

t^^C^%,ii»p9$hlqjift dqifaftrft^r bewildering in- 

• ;j^%5t^5,|9bff%^|rj(?f t^ftteift/doge, Idl the n6. 
tJbgjifbg^^hfRyry^ttrBrpf ^fe-a^mble in the pahtce 
of Saint Mark,yfmMJ^«s.t)Mi]y bsdls ace caft int^ 
a%^%,-if%rjy«rf .fflfc «H>yj»iin;£thc.:affe!tnbIy : 
«l»fo^i^8M^»«fe 0f eaiv *hfc njfkof plaia fil. 
!^t(Safef)> !tf>l^fe^i«& df?»A'» ball H his1turii,:the 
th^[t{^ hiive drawn the gilt balls retire intd an« 
' ■ • G z. other 

I4 0/ the Conjiitudon of Vemce* 

prevent more than one of each I^^B^ijjiif OJjy^ijm^ 
ihyOb»: fuffrage in the eledkian VM^p, bjT; t^^^ty, 
wheoexer. a.gilt baU. is dJC^iwii^ aU^ ^e f^^^figq}^ 
jlteiper&qrMi^b^ dr^w it pwft j^mp^j^ljf (^%%J\^ 

^c.cime :tftkj^ir©» the wA.^ PfWfS^ 

of perfbns who retire, ^v, ,,.:.;, ... 1 .::.;;^: : >ui ^i^ 
from an urn, in which there ^^}{%^Gf^ip^^M^ 

;,;uiThcfe: forty cle^iiKrs^arA^rifdqc^fi ta i^pj^WfJ^ 
iof ^wclViC^.who natnexwcfttyf-fivc, - .-i:;:j ori iL'd 
, Thefc twenty-five are redycfldio^iinj^j^,,^^ .^^^-^ 
,r;^Thc(fe niiic:ibynjjr;ar,©q^j)€fl^4i<^ of] .fp^tj}j|vCf 

ywhick axe^ agaia dimin^hfiA byv'^f ^r?^J|?g fi/:^^ 
iihefc: dcHOipKicoedjtJ^: Jk;pe\^^lea^ 

who are the real eledors of thg,49Bf v!W4>i^B^84S* 
^leeof wbofe fnffrageaj m^ 5>( ^9^.^9^^i9}fjlj^ite 
in hisv Avpii<:^,io^Q4l^t.tisreJ$^ 
;^y?;.arcj«mplcg?i:dJ[».)tfeeft. p^^ 

After the doge has been eleded^ he ^i^g^<^ 

ipilaaitiwhen he makes-hg folemn entry into the 
church of Saint Mark« where, in the middle o£ the 


Of the Confiittttion of Fmiee.. 8j 

{rand, ftaircafe, which they call the giant's ftair* 
£i(^,^ftahUkfie;iyM;^/r^>tf(>)»;'i w&d t>lace the dvnM 

3(tai>[ipi(i'l»«%atd'A«-^ ^'' A.'.,. .-. J >i.x ; • ...,1 

^^t^S?' i46<^ci»hbt klaed^«ven4eav4(i<Vi«fitt 
">are his rights now abridged. •'>; ':^' '/'v.' ;:.',or.3(i lio 

''^<Hd^<6^<»f^3'^<li(«^^f<«b«iiakn^ bucdftodtbe 

The difpatches and letters of ambafladcus^vijuUl 

tttefroW fbtdgri^ ^pi-intt^, IM^ addrefied;ita<Iim^ 

but he cannot opetl thittt tmtil fome-ineGnibw&'kif 

cbecouncH-at«'i!ird«tlt. -- -'- -v.; yM,v;/v.-,i'juI 

♦^^iki^iS^^'thfe cftteffefftrtpin-aa'councas ^ihecan, 

^ft^aHMB^Hes';^;6M i!he^rBMdi«ounfiil^SBak«a^ 


^^IfcrefM/' "Vffdetei:^ it- 'may! fe^ 
coA^'%^H}t^e'^iiig9}i^Hi(dei -of the blood^^^ittd 

^^'M^%<AiAUf<Js'^)t th« iM«Belids of ithe arat^h^df 
^ii^ciP^fslnd''Re criMe!» the ^ knightstof &am 

3d> lo slbbim adj ni taiydv. .^.ifiXv-: j i.^^ t^ fL ....i < 

Ijbfta twelve t^p^fipid 4»cwsxtartWjmftrie t^»WhB«9 
tfepu^ ppmui*,fterUng,n ye^ j .feslbas Ikr ^a^^^ 

"CCS. ..bsyfii'.jaw <i:^°'.<' -i.ii .! Jt 

> y, , The. .dQgC cannot; ji^dic^tej ^ut he o^ t^)^?*- 
-ppf^ Jjle U forbid to f^eeeive .prefects; j^wpk,^- 

, filing withQvit the^iwc^Vje/f /^,j>vh<3>:Watsb o^f^jitiP* 
«?rpcty^Jy* ,*ad . ,Uve>i a.^jight . to-Te^ch,, fgyy n 
^ ij»: bU i^ piivftt*! »partgjeis^t.' Death itfclj^,4fips 
pRot flitter, hi«i|rop>it,he^ift^e^,e.iiQguifiw^ i^fep" 
,.^ejdoge ha$,?e^e4;^QL,4?i^ they. ex*ipift!?.,w|i^^er 
;, J3ufc,ha§ al>i|C«d ^^t %i^ poi;tipa^ of authoij^y y^jf^ 
yUpB enjpyed; wh^^.heh^ n9ti(a^rific^ ^j^- 
'Jic,;his own; and whether he^%f^j^^d 
.,5:pnfor^afel^,to (hi? dignity ;,,ai>4, tf t^y ^9J?cr 

that he has dpjjfl[aijy^,fh^ipt^4sfi;^» 
,',ft^e, his heirs are fubj,e^„to certain penalties. 


poflU>le for the mod ambitious^ the moft adttik 

1ik9fib^Huiy, ^'ha^V^^^ a hibre complete 

flnuaMc^^ the fovertlgnty iMith which the anck^ 

4ddf^#ere ihvefteck But it was of litde t:6n(f^ 

^^«c& ta^^idi'{> the irothw^ fhediffitultf Wa^^^ 

^<dki^HTetht ddge^ ever of HI nitms of ttcdv&Altt^ 

WBnthef had loft; and in efr«afing th» the deep^ 

art has been difplayed. '- 

' By the fonn i6f eleStbn^; all hopes of obtiaiihing 

ttxVdo^lfirik by means of intrigue ate dcftrbyfedl. 

^Vf&i6 mediocrity trf the rerenute affigncd to the 

-46^Viie is^ ^eprftred of the^rthwms of e6rrtq)tioh. 

lit cxciiiiding his brothers ahd Tons from aH the 

principal public offices, and from embaffies; he 

*r « 

"16fei tfce fupport he might othiarwife have 

^tfctiincd through theni. By refen^g to 'ifie 

^fiMite'tfac power of contrafting alliances, of dfe- 

' diuring war and of making peace, afay ihtercourTe 

''• tjictweett ^f he dogis^ and foi^gn fiyverdgiw i*J*i- 

^^^wjjd&d: axW, as if itf was feared, notwithftand- 

'*' mg'all thefe pricatidon^, that he might ftiU fbrtn 

' 'dattgeroiis aftd fecret cottneiiohs, the city of Vfe- 

^iifC?i isihadehis ptif<iwt'ii he cannot go from thdtite 

^Wi by ^irrmflfen of the ebtincM; and when thtey 

^^riht fcta leive of egbefs,'hd is no rhorc regarded, 

^^IS^iMf 6&itr place in the^ Republic, - thana conision 

•4jiti2diitoWhtomttordipeia^is^^d^^ ' 

"• ' • I 

.. :);:;^.-■ ^, .._'. . G 4-' ■ ■'''- '" •-' --^ -They 


9^ q/^iiiX^^g/kiMm^!^^ 

buC^thc|rih«VQ:i«fi^itt(btQ3themfehre^fthe ri^ir of 

dignity of the republic ; fo true it is, that ev^Ptlftlf^ 
(hadmitj^f £b{[)nsfair)«L]ghiiriii}Dii. pdldaiiti^otifmtki* 
k^V3 S^tmiiD^idixttiy .fofmnH thabybftai thb^^ r^jyaL^ 
pttri^twei'ifteii3C«fC!rffolmgf?hf ^4^ 
itft^iJiWfi fend ittoawlkltbTi«maiD/!tliere .kUdnproUi^ 
:^bability that Eur(^9i6UaK^t'rniien^:€iiflamed^lrpq 
tl^ft4*Sf©Trf^wearingjtl«m^ra r-^ri// *^ 

• t_l^hGhferiaWi vwhkdi.they{rcdbfa^ '^tfae'^ 

P'^g^di^ /i^gcomipbfedhtrff^^tfenri^ tbe^r^ndtad** 
cQunjcil^rt^od l^l<pI*iim«J^athy 1-tJie ccxmcili^. ^Ws* ^ 
^<^f)^$:j$f ^d^f djykifci:ree>dffittrk9 ^ inipoitane inii>- ^ ' 

Ats^xt^y^mi^'Jkriia^^^^ • cnrderar the txiiiK ' 

^n&1>C»^Ao^ydtindil43ites jb^itxie&>FtJt iijcocnpofedf^of '' 
thcw^4piU||dr^/,pie^fo»^,Viticiiidi,n is jitmcd'* * 

the^jMw^'^llfgf^: thtrmnsQ[>rocUi/itors<of Saint Mafk^ '^ 

th^ ^d^n^ji ^the vjudgfcs jof ■ xhcViaiainat irikHKeio^ ' ^ 
A''^^ ^fl^:Pih/5f imniftera)trf:foftw ft^^ *^ 

pabji^^Ji^iciti ;MViirivicedjthi$Henf/i .. :.4J v' i Lj^ii-^cpi *• 

ijqj'* The 

albmrbings; addnifed^to *die^ ifactb dr tnt chedogif;' 
are rsii^i aiid^dbicfwraudiencd isgivetrra lai^^ 

iellors^ the three chief fa«Mbers^£<hr>cUiilmittri^ ' 

d^fiJIitpKiiltQf terhtfirnm^ismd-fuEe iagqfrbf aotdeMii ^ 
MflHdbiiA!crt^^i<Whaftraii&&obe buimHs of the>} 

liQ^irc^^i^Af acoDuntrlgiireiitby^'l^* Befivieu^l^ 
nicija^7 whb rcfldedr>ifa Veiin3f/im}'''<itiferTieB evbry>* 
tfaiij^/thdv'^^ of ditPHiaimler^ifir M^eh'l 
alion^actera^ r^feUttive'cai^nnbiffiiidor^^ btAd fo/d^A*^ 
p^elb9£alttftt!real{6dia^tilisie()Uqg!$i•I^'i ^^ > y-^-''''-'^ 

" When a miniftcr has^awf i^teg^w^Ojpitf^ 
**Ttbe veptibfic^^'he iibids a fedretkry tty^he'dodi^of 
^'f tiic^lliAr^hichtiiecirifogkaffeiiib^ e^ery u(ibtn*\ 
'^.^iilg: A dooc4ceepcnrknfe»"atfithe ^OpWiWh«>^ 
'^ cnmefiococffae iiitttichadBiber)on>oiiie^(Sddpt!Kt^>> 
'^ 2te£»i^^iHwhQnphe:c«lfeijf0>fit^ 
*^ ^Dddertfider hiBT' then^^eba*«rhfsTJ#efiimfeJj^*^^^ 
'^iiidb3lt>iptcr the 'kffemWf^ aandirbturasr t^ the fe^^' 
^^ kf ctarjr thi$i«rfwBry f /&-w//ig« tttf//^ /ite f jfe i^J^i^^i ? 
** fH^yin^idefbHm.^ .TThc fecreiatjr^ tbtoi' tttittitiJ* ■ ^ 
•^ ;Mid Ibnie days -after a;.ico*dt^ of tht^^ >coH*ge -^ * 
^*'^ta>tc^ .the ambafladori with? a verbal aiift^er; • 
'^ vikiQk as ^fisqnently in xvrfdhg is^ 

^' repeated by him; but he '^Ji^ver ieaVM r Wlir^ " 

-;i r " tea 

^ dm: reply I- thai tike 4iep«bllc tMytm bb^ pledged 

v. baflador to obuin Jii'qpeifetii]^<:o^er^ 
4€ m^y cf the laembecs^of thereptil^lie. ^ ^ - - 
i.<^ If a loreign misufter btstt occafioii td^ltftiH^^ti^bnib 
^ of. the AatieJitqmfitets; lie ^^tfto^tbe Idtep ^ be 
/t4con^yed-4»'hu^f«K:» wlto pMtilt&^^g^nfl: 
it^ dwrying^aoy meffigey ii^ m^I^ow 

Hfxtheiieaei imo t^e^fife, ^^dmd notfpeddc 4t]€jit?} ^bdt 
^^ lay mdins of-ibme prieft, or (btiie' {py^'^ ^ho sit 
4^^ tkcjfiteolMame^ibrvk cfae^dnbaifiador ^d the iti* 
J*'^ quifitt»r^ tltt^iiefi^'anf^ris p^ >^ * 

'i.iii^^'ifiore^^uify fdr a^iflnnger to be admitted tb 
ith€iprtgMS^%fi t^^ih^^alt of the cusitdge. M. 

itim £»rogr^ bi% iibt untithe had beMi^^ecambd 

focniie irime in: the hallv ^ batt<3ftting 4br admlffion^ 

;i j.M!]kki^'^drtiltfi«d-(%$^ire) they placedine <^ 

jff the tiiiid--*iki^Jof £^s^ againflr the ti^lli^hicfh 

^l^^^canimklldi:tted06V^i^^^^ <^^ aiid^hear 

^* every thing, but was not in the way <rf ^oMiHg 

;^ '^^ ^UjBiy iite»ughts>vere£>r a time eiigiK>fibd By 
.>!^ the^itemevajdonwitb which nnsy^ tniitd-wos^ iitfpii'* 
5f ^as t^ffivietr-^fiuch an atiguft aflemblyv I afteV- 
.<f^^ wardsltvB^iifedwi£iy atteAtloa to the bdfiiic(«( li^fore 
:f ft>the.>coigKii^th44dB»jeft of ij^rhofedetiberaxiiil^ tHis 
I ^^tday^/lnmsiths ebfb^cmiiofa geneial 4j^ the kttkifcjir- 
.i^Siti^ ailidifiDifo otii^ 0ffioer&-^ ^^ ^ j-mIwi //^rr. * ' 

i:v^^ '' " Thefe 

^.ii^w^9r^^h^^idiiA^<M^ wdi icoaceive the ine* 
^^thod: aodijii^^liiiyljlltudiedit m 

^fi^j>li<^k<Q<^ i^i}I,fW^.yunderft8ndv((at^itfaat1i 

:ffctlj«ii^Qeteiy|iidi1irfirie,t9!JbeJiUod;t thattheifirft 
;i^ 6i5i5et3fjji qI the. cwnc^ cftlted oitt .viA ^ 
^^,f\(n^:mn^.£ij^:x ([tfvthcj/ctiidiidate'iijfi^ 
^^ mily;.lJ>biibftptif]Tuiirirsia 

ffj wcTi^ftiieceffiircIyi :biU0t:ed:ifor^? bjr 'dm.inMKns^>x>f 

^:f jOWted 21 Jioi^diyid^^ifijd^ mo two^depart* . 

i^f «Mitt»^tbf%children?i«^ 
, </ if^H tfaeiiN|)p3(fi9^ Siyv*^ load, totliicyttoiild the 
i £^ (fuMie 9ft the candidftiCt who& face tfaax rballot ^ was 

'^ All thefe boxes were afterifiands bcucne toi the 
Xff ii^i3M<6[ii^ ^^ throQfe r where ther ba^» from thci 
-f/c^MvXttfeeir/air exduiioa^and ftom the white 

?f(^iWhiklbb WW doittg cbefii9W»lfi& their iiats, 
2'^ WiiUudo AbMfe iCaUing to.and.taVtii^ with eath 
^i4»JMr^:»i«UliUpaA j» ftosdce giiotn «ithiavwaaid/a 
^ ^ new name was dcxiiJtfds lipoa iidlidi^ 
fi^nX ^^ ** with 

ffiVetlaiaiCi^ idryuig i^ -.^mc. of .the nf»^;|(;a^«> 
iMijiaten:, ; ^tthen, ■■ Aft' i»ab4«t haying^i^^tlvui^ >t^^ 
^^ ! plefass/ohdttcfi mth iiMe 9«ar tl>em^ Uiighe^^^ju^ 
^itfaBrchildfaB<wh<^prefwte^ t^ ^^'r ^^/4^ 

^4>>fae£iz9iitaV aperture wljiich cpquifugij- 
♦* catcs with both divifiom,, i^;idi(i}ii^%\^l-Jui^.^ 
HIibncf of -^irfm,! : wkhfiW i its Jpeigg, jijofl^ ,,j^^he 
fff aaoft' fiiktttiio eye<jt{p^jcttr<;pi^ whrat p§^!J^ ^i^ucpe^ 

the iti(taDeirMifwlMi<phia;§l«Stffifls^re nuaeJ^tjYenl^^ 
'd* ctetarfiilwMfogejJfl ^harpfP^ 

Aotiefibe intpp^ffn^K^ t))f chuivh ofSamt A/l^^,4|^ 
'tfRMvenof ithid f^i^^^pdaMqns for t,h^ j>^^ 
Mid tefbunents and guardianlhips ; and it bet^tngs 
■1)A*MenrtQd*&:aiiw»R^ft|s^Yf|ic» di^jpfed, f a.t^oo» 

fhdir jofficcfc «rft Jfee^ife^vMid ^is gspera^ ^jw^ 

-ttliMl^ them -ASitfjgwt^gft fij/;hftf?9. J . -.,f„, r.,^,.^^ 
b fptoi fcruly; i forwidftWe [..s^^^jvcjl , is . j^ac ,yri»iii^ ff 

Wted tie eoMuilj^e^mm Jfer k JP<W»lj&Jr P^/^ 
Bobles, the doge and his fix counfellors. ! ...:.\ \. 

"^ Tbe ' three vdhiScfe^' whojfe ., named ^?<f&^ff ?/^ 

i|<ii#i- MB. chafea every cth!^,,mqndif^^^^^^ el^^^. 

.^icU tribunal; 

vtbiB ooidcfl sAf 

Sometimes thc^i'lMlhsS Mftbt¥fedi^re^'do(^£9ffift- 

> ll^e^'^ ihqu«Wtfrs -Ifave -^tbtf key oof;; thftfliol- 
iB'^^?tifakfe W tKe'fialJibe' of f ht? do^*/ inws v^fewj^ 

\sxmiii which-fcH?ie a» operangs, biltetif to rc^^f K* 
t*e<8 iirtereffing to thc't^ptittit'. '"■'-'•i' "'-^ -'J 
Who can confider, without' ffC^fellhgi ,^leciiai 
of fuch iVcrct vengiekrice, b^ fodi hii^^riow 
of Cruelty ! Why are they fulferta to" cJftlS^m. 
^^ttrice^f Wherefore do they fprtir tile 1)^1!^ '<{f ils* 
g<#iiAB9fent ? - Tt is Tsecaufe that'-gc»*leHitfieni"u 

idfttf faiwded *h ihjtiftrc^ f'K'hai bfefeii fe^felMl^; 

JiJi>hilv(^«fc</hV^^tIi6tre4lje- 'coti^^<a^te'^b^^ 
pl6 i ^ the aifthoffty''ni^ 'enjBjr^d' Bj^'fi^^dileS 



^vt^niadS~='^'^*''^^-«^»'^-~~^-'«~''^— -^^^^^ 

^^^^BicPtfiele,^ „ ^ , 

l!^i3^er^itfr?b? ISfe thtit Kves; li^ve '^&j^ 


vcrnment, appears to them in tii&'%httiPS.|ub* ' 

drnx^^^'ytoA ^ iiiiquitoiis 'laws afe' iKe^coiaS. 

ijuence of iMqiiftby* power?- -^ ^^-'"^ ^' '"^^ 

While the ariftocracy exifts in Venice, the council 

%Jten and tU in^uifitors ofjlate muft exiftj becaufe 

^ A H • ufuqp- 

ufurofxiftn f e^fjirfts for, its fupport all die. in«ftni 
it can difcover of fupprefiing .the complaints (e^c 
forth. |>y fu^j^ug^^d liberty. , 

Ji?;*?.fc?Ppy <*ugt* ^ok people to confider theA* ' 
fdv^. who iive. under an authority, as pur« in '«/% 
pV|^^,itia<Qp<;n iq iisfrqcf e^gf i and vvj^icii 
•«Mii^ts^:^.9 j^wpportJ^ppi aiftji of jda^knefs, fron i»yfte-j 
nousDr^jTons, of froipihofe fecret informatfoast whk)li^ 
conpnud^ e^pofe the Jiooioxur and th/e-. life ofi.adis 
* i,gpvqrnrocpi;!w4er„wj:iW^ 
ifij^p^ent^ is ni,Q^e.,ppjf erfjql ttwin'his.^urerj 
kere ^e rich has np,oJ^a^advfn(age$ fkvor thcf 
^*»j.?/P **%*f^P"y*l?^?'» W^thofe of .aninaating • 
%!?/%♦ ^KM P^^^^%:^y^ f;«<iu«nt . »4U <^ 
^^e%enc)q;i Jjrijere property flo^y.iw. 4ifjplaye4,«| 
its ^^iJiSite^t, .wi^iith^ying eifhjer ve^atio^^.fflj 
'^^l^^yr %i^!^^ iear; wheije vir^e :<fa^ ney^^ 
%3fef ffe^ ;?'»?*';i- !??!=*Vfe>he cfteeD;^ of, <)^E;£ffc 

Ti9^??EifeWSl5^«^9«fi only theamhition o^ t^of| 
i»rt^9 ^^^e.i^^q fthoc ol?je(5tJ?ji;tf tQ.d/jv<«^fth«apJ(ei»?j 

al m Wnice, confpiracies.xp icb'eadjt becawfe ii 
muft fom 'the happ^neisahd the fafeur c4!a)li ^d* 

tors tg' prai(e, as foldiers tp^ defei^^-j^i^ i.; v?.- o::p 
*'-.,, CH AP« 

( »6 ) 


Of Ta£ Reptblics op Venice, Genoa, LtrccA^ 

AND St. Marino. 

V^niQe has been reduced ; wh^t is the power of the 
fen^tc,^ and of th(^ college ; what are the fujtiftions 
of the procurators of Saint Mark ; of the council of 
ten, and of the inquifitors of (late. I muft yet 9^- 
ferve, that all thefe different tribunals derive their 
cxiftence from the grand council, in which the lb* 
Vereignty refides. It is that which is truly the le- 
gij^ative body, and which confides the executiyp 
ppwer to the adminiftrative bodies which are un- 
der its infpeiftion ; all whofe refpeftiye eleAioo^ 
it can annuL 

The grand council is to the government of Vc* 
nipe what an alTembled nation would be to its. 
prpxies^,and as this fpvereign power is always pr/?- 
fcnt;, a?, U every week employs its pre-emifleijce^ 
there is no reai'x^a^tg fe^r that it will fuffer its privi- 
ieg^s to be ufiirped, either by the fenate, or the coun* 
«il of ten. Thus the whole republic of Venice is now 

, - ^ . com- 

Cfihi kepubtics^^ykicej (Jr. 97 

^ompofcd of nobles, the reft of the citizens arc 
but a great appendage, unconncd'ed with thc'ad- 
ihiniftration ; and.^U to ]srhich the ancient houfqs 
of the Venetian burgeffes tan pretend is, to fur- 
nifli fecretaries to the fcilati!?, ahd the different 
colleges^ it is generally from anioQg thefe fegri^f^ 
taries that the plebeian, ,decorated with the title of 
chancellor, is chofem 

The church could not have been pleafed with the 
rcpu|blic of Vfinice^ for having feparated from the leX 
gtflatnre body the minifters of religion ; efpecially a» 
this'fepafation wia^ notihadefroiii'afpirit of jiiftice, 
but tihrougK fear of the popes influence in the Ve-* 
folutions of tfic council. 

CHF the thirteen hundred ndbleS, ^hb forrti tlie . 
bcKjy'qf Venetian nobility, many of whom are em- ' 
pIojfcH abroad in military or political oiKceS;^ tliefc' 
are not lefs t^ian five hundred who are penfiftners' 
erf the republic, ahd who blufh' not at receiving "• 
from Its wealthy members the' purchaic of their* 
fimr^ges. ' They have'latfeiy deviated from the law*' 
whigh forbids commerce to that order^ many' of 
whom were iediiced to poverty by their proud in- 
d6ience ; an^ a proclamation was'iflucd in Oftober * 
17^4^ inviting 411' the ndbletto take part in their ' 
b4rp n^es^ and with their capitols, in manufac^* 
tui^eV,^and cbmrhefcial eftablifbmeitf s ; a!nd de- 
ckurihg thkt^fo far from lofing by thefe ckrcupationsi^ * 
any '^krt iftlie honour and eftefem due to their rank, ^ 
-Will. H they 

..they wo.uldt -be tt}^^ttA. by therm more ^fpable 
in the eyes of govenameat* ^ , , , 

. . [^ Thus (lays Moutelquieu on the , authority of 
. /rAmelotde ia Nouflaie) the laws of A^eaicc for* 
, ^ . *f ; bid the nobks that comoaerce by which they 
^ ,f/,inight innocently gain exorbitant riches/' . Xhis 
.rtjafloge tni^ft ^ad thofe into error who are jiot rtn- 
formed of the proclamation I have ;}uft> mention^ j^ 
., ; and which ^as all -the f^rc^ of law^ ; 

, The opinion e!nter4»ined for ^es by the nob^Uty 
: j^f V^icc, that there was no profeifion proper for 
t]>am but that of arms^ is a ftrong trait of their va* 
• mcy, and the n^od ancient families have been rde- 
; graded oy this abfurd prgudice* Nobles have - 
>been ften ther^ (even thcrfe adorned with n:ulitary 
diilindions) demeaning themfelves fo &r as to bear 
V ; up the train of a prelate, and yet at the fame time 
:ih^.ng difdain at the (late of a merchant, who ^nt 
: vtea flhips to- the Iniiie?^ and traded to eyeiy quar- 
. ter of the gl^^; w]^41e4>|h$rs of the £une liable 
>: dafii, preferred fervitiid wa. the fepufe of a graftdce, 
. uader.the titled, ^-fquire, 5.0 the exercife of fa>.in- 
■ dependent prof^^n^ which required l:K?tkJtaow- 
:: l^cdge and ialents# .;. - - .v/-i 

:, Tbcfe opinions, fot dangerows t<> thi>fe Ffe^ni 
they ia^dhnev- begin to diflipate beforeahe^^^is of 
i--ttetTetifon which i$v.difFufir^^ itielf evei^^ Ajljf re ; 
^U9tl we^amy fooh hope t^^find t^ fh^tHVs^p^bf^ary 

ii.". . 

.: i 


' ^«ra life degradation of fet^ritode trii^ding no more 
with falfe ideas of fuperidrity. 

There exifts in Venice one wife law, which for- 

' liids a noble from holding two offices at thfc fame 

time': arid atijr ndble t^ho refirfes an emplby to 

'^Which he has been elefted, is condemned to pay a 

fine of two thotlfand dueatis, and excluded fri)m 

'iht grind countJilfor two years. 

It is only by magifteriM atppointthenti thkt the 
'^ iiobles can rife .to any great refpeftability : before 
itlfeyctofill Ae higheft dignities, theymuftpafs 
tHrotigh a multitude of places of littie importance. 
' ^This flowprogrefs, Which confines the wings of 
"^ambition, has caufed the fame to befaidof Vc- 
• -^riee as was faid of Sparta, It is only in this city that 
' ^^ is a good thing to he vid. "'■^' 

''•'' Secrec?y, in all their proceedings, is regarded^ by 
' .l!h# Venetian go vernrti^^ asf a pk^nt of fuch im- 
^^pbrtahce, ^ that all connexion between the nobles 
^-'^fkifordgrteri^^ ierbiddeA : a^al>Je Venetian is 
* *ii6t only reftraiiied fronS^terlng into the order of 
''•Mafta,'tmd<tf pain <tf i^n wncihg all hope of ap* 
^ ^''polntrhehts% the Venetian ftate, but he is not al- 
lowed to marry the daughter of a foreigner, or give 
■^'Yih <ivrft daughter t<J> the fabje£b of any other 
' ' *j*fticc^ but he may form thefc conncftLons^: with 
Hdtizciis of Venice} by which means the honeft 
" fetergcffcibecortteu^^ the nobles^ mmglc 

■ -^ith thwi, Md ,foriiife the means for their fop*. 

Hz porting 

too. Of mnffi4>U(s of r^nite, , :^) 

porting themfelyes wjth: dignity in thoie ^j^ppoipf^ 
tnent, fuch as emhaffies, whicb.require^ {pl^^dwi 
appearance. , ? i .»» 

The noble Yenetians confinq thcn^fdves y^hofly 
to the naval fervice : they never cnfer^mtoxhj? i^unl 
fervice ; the command of whiph is qpnfid^ ito^jir 
foreigner, under the inrpe.6iipn of two.coijiQfqUp^s^ 
who obferve him na,rro\ytj^, that n© ii?^s(y; .-potj^^y:^ . 
the pciwer which tiie re^^}blic.^^5ig^|e^;U) |Hra^.flo;;| 
without diftruft,' . ^' ^^^ ;^^^^.^. : ^5,^ ^^,j. ,.,.;.,;;.,: ., 

There was formerly a very great . jdift^pe^, Jb^r* 
tween the degree of fhenobjq VeaetifVn^ ,and ^hat 
of the noWesof t lie dominions of Venice. on., rti;e, 
continent 5 but> or late ye^rs, there has. be?ii. ^do^, 
fire of uniting the two bocUesjf, this is, ppt^.^iovK^f^ 
ever, e^fily efFeded, as the .qualifications reqi^rpd/ ^ 
for placing a noble of terra Jima on a^ieyel.jyith a^^ 
noble Venetian are, to prove his nobility,-, at.les^ft^.i 
for two hundred years paft, and to^.poiTefs, at^e- 
vchue of forty thoufand ..fran^s^ fo that fipw^ra. 
alple to profit by this offer. .. ... 

TMf. de Montefquieu mentions^ with praif^, at; 
decifion' in a difpute for precedency be^tw^ar^: 
noble Venetian and a gentleman of terra firmay,\y^: , 
which the republic determined that^ out. of. Kmc^^ 
a noble Venetian had no pre-eminence over anqthe^ .citi^ ^ 
zen. A day will come, wlien true nobility vyiU^fCf,,. 
•quire nothing, and yet receive ; every attPHuionHr , .. 
when patriotic merit may, in vain, d?jglu»(e fe^nojiw... 

' .1 and 

Genoa y ^JLiicc^y diidlh. marifso. xoi 

^^'irdjpeft; Tince ^t>Vill be fought out and led in . 
tffikftijilif ^o thig tank prdipired for it, by public 

'^1 kfecd 'dvlrel! ho longer on the republic" of 
Vferiice' t6 fhew the defefts of its conftitution.* 
Wfe'belidlil 'iJhere/an ariftocracy within an arifto* 
ci^'j tSd'ipnnam^ body of which is the grand' 
cbiiM^^M" ^ Mz:^ that which deprived th? . 
ip^\t'^t'ik\\iM adminiftration, by 

confining the whole legiflative power to an here- 
ditiiiy;Tibbiiity.-'- '- 

'T^hd'- executive power is placed in this grand 
cb^cil' ; ' btrca'ule the nominating and depofing 
of^tht dbgef refts entirely there ; and on it depends' 
th6'''ixiftrfh(Si df all the adminiftrative bodies^ 
WK&ft'e!i'ftibiiV'dhd operations it may annul; nay,' 
if inHiiitd/withdtaw all the power which it cOn- ' 

Aftef ccihlidering this account of the Venetian * 
ariftocfrity'; it is difficult to underftahd what is 
meant by thofe who pretend that if the national 
afFenifely 8f France werie divided into two chambers 
it 'wobld'^Tife eftabhftiing the fame conftitution which 
cxafts'fri Vienice, 

♦If th^ ftifpeftfivc, or even the abfolute veto, had 
bcfcii 'gtkiited to the higher chamber, that would ^ 
not? hOTe ftiade it, like the grand council of Ve-^ 
niccfi' it^'fbVerdigii body; for fovereignty confijia " 
fidr-iit'ttii ^hgf^' prWiiege of ;y?c^/^ but' in the ' 

^^^ H 3 power 

I e^ 0/ the tUpuhtics of Venice^ 

power of ordering: from t^bencc it app^iuri> ^b*B^. 
the authors of thcfe opiniQ^s^ wl^ich, I havcj^ppMr 
refuted, were not acguainted with the Vcn^p^n 
conftitution ; and that tbicy miftootj the ^^ft^.^r 
the caiife. . ,. ^, . ,..: ,. 

.- > 

'-A national aflfetnbly, that is the ^^a^iipf^ jfjpj^Ctr 
fented, cannot create a pQwer fupgriort W .jtfei^ 
bteaufe that which, ts f\>wjb al/, bfts^uot.tb? jpft^ycfr: 
of raifing any thing tiboye itibl^.;^ b(]t i( ij pQigi^blfl 
for human prudence to^^diftrHfl^ t}][ijoijg|^^ e:2|f e^ o£ 
ieal, the confequcnces of thediang^s^^t propof<^$ 
to eftablifli. In . fubn^ittiag ^he . c^capJlptiQii of 
its decrees to a cool an4 attentive, r^yifjoBj^lhe^ 
aational aflbmbly did ^not inte;id. to fprrendcr its 
power, but to call forth new light upop .tli.e fub^^. 
jeft : and fo far from holding its aujiiojrijy of the 
central committee, eftabliihed within itfelf for re* 
'vifing its decrees, that central comtnittee would 
■hold its authority of the nation^ ^flfcmbly>. fince 
it would have been ele^e4 by that aflemWy* and 
for a limited time; > . 

This was undoubtedly the footing lapon whiqjh 
it was intended to create a fecpnd. chamber : yet 
this plan, which might prove beneficial to fyi^^^^ 
legiilauires, would probably have, proved i^uripus 
to the firft. But whether it may, or ui^y niot tc 

realized in future, the conilitutiqn of .J^jt^qupo 

.1 • * 

never can refetpble that of . Venice, and iuis^ for-^ 
tunate tlut it cannot. ^ - 



Genoay Lucca j and Si. Marino. 105 

It gmttfies me, to be able to fupport my opinion 
o!&^ Ais' itftijia by that ^^Mi <te Mantcfquieu. 

"^^^lif'tlieJ Italiaii republic (faysithc author o£/Ar 
'^'^rif6/Lawi^'^htr:ct\ikt^:\^ power, the 

^^^xefctotiveiJotrdir, and Aat afijud^g are united^. 
^* lc& liberty is found than in monarchies, and thff 
^^^Vfeitmifeht has oct»fioii' ita eattploy the fame 

'^Slefij nieansi^ formaa/DtaintBg kfdf^ as thegf^^ 
'^^f^rittht -6r^ ^TtirbaY- ^mwi{kihafl:ate^JHt4 
^d th^' thihkln^ie^^hichiati infbrHfi^;m%^> 
tim<ii ^afti ki ' St ?bi34et>' Irisn accufetaom ; . /rb« 
f*^^S^i8pbWer there is 6nc, and^^althou^. it^baf 
^^nftt^^erifetternal piomp of a defpoticiprince, ii;^ 
^^' het^iiXm is t'veiy momenta percept ible>!', • , 1 1 
""^'XiP IS iaid that M.' d« MoJitefquicu^ rduting. hif 
re^aeh'ife at Vemce, fuffered it to be knoMin ti[)^li^ 
made dbfervadons on the gwernm^ent^ and tftafc 
T\6tesV that in paffing fnota Venice to Eufini^^fe^ 
ing iiiftfelf fiirroundedr with gondolas,, which did 
.not'appfe'^rtd-pniteedi he wai feized with fear^ and 
thfew^^ his memorandtimf iiito the fear but^ if he 
had brought nothing with him firom.i.Vcnioe 
^Ddfides the ophiibri I hare mft qiaoted, bi» i/ioyage 
woqjd^ot have b<fch ufeiefs to his country. 

"M. (ie Argenfon t)bferves very juftly, that if tbc 
govei!toni<^ht is ariftocraiic at Venice, itisdi^pcni- 
tic^bh Wra firma. f * In that part of the. Venetian 

^^ t«d'^tid[ difcontented, but the people tmnquil 



^/.and-hftppy : ^; model propen, to be-fti«WB/!W a 
V' mqnarijhy, ,wheFei^it mayjb^,5^i^ly adoptedyibiAC 
' ^^ which no ariftocracy has bpiCp afe>k |o produce/- 
T^his differepce of goijrerniwant inthe (i^T^ife{ei 
proves its not abounding in citadels and arm$*;.f(*? 
a rcgubJic.m^Cb endeavour jta^. attach, itsoia^m- 
bera by: iiffeAipn^r- wjxen.ii^i«^ 
power. . Vpnice J^as-prpyedxthe good reffeft of jchis 
wifjE} ppUcjr 1 tbie .prpyjnqes, ^of ;>y]^ich it nui^- depriv- 
ed by .thi?rj[?^gHp,pf iC^p^briyi efoqni/rpgrctfced ItbiS. 

'j;'he iYi?|>etian..tcrriix^ A^rti^ipn^ued tpth^i 

ppfTeffioAs oftljif republic in Italy^ ;they ewend in^J. 
to Dahnatia^ into* Albania^ and comprehend Qun^ 
ifla^ids lA the Meditex:ran^an ji among thefe. is i the 
ifland of Corfu ^ once fa celebrated iundpr aftpth^erJ 
n^Oie ^fpr |t^e, gardens of A\ ciflous, / ♦ -» o 

The annual revenu*^ of the republic is cftimated> 
at; about one million^ three hai^dred thouftnd pounds;! 
fterUA^, and is under the management of thrw^^^u 
vernors, la time of \|wu: the doge himfelf, the. nor^ .< 
bles> and the reft of the, fubjeft^, contribute to tbcii 
public expences, in proportion to their refpedivc/c 
revenues, . .• '■ ; >= ' 

Though the marine . of Venice is not near fd i^v.fx\ 
midable now ^s it was formerly, the ftate fent agarnft;.! 
Ti^r),is, in 1788,,^ naval force of twenty lbip?/wit^i^>\s 
oi^t counting their light fquadron. 

' . '^'*' ^ ' : What 



- Wh^fha¥<sfaid!f!aO>eftlftg:'Vemce, isTpfitcienV 
toihcvr 'fbe^>rigi!icf this republic, and thetevolu- 
tioas wbkh' hstvt talt^n place in the governraeiit'; 
I drill **w^ C4ft \x\J eyeqvcr fomc bthpr republics 
ailtnlyP^ -- ■ * ^ '"■ ' ■ ' ''f 

•Gtttoiif wbicK-hai been fo long thr riya! pf^ Ver 
m<ie^/» fcmif '^Qnited A^ith htr ' the^ empire bf the fea| 
pirefeftts'a de^nftitmiori whi<ifi iiicrits attention. ' 

Thi^r^bfKC/'ilylii^ ctodia biifae fend two han- 
ded m^^mp^ftb i^^'-^iic^hhad-i^offem^ 
Tu&a*iy^4»«akJftuavi^)li Syria - and WhJch was^ 
fovereign of Corfica, is now redpced to a fleet of i'^ 
few^allitft^i^l^ttd tefr dorSShibris*are tfbrrfihfed with- 
in' ^(liiJh^^^l^ftPwlimitsV fftat^ tKe^r extend not more^ 

tha^ifowj^x: l.cagofe.- .-^ , =■ ^ ^ ^-^ ■ ^ • . " • -■ ^ 

. ^^Af)^r 4)eftigiundeT the dbnainion of (ome of the ^ 
Jiij^l*4rf'I|:<lJyV'<^Qai^<>^^ advantage of their weakr'* 
nefs, and rendered lier-f^f mdeperident abbiit the * 
tendi'CehtinyV A ireart'of ^Hiance, made by this 
ft^e wiiLh the Pifons,->'waS fooA fbllowed by i' lon^^; 
and: blocki/'wa^bi€Wteen'<li^m: which was carried " 
on with fQ' WUCh rag6 eft both fides, that it muff'' 
ha(ve ended in their nriutuM- deftruftion,'it pope In- ' 
noceiYt IL had 'fvot- brought about a reconciliation. 

The Genoefe, at firft* all free, all equal, have 
paid* the fetaitribiifi^ du$ fi^m republicans for the 
liberty<they>ha;^e conquered. Large fortunes amalT- 
cd ."by' Qppimejree, and their expeditions againft 
^C Moors, foon eftablilhed an inequality'injurious 
.. /' to 

to a <iese(oorii$ie i^tf yr^n4;d[ifieim0atcd thc^ Jidc^^ 
of pre-eminence, and nobility, whiph produpcf ^,xi(^\ 
ft^cracy. •-. * •■ -; ■;. • ;', - -.- , r-T 

Genoa owes to Andre Doria the recovery^rof tfbaljj^ 
liberty which (he loft under Louis'XILandFr^qb l^. 
ndi which flie ftill ei^oys : and the memory of thajLi 
0jiicrpM5 Citizen, by whom flie recovered it, u hel^; 
iixeaicration. - :' ;/> 

cTbc thief of the republic bears here,i *s ?it Y^lt:^^ 
nice, the title of doge, but with-ftiU lefs authority ^ 
zfiA the dignity is confeasfed^fojr only two^-y^rs. 
Wbai makes theiofficjeiivorthvfoliciting^ that the. 
doge, upeii quitdf^g-his^ate^ i3^ admitted fox; lifi^ 
tp a place Jn the CQ^p^poiprofur^^^Sy whiobi^^^kere; 
ftyled camm: ;thisr chamber ifrch^rged with thefOi^ 
Hftgemeiit of the inaip^rf sy ^N^^he^ pM^bUf reireiiue. 
T^be other ^^tff<rpf/<>>7i : who \4f e ' eighfr; 411 nombf&r^ 

The grand council, which forgxs the geaef^^aJL^ 
IwibJy ,:i^ wnlpofed of ^ ,thp poble^ yf^W^on 
hA^ ilMs^Soi»M:il,i?anAC^ 1^^ x>bubed until^p^r^ 

art ref^{e4 to be ele&ed every year^ but^he j^is 
:Xim^Si .yfhi^h -ajre tbofe c^\ the nobleji^ axe, ^Wf^% 
called -ovftT' itt thefe-ekdkions, 
; The' ^^f<^i^^f':^.fj^^ps^A^n: this granfl £9^fiLi 
.kvisiiin^^wi^ the: l^gi%tiy^ pawqr^; *i^4/^ 
alone the right of eftablifhing in^9J^L^ Q^JJP^ 
'•'.rsr'T ■ \ ' new 

GifJM^ LsMOt^ mti'^. Mi»h^. 107 

; ' and ^of eBahglng on refermi«g the con- 
ftfttitibh of the ftatc 

Two hundred members of the grand council: 
fiiftti, ■ iwith the figniory and the odier colleges, 
the atik duntS^ th^ proYince of which is to detcr^i 
vtiOii ^hd m^9t ifnportant affairs of the fhate^ doekiv 
qaUpkitQ ot^'sifdffj <;hufe inferior omgii^races/^aiiii^ 
even make laws^ provided they do not contradi&i 

tKiWS<f>FiSiefuffrageii-^ ' .^ ^..• f^ 

/Tlifereis i6''i<hi§^k^btit ftill another ' couiieil,- 
dilled^the "n^irrt^ ; M^hidi is ooiMpcifed ^ ihe^HgU' 
tSirrfi^b^^ic^ikAlcgt of procJUrattdrj; Aad^rf^a hun^ 
driiiditTekWbcrs of tht^'grand cotincih' It Is htt&thmt 
iX^npfftetU fromrinfenor tf iburi^ are tricd^ ^ 
---l^fe' exectritive^^^^ belAhga «o thei fcnaw} 

WBibh H h6ndiiii*cd tfith^ t^ 
niory, it is compofed of tWelvt gdvcrhOi^s, df whdM 

^^'^i^iAkn caioi be a^emdr^^whofeiiia^ httft^nw 
lififti i&tdriBed^ for at kaft two years oft the? r«|gift» 
Whii^iiiltik^;; ikor <^a^ member 4ie' a !te<yt)dti^ 
l!^tt'a'tm;«ftdi' in ifOii^^tt^liH y^aMi Tfi<» 
i^iefiibett are/ ^iWdfcn. U^ lot : ^thpir uttttics being 
drawn from an urn eohtaihidg obi huxtdred-aivd 
'iiimif-inkikdii vhiok fa»«dlMQa^«^eed there by 
^kf'tl^micliia^- :}^ thtj gv^Md^^^Mndil and 

. Thefc goycxnoris^upoii q^^^lriog.thekxplttcesi are 
elefted froofrators^ and fill, as I have Qitdyiitidk 
' ^ppointflients for two years. ^ ..,{0^1^ • 

^^ Xhe camera J and the^g-wi^ryj arei charged iwiih^ 
the direftion of foreign affairs ; give aitsdiencertO' 
aitiha^ador^ and, for^ig-n^miniiAers.^) ejtpedicr jfif- 
y^Xi;hf$; tal^cpgai^anoci of (erious afikirs^liich'^^ 
crhn^^ of f^te^ afr> 

l^wl)!;?^-^^ whenever ijitey jjodgd^b 

^ Tp form ajrf^ar idea ofj^he o'fpyfcUc ofiGtnda;^ 
ve muft imag^^to 40UffelYe8J an^iiiift^cracy of no^^: 
bles, whofe chief, under the name of doge, hrisim^t 
ijjore pp\y|er th^n %:^tief magiftrate;;tfa6y?^han«SLAr 
his impuiflaoceihQweverrwith the pomj^oiii» trtiei^'ofs 

milifix^m and moji JiUffirdvi^ prince^^^^^f^ ^^^ 
p^i^qt Ss>^(Aj?^^ them to liro^in thoiycari. 

Ji;he manner in which: they icteft thotrrdesgedrf'^ 
fimilar, tp^ hut ^not ^^c^w>pliwt©d an^i liwtfoitoB n 

\ife4 jat Venice, -rio-': •>ri:rrj':>i t^sI? (:C'Q;' .-..'JJiiiiii^dlfn 

;;;]phe.dQ^.rcfid<M in-th#,psliK»(mth tuiOMgofeew:iii 
nors, who are.lpie^;pv/?r hiBai;.he.hai^alfo,{iifceth«^i^ 
doge of Yep^i gaard$;«ind( w:- ^pfNcamnc^^r oiviff^ 

TPljiq 9if xi;mrfon. vc|vefi or i^^^fmih^ inda n^AccaiwdfJi^i 
the f^n^^J^/f^ tQrn|iAgting;py£amidiai%3|iauU>'iipurli 

qa3-.4 The 

'^- ITiio^itogw^s: fbrftitflf' fiii^efffeff Wufe-^i' cfoW 
a'todifcej^Pi af tHelifhe ^l\is inftallatiori, but fince 
. the republic has ceded C?6riica to the JF'reridlli,' ;hl5 
fiteptrb- 1)»6 ifelteA from his haiid, and 'the itirown 
fiwmiiis'.bww.^'; ■'■■•■•'■■ ' ■■■'.'■ ••'.••■'-••■'■■-' -"^-^ 
.fBefrjrea'dt^e <f;aft-i*t?»!»rn tb^ this vaW (tkei''iitfka-^ 
jeftj»?r«jett-yi^#'thUft' haVfe elipTcd^fi^i^ hWiM 
dfiaioB., r WHettl <ife '^MW Tiit^ bi]f?ce; *r^ Vei^ams'^ 
rights icfaysr-«abte^M^irc<knffl'ilfltk'\!i^i&h''^y'fe^^ 
made againft him ; and if any accufation is braiigntV' 
of^aiieHittis^iiatth^e that lie ci^nrtot 'be itqmtfed, 
heoiB"'iieppiv«d-i6f-the hchotit ofbcB%''i"^rofw^^^ 

f«r.lifel .jq./.^Ju ^.f.--. ^■•. -.■■"'-■ ;i;..i- ''^■'•- -'"J 

) If i ■ • 

■ 1 Ehflririg^t^li5 vacdnty Jaf the dttd^l fiiat, "the ftmof ; 
gcvenkDf perfoMfij th* ^dftiohs 6f doge:' '-^ -''/'' 

WbeatA art -at GenbS 'niany migift<^iat'ofllcb^ df "' 
an iiioferioir) 'land. 'J Th^' mofr Jrap6rtarit -tif^ tHefe"^ ' 
arc the offices of the cenfors, or fupreme fyndlhy^ 
wbpcmwliiTOia flSombietjiaild^Hi^Kore^^p^^ diify 

it i«»>'Jexaimi»^tfe«^^HdQa bf^tf do^^^ ahd of ktP^ 
magiftrates^ upon their retiring from offlbei WflfO'^ 
atCQ^dw^he ibaintiairilindeil^iia eittWtroii^ bf tH^ 
law4t:^>dity iiMd^heiil offi^^ai IbY^foiJlf )yeih. \ ''^ 
. .Afijeiothen cenfiws: cOHmb^' tbtf * ityq^iiitdi's df ftate^ '^ 
whofe tribunal, though fevere, is not fo formidabiV'^ 
as )iiift6 iM A^Vchice { . ^ thefe *^dflkc<ra ' ^'dtch bVd- th^ 
fafeiyqjanA tranqoillie^- of :th^> ft^teV bbfetv^ VVefy^''^ 
tbingiWiiich jiaffei'in the city, a.^^eVtn WithiH'tfee' ^^ [ 
huufes, in the bofom crfidbitteftn: raifeWfelitr i^ri^^ 

^AxX keep 

vkeep a'flikfp te6k out, -fti'pnWciit '^^' ^3 \iA\t- 
■'■reftioni*. "•' " ■'•" -■■-.■''''• '■^' -^■'-'"•'^ 

All employments are^pptt^priatcd t(y^the%hc)btis, 
^but they pertnit citiTren^ to iill tlj* offictJJ^^bfHffedre- 
taries of ftate. Thefe three appointments' ^ki^^% - 
^^•tchttlve, aftd confer nobility on thdfe' vH6'^^old 
'Mthem: they may bd- heM' for teW^arsi antJ ^re 
^'Tomietimc^ continued to thtkmfe^f)ii¥6n%;^ : na. - 
^^.' fit is thfe cuftom at Genoa, that5 the b^nitHal'jud^c, 
- whom they call ^aJi^ar, fhodd'be'U fottlgtier: ind 
it is alfo foreigners who adminifter rit^lijtiffice. 
-They are chofen from dodors t)f 'law of tbd iliigh- 
^ bouririgftates or univerfities. iAp^ell may hb ttiadc 
frDnl tbeh: dedfioii to a Court comptrfcd of tirrec 
' doftors of the nation, or of tsro doftors ahd'^bhe 
noble : and from thence ulfo there is acrapp^I to 
■'the council, which they call the affenibly. ' 

There is, befides thcpoJefta, another criminal 
coiirt at Genoa, which was eftablifHtd itt ^^Jt^^ 
"with laws for direfting its decifions. Pofiir jdfdges, 
'" who are likewife foreigners j prefidc at'tfiSai^itbfu- 
•nal, and their fehtences are carried" to. s&fe Ifi^^^y 
and to the college of proaa-ntors. ' ' ' ' ^'' ' ' ' '^^ 
I have endeavoured to difcovcrth^mbtii^e^of^ 
inftitutioH' of foreign judges; admittiitl'iiito'tb^o- 
fom of a republic^ for deciditrg li^idn^tfili^ilnteF^fts 
of the citizens, and paffitig fencertCe^iTftolS ^h^^ 
nour and their Kres : and l hiV^^tci'fixh'Bn^ 
■ <guia«?ed in -a teve^ of jtiftice. Tlicy ^x^t^iir'Qjfeflmu* 
' r . that 

.^X tlwt ju4gf ftuHil^fUnd^ as it were, ^part frptn 

thofe he was to judge : that there (hould be no con* 

^ ^e^io^ J^etyejEai them : ao tie of fortune, or of re- 

iatfpA&ip, iCbat thcjf impartiality might be mare 


r yriNq exertion can be made to a. ju4ge w>i$n he 

is o^ce eftablilhed, becaufe there cannot exid.afiy 

caufe of ejfc^ptioiu A foreigner, unacquainted with 

. apy, pf , t^^, partie?, and inftxfi^ed by the laws, >Mhick 

qiuil j^ hi$.gqade^ is^prefumed to be their iait^iul 

if^^pifpfeten - 

...,:iPpt,thb foreigner may be corrupted as welt a* 

^^v^qpt^r.; or if heis not, when he gives judgment 

^ .^a^ibynal of citizens, his deciiion may be rcn- 

. .,4^1^ iQ>j^r<^.r, frpqi t^ very means which 'hjave 

- lJSS»'#^.W makf ivjuil. ... , ,, 

Men take niiich pains ,to remove injuftice iir9m 

^^.j^iJ^f^naU, but cither ^bafcnefs or ignorance, preju- 

^(^diqe f^f paftiajify^ fopn qpcn it an er^tra^ce thefe^ 

,ii^^r^W4h ar^.,at.jiiis qiioment ecftployed \xx ba- 

^j^l^ipg it forever,, froin ^ ,{aA<9:uary which it, iia$ 

,-,.|S^:;io5g>pro%aed : may they be fa happy as tp fee 

their wifties accomplilhedi But how .can they be* 

,^f^r^4of,4in4ing,(:iti^en^,^ wifp, ifx^rtial, proof 

.^fjg^^.^^du^on;. and fufficiently, firm in their 

.jjj^'i^j^lpli^^j^^tp/rewaiiiL uaftiakjen in the midft of po- 

^^/Qvlf^^^^ who will be willing 

.^.^t^ci^ t^eea^elves from.all ide^s pf forwpe;, fijom 

;^u^#^9Si^ ;^P^ b^ whoUy.devQjqdipr^.^.eterm 

niftra$ion.of jufticc?, ; ; . ,,^,. . -., , ,,,,,,,,. *^ 
^. J. "have no* fear that .cin^id4^i,)tfiU bp Aw^i^^yig;!^ 
but men's afpi/ing tp .tl?q right ;pf.jud^^£^|;^yj, 
equals, ihould he perhaps a reafon for ^(i^y'y^i 
^^% ^^at xi^u Where thep ffiaU we- ^ryi ^ j^n^ 
P;F/»f<r?«.<^d.witJi the dutk^pf,aju^ge;^wi5h i^.y^j^; 
«iV??.^.l?'<^^ thatfacr^d cb^raa:er.r?qiii(iesj; w^J^h;^,.^ 
priyatiqns which it prefcBil^c^j! with, the ,]gB9«5}}ifigftj 
which if demands iwitiLtheftudy, to wJly^H %c^ni 
<^w;; wtA the danger? with-whif^ ^t^oftenjge|,-o 

a?f f}^^. .%. r9,«^9i:Je which if jprcpar^s, . nqt % JiHfft 
quity, but error, that companion of humaii jf^l^jjj 
nefs; whetie is th9rpaopofiefi|»^p£all.,thefe ti^,9}{g^s 
w.hO;wiU,bP;bold enough to foji.cit the,.p\ibIy^jQj(5j 
frage, or fi^en e^pofe hixnfelf to the rifk of qbf^j^A 

^8-.lf/ ■;.'. .! • ..- V . • . ■ • . ,. i,.,ri,, -^iij 

>:^^?.#.CF of judge is undQujptedly in pifta£ft.9Pft, 
o^th/e charges which- belpng to citizens^ but;i(r^j 
the ,(QQft burdenfome ; and whoever is not - pr^j^ 
ouily feniiblc of all its weight, is unfit to bear lU, lya 
Genoa has an inquifition ; but as, like. ^ that, cj^j 
Venice, k is fubordinat^ to the fenate, andithat 
lay-judges affift. there, it is forniidable .onl^iifi: 
©ame^ The continuance of thefe. tribu^^U ■ jj^jMi 
homage paid by the two .republic;s to the cowt^ofi^ 
Rome: they form . a kind of feudal bond,. , whic^* • 
tbe^cmaiM of fuperftition c^^resnot break. ..^ ^..^.^ ii 

Gemi, iMCd, md St. Mmino. 1 1 j 

, t'1%e baak of Saint George preceded ail the bank* 
jq£ £un>pe» and fupported itfelf in the greateft ere*' 
dit until the year 1746, when it was ejchauftod 
ift CiMifiDqaenee of the Anftrian invafion, as there 
'WW tb<n drawn at once from its treafury abo\iie 
jf 4 j6jo^aoo fierlingV 'At tliat unfortunate criiis all it's 
i^wdito^ flocked thither in fuch a manner^ that the 
bRii^v^puld not fatisfy their multiplied demands^ 
Ailil'ftppt payment. Its bills then lofl: not only , like '^ 
thofe of £^Tance^ ^^c P^i^ cent, but tweit2|i Its ere* 
.dk'hts fince gmdually revived; and nSa' bank it 
AUl\t>A? 9^^^ moil advan,tageous eftaVifiimehts of 
-tbij republic. 

. \ GoQoa was very near lofing forever both hoc 
.fofttine; . and her libenyj in theyear i74^«' The 
Auftri^ns^having made theoifelves maft ers oS* tBe t^ty^' ^ 
.the empjrefs. queen demanded of the Genoefe eighr ' 
'OiiiKontof livres. beiides the fifteen millions which 
«hj^: lyud akeady fumilhed : and (he alioreqvSred' 
AMBey. fikifficient for tpaintaining eight regimifn^) ' 
.^hich4;rere lodged in the fuburbs and in the adji*^^ 
jcdbr villages. 

. ^^pnthepublication ofchefe orders (faysM. deVof-*' 
•^^:Caile) liefpair feized the inhabitants : their com-* * 
/f^lDfia^ was ruined ; their credit loft; their bankex-^ ' 
^^^ifftfNd} the magnificent houfes^ which adorned 
''- the country around Genoa^ pilUged ; ; the inhabit- * 
/^ fpts treated as ilavesrby the foldiers : in fhort they^ ' 
/f^lwi no more to lojR^ hyt dieir liyes ; and there 

r ..yoi.-M. I " was 


•• wft» not a Oenoicfc wIk^ 4»4Hn^«« j»BMrvlffel«A 
« to nuke vthtt iacriikey fif^h«Sr.|^ <lll^9tll^f*> 
•/ iuidore fach fhamefal 9»A fftvagf 7«ffW!!«ft>£d' " 
.,f.^ The Auftriims^ who><te^w,|yHl)i:«ui^ttti^fg9iM 
^;tanfi«?pi the wfeaa; a(|OeAp^ .|»>|i4jQ^||ifr 

** work; and the people, th^jg^'^e/yOlti^SQR^Ildsr 

V of .U^einliabiutnts who did not «xerc hiMfj^fltfe 
*.f~ $ptendj .; J^ p<^^> who jbftantlj aA«nei^)6Mk 
*< l^(£^^^Jaef»im« ttantikuoM^j aad atme^.^tftflP^ 
"* felves with whatever they . cofijd And i- 9fifSt^!l^ 
'Vfneo, who nevc^ attempted to defetMlf rtlrtSt 
<* ck^, vh^ the troops dPth^ enetbf ^Cflfe.MritflW 
*<:ibn^ 4ipW; that they had tnitde chctttffhrW Igi^ 
'f.^dxTs of k, detentuaed to drive tji«m ctol* ^^^b * ' 

•fTU the people g^ai^r^3lpi!Fd(^ 
*Vgreaterifrainbet>, and lad to thf.. {!#l«iBl?F^#ib 
*-*.fte> «l«W«^«»g »f9»' The 4<9ge g*)*»|i|j#t»^ 
I'jno anfwer^^rlus dtMneftks P9ij^t>pe ^ ^Pi^fi^ 

«lhal^ .they jBc^, thither, btoke Jt t^pi^oMliyi*' 

*' felves upoQ.^e fpot. Xhtf imo^^du^^ jbtgiM 
^ cidcdj:he|fcrge|»^,^d ^eotdeib^^^i^^t^^ 
^^ tfiidoiypute^ aft much. a^J)o|fiUeto,«ift#iJ^ 
« iUddeii^ and .fotioiif infun36a^iv,4^ fMiltri^ 

^imSMtHvi fl^Ibngf^k th« fptf4t of'^e Genoefe, 
«MMdflffii€tttdSh^G«rmaTis; fot* they fttfiered die 
' tw f feftg iBWtatttfc tteA^hes' mafters of thegBts 

9ita^jA^«^fite^- gentnl negdclatca iriiat W 

\<«K«»»v^-IWl|jp|i<?;'«* r--;-'^-i ■»■■■•■ -■•••• ' r- 

ptKf i»fJ^^imiiiarfisS!li^4epett3.i^^ thitmiliirl- 

«#!Meilfi?at6'dFi^ir«3islbeiir1iPtBe dt^ in th» uttttie 
<■< dcif^|i»i «r^^a^;' to 'Cbm^-'i&^ »(i^ -^JF 

«l4Hf:<W«r«Mk^iiAhe^ft»e^ttf^4fi=^i d^ ViU 

ItagltM^^Qn*}^^ faead Of tbe^^plstf^i'/ otcitck- 

^^$milMSS, ^iffi^ four -■ tUSa&ad'' pmMri^^wit& 
^^SfifV^tliiikge'iJnkim^zmes.^' aW; %urfiied by 
^!;ichfife fimple pca&atii''^libftv^e3ob'H^td%y 

^if ^^M)^L-( ) r jf **iisA " . •■Nrf--, '^•* rf«»<-*'* 9«3?w<*"» *'*?4'*'>'^ 1 *"^*srx"*. ^"^f "t A- ' ■' 

^ . ' -.'t^^lA' ,\ k.».- .. ■■■..A , • h' ' 

«'*Thbs ' did m^'AuflMtitf Wf^- deiifeii''BJ)Kftll»a^ 
« feo tmich'd'ftfpire* tatA'ttp^Mb^'^iidl^'?^'^ 
Is there not in the account of thAs retoIbdillP 
ihiiiiy traits- of' thox'-whm' 1fi» 'Hi^pmStMii 
IHtti^?^'' Th&{kTrit patftlnasr the"fettt«?fti6iififllA? 
'^Wpophi' jttcceedid' hfittm^m^ ^^i!^ 
deft V the faiiie defife'of hiviii^'irrtjs I'm^HfiikVf 
dtJi^'; tht- fame i5btira^e*%^«iafcfcftig=tofeaf''tt« 
gtjii: Wd«>fc iii'tHe'hifdifW^aHBrd^-: 'ffdiittfipMM^i 

emiomi^'ikv€tyiAiWt:^aimr-'^ ■'.'^'^^p^ 

'•WKat-a^(ta?^fflc«flr^onmiTng^fe,' fiJarfW^J^ 
Mocfe^whtt^haa'^tttlivered^ the repam<PM9i^ 
Auftriaris,did not deHver it from the ftl'HIbti^iBf' 
OJF%id'iK>Btediv' ?He^pedpli iiad'thiefl^ lAifHt^e 
im& -were ibifetV'diraSted by tijr Ibl^^t^aUKyS 
M^ixenrtkie^hdfeii tb-gbVei'n, attd WtH^ IW^ 
sm^ fbliir-fy<tibtbrs : ^'efeS Ybbi- '^ndbles" «dibi1filtBlc 
Jt^ted^rery thii^otheiihat^, '<rliie&^iE^peii«atlioi^# 
f^x^iii ihe'^crvlcritmen^j^rtd eten^adfedtM» ll^ltfe fc 
fiob,>vbtclt-^IteyrfiftdfoiBentiid^ G«Hbft; tdbM^ 
vowcdiiUheicti^wfcat Vietfna j fton^aiJ ai)^e*Stsrt^ 
that it Midutd-'feetfi^rcngddtobfl §svtti!^:'^^^h^ 
^er 66<j;et<»a^t$iidarea, thkt the <^h6^KN^«M& 

had ho part-in -the rcvohitioDi •?»*icH'^W^«Y**<^ 
revolt. .'■ . , :;'.;-;,.i'i*.-.; j-. r;] tvijqd?*!^!"*' 

mean^-<tf rp-exteiidiii^-^dieif k^^ 
ffople, if they fhould iic^I the Auflrian yoke, and 


Genoa f Lucca, and Si. Marino^ tiy 

it the (ame thta^^biir^a iltiemfibl^iis^fi^^ the £site'<^ 
iii(^^p)^^^Mflh^^4ffhe'Cermaofl, aided by the. Pifdf>. 
moiuifl^^;0^}4^ theoofetves maftera of Ger. 

>>cFi{U)f^4vl}0 wfu iaterefted in the war, prevent*, 
^jl^ jBtt£o|rqane^. and reftored peace to. the. rctv 
PHI?!^ ;;^heMpops which. were condufted dxithcc 
bf^. j^^j p ta ^c e . dc;.:po^rs^ .and ,\|)bich. were aftor^ 
yiW^fH»^c^tti§:C^^ ^^e^dc Riqhr, 

U^fiH^^fa^ th^ At^ibians^rand cpnt^utiEfd toac^;^ 
i^^g^^^ d5>ge| and thci^fe^at^ .in,.xiiieU aocieobC 
powers : but (nettheC; ;he. pne n^ir/j^<;-pti)e;;^ ^^^ 
l9^M^^.t9 wbatezceif QfQouage.a ienfeof^op* 

tildlir^^ of commerce and4c&:Q«f gafnare.xh|^f^ 
t^g^ji/lhiai^ cl^ Gmoeiei a.nd^tjbi|^ 

l^fofff fj^juG^faroured^ bf tbfk. xnanu&i^urea^.fp inakf 

Jji^bpfi^ Levant ,^ of .th^ir fettjcw^m$ 

lyJlMiiQlh^yisr^j taken by t.He Turlcsu -Th^.are. coft* 
<MMo^^chi^PHblic funds ^f all cberpvincipalitajtes 
M^fp^e.^ < (peculate, from good .intelligence, on 
lll^i^'^cagons of ibe^iffierent. powers; accumu^r 
J^^^jjiaiercft, and form new c^tabr which they 
0gfif^ti^9^ <^& in loans; and render by this meaos 
ItK^plilift their 'tribiuaries. 
':^fl }1[^vAriir <^4boyght^and ^Qedion lieep at ^ di- 
.^||ft«$va;U 44^ of It revolutiofU; T^ banker^ or 

and rcTolving in his mind all- die bufineft^^li^ilitl^ 

^liirikruptcy niftfts bim mitth^ tiibi<e>{hiih^iiidPtf 

kjofttte t6t*ard» i •cifi£«»i'Mi^ifiijdft'4iibfttfi#ltt- 

''^tlf free, if "he eiQoyi ikb liltfrtf ^ g> hiiwi ; 

' -^ Miforraiitei'^tid ettpofd^ft'fiaitife eA^^HUeg^u^ 
'^Mr toitM ihii' thi)ft>ar^S(l^r.dt^^l><tftllgMimtf« 

^iA£it th^ jieb{>l^ iVfad b^old^&t» viMldiyioiiiaaia 

the higb mgi&ortt}''^ed^i«ikfe'tdaiifi(vI«iiKkt 
' theySdotoi^defir^u sitd ii»^i^dit fiiii«i»yi8^dieither 

^''i^ -honour, ' evin 'the 'digAity 'oS ^gem*4oatitlf 

' ^gheafia^vlr^iibbi^ «!<aei^ ^towoiuid 

SHfli io'be-^exafai^ for "two* 'fcifn^^ ima-'ttiedui^h^ 

that period t6^kl«6Siflihkf' #^^fitt>{>l» pntamoai^ 

'^Thh%Si\ S& > mie b-^ ^fU\l!iijdig«yky'isi .omi^ the 
^ -)-]t'i$'eviii9eiie^'«^iiI^ thc^^mMnOwKse^^clMt 

-^eBBii'{<itfh^fei^d»'iiifi vHK tint «lbgM«^jirli9<«re 

«bbdt^iuittmg'h<^ Apy^ jv^l^towglt>4h»^<>»»i^i^»^ 

is centred in them; bec3^:&l^«ar4|^iiM«rs 

<^itf H^^^dM jfei«'^«$»i^i^ of 

>^,llHttb^ ^a>fl«^5:$^5^ tOmn-iff^iag^ A^^it 

zftsiiisnfiigiutfiif i»n9iif%tii^ .Cqbje^t^ ^'u^f^- 

- ittl|irtb jiwrt «ri^lel«ixiwbic^;^l5f^^.-|ffiQli^^,9^ 

of Lucca, which is^^fcp^y^-ftx^ejjiptj^ffppi^^f- 

^f)o|Mod0ii%t:)itAkil0EbfAs^.a]pt9ttt fefqr,jyii ji a0jj p^g s, 

: «qA«y aiv, ihu ia no part of prance or Germaay the 

. I 4 £une 

tcttit bf ^dund;^«nd thatulierexis feen tibetrp Istttim 
pfovcrty, beggary, nor idlcndSiTT^'-jviv^^ if >UfHn*r 
^' Wheiicc is it timt;«Qcoidinl^ ttrkhc rtfpftrbdPM; 

vifited the repub4ie^>el^h%)i9lt)itfcmisiwelft£lo^^ 

ttirtrugrdaftdy itlrt> f(ertil«y; l^>tdrWch >ferft«d»r«fcft 
iftfad'ttf I ntafiy crdie^^^c^titlltbd &^ fewlerhflthds) 
offers to the view a fcenc of high cultivati^t^^fefdl 
tllftnbMI ^ n0^ idfs ^N^mf ^iv$ ^ >^^i«f >tlHk^ iil^Uiiidkne 
^r(^dtje€? 4oTh^ cimfes: ctresjfbiVh^tld^ ihi^d^^tvilliteiRl 

"when the magiftrates pay regcrrd'to nothing)^ Jbf|k» 
t5k^^f(b {^fheirtfti^hoidry) bitt the dueidmmill^^ 
dfAw;^ jtiftifeej rind x6 the difchargcofthcir dtsty^irii 
^ot«f6Wn"<)f ctbty^ittdividtiatv'tiaited.ttndcijothife 
jk)wcr3ifrkh whidi^iilcy weintraftc^^ '»" >J>»ct.'r 

hate-^toinjioft*^ wierhimdnj£bT«d Mypitri- 
^*eld«rs) whto ice.tonaited:exrery iwo* litenHiSf '4rtd 
tfiefd inagiftteo5,"t*Amn^t»idr^<l«« ^i^ 

fide iatheipidwe^^amt^rtf Wtttetalii^d^t tliV'^GtoKt 
cxpence. The fenatte/^^gf«ftd-tW!itldf», iS'thai^Si 

l-.^iie.TiajHto»ty:«fc tixe. gcn/nionia'e is Cofiftfliaaifo 
'5W*;fimplc privilejge o£ niaking propofals to tht fe^ 


honours of fov6rcigDtJr«'"'tV' ^'-'- ' '^ ■! ri..v.-^ 

* ^/lEf he fbieo is' ^sjie^tbe'ferene re^&iic 4>f imcisff iti 
nrtnfc ^iM^vmo- hwdsi ibcftwete >idiich^s iiliiiirilkdi/ifar 
<Aattnft4tr4)£^gdU)^^faef^orxlV/^9^ ^ r fvu,>f/ 
tr filuftice^bTadtAlniftcnr^ ; by five- ^U^fi^fi, rone, IDf 

mrXhiB isefMabttcfxmntprehQvdtrtoil^ 
JwririSned^ftedf 6% irittbgfifi ;?'^ld')k9:'popQk«Kii5'9if 
coniputed' m obd^^hundf ed^ Md^fifty 'i;h(W&Qd foulirt 
itttiilHi^ ilkirerarb &id !N)i he timnty thou^d «mmi 

• c^I1i0f niilitfli^ &rce; of theribfe ■ is iTCffy "ikiconlir 
deRd»te;'4tlii^ compared of A^e.rbunditldf tegirtk^ 
ifrtK>p9ir"^'and' about ftvemyfSvvifrp ii^Offeev^^tq^ 
guards to the j^oii ^/ o nii re^ and^fae niM' ^^if$iami/rH 
i« fcareely crddical^r' that (the rromniiei i^. I thJBf re« 
puhHc ^n ' lamdunt >-itof four hunidrBd; ; ithouOmd 
1^iioNr)aS) i£^* a^ rill prasoidcd^ tadhtfiUbjeA payis^but 
fifVe^Trtt: ^fbur ti^Ilingr »id'ttrof>peQce)rper Jbead^ 
biTJtieu^^aU- taxcs^; bocki«<%TQnt'o£ ooe haQdre4 
ac^l fi^ $lK>uiSMi4fuhjtA«$if2hdre,^ 

pijKfo/ijyof houTillid ieh^reiv iiUftd- old '«id -infirm pir<^ 

fo^rpione^ofwhom paj^thk taac*'^ ^i 1 >• 7-ri 

This Httli pqpubli^ has^ for two centurm^^niaiBtf 

* ■ ■ « 


^^Oi^^WW 'f^titi^ if^t»it^ ' . 

r«^i4«oe»-t(^ 'Idle grcM«ft «rapi««»ru ite^dow^^ 
^ifiti«tt«d thttC^bwf «4nnoc bttiistrmcbsdi- wtlii^is 
'«'^cttKbltoc« m'iM'jf«<>ourV'>«iid -^lopcrqr Wif> 

-•fiM iif fonwM Miiciiig> lits idii2«Q6*> Om^4i&tift 
'gibMft«nl$ inrkicfr <tould- l»pp«a <to tl)i» pBo^, 
would be the «ftabli(hment of fome man of wecMi; 
jai4K>/-imaungiiflpi|A hr wi&iiig itr, ext«a&neido^ 
4lutiM( ^Jth(t^«Kkiutfeni«ms of thexhace^ and-aL mv* 
J|niiMiiitYettmlc>niil fervatuti to iuppwt Um loKtnrf, 
^araft parebftft'tuKfy' of tbeip 6n»tt3«fta«e^ tN>^Miiie 
i|tt<oiii*>> eoil^Mly «be4mW iw-menfi >lb l«i|>^ 

'ifclii^^do ra o p p afl M lePS^^ would %>fr^4K0bme fiottr 
ib|)isii»giV'«aDp«ifed: wthe^lift^Rui of^*- riebwi* 
>llt»,> mi^m tho'^iftfoleiicc ofv||j^ <l<M|iaft)iE*4'^'n^(i^ 
ilttir eiiH^b «R)ft bir redtu;«i«a'>b«g obeir iM^ad, 
'idiea<it<d^«(K3nmiig^itifimiv th< ^mki cb9t^taenri» 
Motbi(ir,t«lM»fo^k>iiM> 0iU^«tu»ibnftl'iii«b((044Me 
for thbfe who takftitif»ftttft$Jlo>«tKWiiKU«*"A!^MIi{. 

whether thib4^i^ptiti^0e^»fMl<^fii»l<fte$^i»Atio(i«o>^ 
Nlfilnd^2i'«'di^y«cl^ai^'dWft>:t^0MpbUk of 

'Sl^^Mi^^ di(W6lb)fa)»4&Miti8*«Mroilvn4piiyu^^ 

- a vnniMi«^i^MiKt4l«l' eluft«dlbr ^Unefo* csiituiMf i 
'ki^^a^ti^cA is^^k JHNrancv 'teqnfaom JK pnrtaia 

mouotaia jftood which this loUuiX ^1^ dtoim<8br 
oilT his 

3udiiifaieifb^dtn2^:xnik of .gOTcniniARt ;;«M/-liid|e 


<:ixi The 

124 * Of the Republics of Venice ^ ' 

The tity oFSamt drfended by nature, 
ttob^acedEblc ioAlyioaiOiicffidfin it oonr^naTiitfMr 
fiTCthtnifand foufe.--^." i- . • • f* : :^1f<*n "-"j^ '\y iT> 
r As thft ftaip fprudg tipwltklyv it haa^noc btmi 
a ^ t tQ ic x clcKic religioufrhixury': there^ire aa kfitto 
chiirchcs .and .two* coriirehtS'; ahd^a thiJrd convbn^ 
jwdft3«th«it itaiiinim- there ahc'^lfiaithncttcaftlcip 
wikioh: tower above their habuatbns^n.Therwbole 
t|^!nboi^cdimpFehGnrds:onIy the mountaiDi^D'whidt 
^tt city 'Of SffinC' Marino, .ftands^ ^anki* fomti iuHs 
cukr^tdd' bytfamr inhaJaltants,' who, wkfa thofe ref 
iliei cnTTy-niakerreven' thoufiiid'pedpter' 
jtne<€heottlydemacr3tsiiiitaly*'\.^ i^ ::'^'\r^i^r^iii 
.'>)I:luvB"'0O\^4hewiiL tbet^cowftirttions ^f-ftmr^id 
pufaK»;riji ^hree.<>£. winch aiifboc^^^ 
withoot controul; in the fourth democnjoif:mbf^\m 
bid torrbrealhe.-: A free tniiul could: ttor e jijfijft^- 
fttf-ekher in Venice or^iA -Genoa; bu^;whef^rQf 
makes the happinefs oF liberty c^nfife i«i ^^/eculh 
my attached to a;pe«eablpJifc/^ajvi rilx-chQitltoo* 
ccm -f^xercife of theii'fifiiculiiM^-? ini^l«Tporh«f».fe 
down< veryVco«6nite(Hjff^ii*'tfeenrep^ic ©if L4H:{s% 
AtrtD^Simt MaHB^^^irtKif^mflfty;4jftdowe4-with^^ 
ftCte/fefrtfee-iactSi- wh0^ ttketf<iil$iigHt- ifi^i;QiM[it|fll<^ 
c«ifigf-?bts-thiJtoghB,^'*fldf)FCceWipg- i(th |urto^j,iftl« 
tboAghfs '^'othf^ti^r^iid wh0|a^: imagin^i^n ifigtib 
tifi64iHjrith0^c«a&f9i^ ^jMA 

cracy ? Liberty is beyond difpptc* valuable rpofi 
••i fcffion : 

ftttonr'buccif it cmiftt be.^artlfjifed %tiic ^Kiitfbef 
(if all enjoyments; if we can onlf t!X>lUs^'iil9 fraic^ 
hjf tnbndeflDfling cmipfelvM;To pafe ti^ Scanty ponicmY 
qf^e, nrhicfa nature has «fBg»ec^ to ma»^bpiQiiuin^ 
ged Tock t bj^ fubmitting txr&xaan nafocitty btiDtfailk 
(tfi^inoranoirinetdreficrs J isosbchxildherfcene'bur thaf 
df<iheibr^6undiDg bills ^ tohavie 0idr attemooaiotil^ 
^td^ooxcoBroocs but tIi€?«nivab^dome/'|BdIuig^ 

%ni()ddfcibHbi^^r fttcccffihormf trntits/i i^idiidRjiiv 
CMfinbfl^y; pt^^firnt^Alcwdarg^eujh^^i^ 
dte pirivilege of ^ giviogixiun fifee )VMesfify^jn3diri6^^ 
Idbelldbtjt ^mAitot^ngmsA^ thwDicw: Mcaniifc iiq 
Mflonmnbl Y)fd:cttdcf actfab^o^eehilfe iusrtktftoa^ 

>5^fri)i-!fltUl i^aMnt myiitiearthes (IHll&irtliori iriA 
Mtfetitliiurtd difociviBr iobfixs^rrefiiigrin wiJftbaild 

(dlied* t#ith3 bfeX)di; raad ^ ffaead? tl^^i^^ 

c8f^>i ^WSyi ififtdd Of chftrmi^g^^h^ w^?th^f 

iji«|t ]ifijd't!b6 ftifiekr of de^tb. • '^ ' 

rciTl')! But 

«6 Of the Reptim^ f^cii i^i: 

But let not the French deceive thaxifelvei ; liber« 
tjr will never refide among them, until (he can find 
there a temple whicK^ihe jo^ajfin^ubic in fafety« The . 
foundation of that temple is already laid ; already* 
many of its columns are feen afcending ; but the 
fcifcp^pf j^Ptelcdsficc^^^ tbfaoreraftlqr stwtAi 

a ftorm may retard its ere&ion^ by damaging what 
Jut hitherto been done. If difcord ihould prev^ 

jntteWrW naiteTring to uieTnOi c itoncs* ncwir xeM^ 

of ithMe >Mfiih bangi^Sriity''^'^ >«ri^:-dl(f^ 

idea»:itbe dark rumours fpreadb]i(alviaiifyfdn<W¥b^ 
Utf%o1die.t«rMH^'; kd^ldtd^'iHiRj^HBatf ^ 

^^^- CHAP, 

~ .'J ^ I i. f ^-j ■ ' ■■"■> ■'■ .^^■•^. 

hah 'U ' .»')■ *:*•:.: ■'"*• v* *• v-^."' • '.' .' -'- v^ 

9a&, of the neceffity of. pi»curinggj^)j|pjp9Rt,t>9j|»j 
fintte pow«rlifill prote&bf , th« people <^ Ragufa feat 
two unbafladors to fultan Qrchan, who then held. 
faia counr at Braia. The ambaffadors offered their 
prefents, and defiied afitftance and proce^ioa for 
thoir republic ; aad the fultao, flattered with ho- 

1 14 Of the RepubHcs if Ragkfa and tioUoM. 

mage fo little expefted from a date fo remote front 
his empire, accepted tiie tribute which was pre-' 
fented him; concluded a treaty with the Ragufans ; 
granted them the immunities they folicited ; and 
figned the convention, by applying to it his hand 
^(er dipping it in ink^ according to the cuftom of 
the times. 

This lingular Signature, which infpires us wit(i 
no very high idea of the p^iiiiiianlhip 'df'th^ 
highflefles, is to this' day held in the greatefl: vene* 
ration at the Porte : and the fucceflo^s'of'Orchaii^ 
-would believe, it an offence to their great prop^ei:,* 
if they were. not to fulfil a treaty thus ibtemnly' 
fubfcribed by ao ancient fultan. The 'expencd'in* 
curred annually by this (late, in fending a tribute, 
making prefents, and fupporting an ambki&dor to 
the Porte is faid to amount to five rhoufand (equiasl 
Mbntefquieu, in fpeaking of Ragufafays ^^ Tho^ 
** chief of this republic is changed every ihont1)| 
" the other ofHcers every week ; and the governor 
•• ©f the caftle every day.^' . . . -■ ". f l' 

' The chief is fly led re£tar\; he: is cleded bgr Wtci ' 
butfometimes by ballot: he reiides in/ a paUUre^ 
and wears a ducal robe.^-'His dignity is* not bpr«^ 
preflive to the republic, -which pays him only %.e ' 
ducats for his reign : but if he is* one of thcpre^gai^ 
that is,, one of thofe magiilfates who < judge aiSairs ' 
finally, he receives a ducat per day» - r '■ 

* " * • ^ • • • • ^ ■ # *j • /• . M I f . * 

{^the. B^publks o/Ragufa end M9iUnd. 1 1^ 

The gtand council in which the rovtreigtiry re- 
adies if compoTed of all the gcntlemed in the re« 
public who have attained the age of twenty yeant/ 
It 11 tl^is council that ele£ts the iixty nine mem- 
bers who compote the council of pregadi. 

To thefe pregadi pertains the management of all 
affairs relative to war and peace : they alfo difpofe' 
o( all offices, and receive, and iibnd ambafladors* 
Thtf hold their employment for a year* 

Th^tiffU mncily which is inferior to the fregadt\ 
is cqtnfUcd of thirty gentlemen. They have the 
dire^onof'all matters of police, and of commerce i 
traiifa!^ she bufinefs of die public revenue; and 
try and finally determine caufes which are not of 
m.uch importance. 

Five pr<yoeditori'* form a body of cenfors over the 
adminiftrative powers* Their fanftion, declared 
by ^majority of their fufFrages, is neceflary to give 
validity 10 the operations of thofe who govern. 

In all civil affairs^ and particulaily in thofe 
where debts are the matter in difpute^ fix fenators 
airup&e funftions fimilar to thofe of the confuts (a 
kin4of IherifTs) in France ; but there lies an appeal 
from cbeir fentence to the little council, and fome- 
tinies to the fivereign which is the great council. 

There is a particular judge for criminal affairs,^ 
but he Certainly does hot pronounce a d^efinitivie 
fentence in other caufes. This inconfiitency is 

f f^iem prnfiArii wUch flOC only fignlfici to fTV¥:dt buc to 
ovirbik any bofincft. 

VoL IL K net 

liW^tttiexampled in Franctt : ^avc6uncil'>ittci Arcblt, 
"^tofe decrees -in iciyil em^tff m^te toiivmlidiKt^ 
b^ht^p^lifmeik of P^FiS)^ |)iroiibunc^ ieuieiicci^iif 
death without appeal ; as if ^eciiionuponiiifetaad 
hdnoUr^ei^e 0f left imp^rtaiKe, ihen tboft^>which 
dKeraiitt^pecUttiaiy concerns. ' i" ^ j.r.i o\v 
r- In Ae ytaf 1 763 the republifc of K^pBlkfmx* 
iM^ftimdilfg its weaknefev ^^ the courage- tdt^o|K ^ 
pofe the powerof the^Ruffians^'whathreaccniM'to 
bttmliard th^ dtyi The obj^ of liuffiaiwis to 
' i^blifii th^erd^^ Gredc ^ujrch, :ki order td^^blige 
a ffflMy %7 whofe aid (he hoped in HiM todetadi 
Rag^r from' its^alHamre witb the TurkB. - ^^ I 
^* am ofxtered (faid tount Siagni, who w«s deptit- 
•" ed by the republic to confer with count Orlow^ 
-*^ eh the occafion) not to liften to Jiny fuch.|M>j[>b- 
** ^fei Hei*-imi)cria! liuyefty nuty bombard' Ragti*- 
** fa; but to the moment of itE deftrodionrchere 
*^ 4haU be no Greek church in my coumry*:- and 
• ^^ ^Hfiy ^(jver^n will accept not p3*opo(£tion csonti^* 
i.w^to'ifetrisat^sWitb.the^Fxirt^:'':'- ^ : <-• - 
When we cortfi^ thac^itij-a^ftate wh^tgifardr 
coitfiFfts^^S^ hli^redmld fi^cy^folicti^^^which' 
gitc^ diiS''^pi«)ud«pJy*o;^{i empire likif^ufia^" 
AveHar*>-flaroct?^nbf Aich' h«roi(^-A^^ -Iris oer-- 

taitf ^at' 'c<>u^a^ fo exalt^ cdA^onif :^btPJp»Q. 
-^-dticedlby ar^piutetotaiijipif^^ nr. ; 1;^; 

' * If Ragufa derive ^f^a;c •advantage frot£' t^Ott^ar- 
lie. (be carries on, even ii^^tljiebofom of Turkey, 

-' • the 

• V ^ 

^hoi j^omej. r^WTCs benelics no iltfii/ itpponant 
f£wft;l^«aUiasK^fiof tkis^ republic : &>t:\n itMc 
i(<^j«aroEtgufaMfiftr«i(he6 tbQ Tudb^ witb bMb 

battM.aoil^nxunitioii. : . • : ; nr 

i'ifXiiricoiittoualftiMr entertained by (be lUgu^its 
of being furprized by/pme enemfv T^ntfeirs tJi^Ri 
^Ssatri^nely watchful rancl it m&y Jbe iaid of ;(hem 
ihac th€gr7JkK:k M\ip liberty,, far ^eir g^o^ aii4j:j9pien 

• ?^<t^^i^n$x^ ofrRag^r^ (f^y^s. Re€4^t)!iSkM]ie 

o^f j^opy '^v^nmg «be.^vftrii0O fpf » liw ?f}rW0iSil 

ilSf, Jdftle erf the City ;.;andy l>JtfeoJ*t./<fc^3^•c?et^^S^%ny, 

1 ^ he is called pe<;baps pg* x>f;rfiQiftr^t^ri \^«a- j^^e 

;**^fis; walking wiibp^jt kiwwiagr ^j5 >li^Jflg »i. bis 

v/M*ppiUAjaieW:. a handkerchief >is ^fejea? thrown 

J^vt«j|er bi$ head, a«d he is led WiftdfftldediiiiiW the 

..f/,^i3Cflfc^^wbere noperfoft fuif^4tfcW to com-: 

.!»=*?^aiiandftliaci:night/L .•.-.:.. .-r.^j -.■ ;.ij ,;.; -• 

I: Hi The jCatboHc rdigioa prwitils ja :thi§ republic ; 

^Imtdx has im|pibf d a fptrit;Qf :b»fiQy$(l^iK;e, frjQni the 

ibil; and the AnTU^iaii$,/0hdcTj|lkf> Arej^U9wed 

: <bi^frctfi.exeriifeiof(tbdj:itieligji<fi^ r>r ;i-r'r 

i .KiThe^iriftoocMy of ithfc ncfetei i^flaore y^l?^ at 

, JRaguikithan \nt^ny.o\i^tf!f^t^!(\^n\i^ the tt^^- 

iOTyiadd the. (nqbles alonfc Lairo^ perwjkted to be 

rdlpacbed infilk. Xhi« {rrivilogf; .i$, howj^vji^r grant* 

ied to the dodors^ . though/fimpivciry ough; ;Q..b# 

iifiheifif ftiotnao^iient pf knowledge^ y^ ,. . . . s.. >• ; ; 

This r^piMic has falid tlus Addrefeto {ircfetvl^ffs 
iftdipendciKc between Vciiicd^itlfe Ottom^^pe^iNs^ 
luitd^the houic of Auftria s brit icsallyV'die ^Wk^^te 
to longer able to defend himfelf; 'and thetb fiitm^ 
fefaingito prefetreic from (bbjediafi^ thfiefs^ JM^^nn^ 
wt£r policy fltould find a means -of difaarmiAg'dHk 
rcfentment of Ruffia, and flopping the ptrogrtfs irf 
Awfirfcfti amUtion. . / • . ;^{. ;:••':<• • ♦- t*! ' r* 
\' I havcliattJydefccodcd^fIion^t^*rc^bttc^<^^^ 
nice to that of Saint Maaino* Siatnifow^oihg ltd 
Ibftrtigfcin^ frorirthe republictof Jlaguik to;thEit of 

: JtL'tkiaciiig^ the apolitical hi&iorYx^'&stlcsi'^we^si- 
wjty$ difcover the £tfne trath^. ' Sodettes feeni def- 
ttfted to;e!^rience two^ contrary niortements*t*ider. 
potifm impeh them towards liberty j and aharchy 
drivesthemon to/fcrvitude. 1/ '- 

Holland rcmveA the fwmer impuMe ' tindeV 
Philip II. heir of Charles V. and it is to him ihe 
owes the advantages of figuriB^ in Ewopc bhder 
theform of a repiiblicdta ^power. >«She has" dtfb ieir 
herfclf aflfefted :fay the:latte**;^«nd>a littlie''niore 
wotdd hare placed her at this*^di^ hnder the domi-> 
nion^ofan al^>kuenii(niardy«;' -■ '^' ■''' -^r»(>t - 

The Holiandcrs' derive' their V origin firom © peo^ 
pie 'hnawh in hifto^ by the nameof the Bststviy 
%lK)^;^^Qsr being afTociated with the Roman^^'iihd 
addiag4[bem in the conqueft of Ganly (fell tlMi^edpre^' 
Tinder.iiiief^^mpireQftheFrankjw ; - .:*;:':: 1; 


^^19l^ile#1^voiu^iohfdet8cllbd Holland from Frfthce, 
imdHrendertd-'it aiTfiof of the German empire r ^or 
tiiie'iliDi<^ret|^ty of tjiefe proving eonfing into 'the 
botifir of Btii^undy^'^aiid an beirefs xsf that hoitft 
fifpoidfikig Maxtnnlian' T. thef ^ * ar well zs ^aH xbe 
Ubvr Countries; becAne annexed to the: domihibm 
bf Anflxia. ■ '-'"^ 

The fon of this n>arriage> Philip L king of Spiiiii; 
gi^i^elrnod' all thele dominions'* ^eaCc^ly; - but 
OiarisrVv the grandfon of Maximilian ,' raffed diem 
io th^height (^ "their glbrf. ^* He was (fajrs iSii 
*^ Abbe Raynal in his hiftory) particularly 'bdOTid 
^^irf the Flemings/'wkom W favoured, Bruflels 
^f trasthe place of alli'his dominions, where iiis 
*!:;tourt wasthe moft beautiful^ the moft free, the 
*AImoftnumerous. It was the centrfeofluserapire; 
^^ where the Germans, the Italians^ and die Spa«* 
'/^ biards dl enjoyed equal attention, and no pre* 
^fieminence* . •' / ■ -. - • - ' 

• ;!W; Charles had difcovcred^ rcry early, that the 
^^' Flemings \*ere incapable (if accommodating^ 
^^rtbemfehres to the temper 6f their* matters, and 
^f:he-had the addrdfs to* accommodate himfelfto 
^^ theirs. Philip IL difiiaioed ta flxxip to this con^ 
^^ d^fcenfion ; and the talents, 'the traits of chacac- 
*^ icr,^]land even the virtucfl whicli he difplayed in 
"Grille Low Countries, were all foreign to the ge- 
^f wbM f^the {>eople. This prince, who fought to 
'^ reign in Europe as he hadVeigncd in Afia, con- 

Vir ' K 3 *^ founded 

« ^ founded tbei pruk vidk jthis gl wyro£ thip /#a<|P|lli r 
.*5 and his ownjtights with; bui ufiwfpatiaftfh,*)^^ ,; .. ,t^ 

^ Jtwas in xooiequencc. o£.(h!is/4npifiQ4cHiS;\^^Vii7 
which deipifes the. privileges, of :9^ions.<^ tl^^gSi^off 
qq;acc0uot, that»Philip refoly^^xo ^I^99flt9j}^^ 
]aws;>ia3ipo&>taxfB by the. ii»gle guthpf^ty of|.]4fl^ 
owft/will; create new bUhops^ijaod e(l^l>lilh;af^(f%^ 
qmfiticm) whick hr could , ppc indu^i; the $m^^tj^y 

a4mit ekhecai J^aple9/dr>i^ M^a^^ « ^* 4AiVff}o 
take r pr6teitd& thac : t^; 4^e?4« pf ,tb^, i9q^iri;;jipa;> 
sbiie »a4c tean^r'^Mrotj^ftoffj^; iaFian^^r^^^i^^.all^ 

The innovations m^p % . ?liiiip ; ?QM^. ^\\i^^ 
Flemings; wd .tfaciprki^ip^ Igrdf , aflemblod; at 
Brufiels^ao irpcc^t.xo, thfi. gpv^raefs of ttjue-^ip^, 
countries :dhe violation .of> the^r rights. . Their <aX)r. 
fembHng axthis>ibanner/>¥as regarded at Madri(^^ 
a:i:oi^iracy .; ndioughiC; bad. no one, . chara^eri^ip 
of a revolt^ unlefs fubjedls are- not peroiittpc^ : ^ 
xneeo^for izonferxai^ op thfii' cai^ff s qf compl^pt^ 
anduffcingjredre6if.witbQVti. being 4?ea^c4. ^e^^s^^ 

The-deflianda flf .^l>^>BrA>a(itef3,,werei(Q TOf^cli 
the- better vfoundedj. hecamfp, x^c^y had ^ .ffi^ipnt 
cciijftitutioh exiftii>g;;::wiuch g,^yc thfwu^.in t^^^JS 
of juftice, if not in thpfe of ^"^.^Kyi^ titJe . 19^ it;]^ 
priviVcge;itbey daimtd.. . ,. ., ; ... ^j^,u:,,:i\. 

The low countriea- were an^affemW^gc of p^fi^y 
figniorics, percainihg fQ PhUip,,wd^rdiprejftcg,i 
ties; and each 55f tijefe hadJts.pajjii^^^;^^ iajy>,ar)4 

,.) ufagey, 

tSl^f lhfiMdil^4«d4::badmthe otantiTrof Gtonidg- 

tilt •j^^le'6We[d<to^b'eir4oi!d r'wyimpDfl: coukl. be 

rfefit«a*8y^<^efR«''^bwt a ddiiacui ; uoLfomgic 
tt^p^ ^Mtd! b«> «mMai#ed'^> ftad md' ifttovaBOB. 

<fi't!^^tiee'drd«f^<:: C^ i^ochcoaMicles ,o£itEieir 
ctlBMitlkidi^ is thd3l^x^cl!:ed^I(fi$Wtbo^isereiBii^ 
<i'q»^iVi«Ii^<!^ 'or^q}3^'&¥ilfi(^ J (baH; ktfrbigeq tfaeic 

" oath of fidelitf , and may takis^lliut Ipatt'ovrhidk 

^^-Ontfcnftunktety^ft^ ri<^«m«7pftit»of>che,eifaKauabh 

\vitti'tlifen:haFdi<?tibft,^ttt» cfehventfi>ii»i jatalJiicicoci»^ 

'^fH^fvrtit'KtWy ^^-fck^^to kittgs^tind corfajo^nt^ 
^' l;pfwWed^t0^orflnSartd' t y^^r^iiPilt^is the iuprefDc 
f^l^jii The trieh^\^h6^'a*e efidef^yicjur ddminiim 
'* ar'^' not th^-ftit^eeiMof ^the 'emp«ejLthieyiarefy>»ar 
** Rfbjfed:^, ^hd ^m^ ^o€i fJs f beafcfirfbduty /* ' 
-^'- Wfth ftich|:ij^edep*s,^4ie^ cotntuiudly in? tkc eart 
«y^F>rftKes^ bf tli«f>ba|b t^iw&ii^ien{j • aad ftilbba&r; got 
Vi[#ri8f s,^tfi€ uMirfte elf rfioni^Ghs(.actt.leaiaftniy 5 laari 
having learnt this leiTon, they tbink^(^liaT6:»Q[morf: 
i&htixfL ^Hehce the princip jjaTuesfuch ordtecs^ilnlf 
fi!ya?ftPrtl^geftetf^4)y^Wk' own prides ion by the ari.wt 
iff ''^!Va(tC(itrnfellbrs> >kx^' i iciid* ' tortfh arto^id /men 

K 4 t© 

». • > ; 

fl^ .Q6MffUV|M^^j0(%>JI^^ 

juftice, the ufurper lofes not only v/hf^^fy^^tii% 
|{fu»»!bii^'wbAt 1m a^;^(^|[ j^^^e^ \rhMib i^f^the 

sa^tiiibJP 4«piitieajj6eft%{t9(M^iiifejf,I^^Vf5p«fe* 

<XPQf<Min9l>8<'t^^B«>»i'>M4 «||^dM!«tft^fnplq^«»e)» 
Never was fuch an order executed withi mftf^ 

*«*i^r|«,:\>ff re, «Ij^e:^ft yy^wfeifeUj. hot, thePtiaaw; 
fl(f^ang)£ ^ve4 h»& by. flying fi^-%Qer«»»y r fwhttr^- 
>ftt|»o,he^rtpf tl»ft.C(npinh b^oW^^/Wtfiseuriojj.tiifc 

footv^ped tfeif,p%Boj#i4(<¥)i»S46Pc«'Qf^ ihe^otc 
tpftaniL, princes ;«{!l>fti^yef?f!lfvilhri|ft.l»«i, f»jj» t^e^ 

lfi<w>ps,iJH>4>i.wi^t.y(ai fcar?«^Jbe issiieve^ 

trealure. ,..:ifiv,' .,. ,. .,, ,•. .■,,.^.^ -•,«.•■■!.'•!•:;.';; bnt AVi.h\ 

.^% fm^ M pr^pge, vJM«i«ttA»edy#«d (bavfcn 
bi«* t>)l(^f^e .pf,A It;*, m%i^ W f9fk sM^aat ■ 

' s>;.. • in 

:<^^R»puHiti^i^pif»^imii$4. t|y 

Ae^^rkiiii'priitdiE^ f J befife» ^He CDUttcUKidi^:aiii'-» 
Iftiliti^'gtiWiftid^ a pt^'Of attack^ ' whltih tniglicr^ 

0Hlii^,'Jil^'Kte'i^>aai(Udsi kit^^o {ti«riie'foret'itt 

ymtsii'titithit devkir fee added^S^iitottttv VAiMfSr/^ 
OK mUiat de Forage (traiaqiiil lA 'tiib'^tiftkHI^ ><htf 

*nThe4ffieerj m whom the ptince'giiV«th^ti6thiii 
mUMl i>f hi» (hipt j (urprifed tlie pbrt of BriU^ "^-H* 
cowiMs w^de: hkilfelf ririafter i of thg tit^ 
fact:«6^r«ftoi8iattid«i^e{^ itaiildr^d t&^'^Mhcdr 
of IMktnkI, which W)re<ilAibblei§'viriJSer tiie c^iioi 
of jC^lrMA]^^ ■begbh' i&4hdyS%6^itW''li6^ W r^b^r-- 
ia^' cit«ir<6«^irii -<l^h^'el66led die'pKnbe '^ 
0iM%«4h<&<' gdViihto^'-VHi^'^Wus 'heid|vby ihbk^ 

him, and afterwards withdrawn, by Philip.'^"' - ' 

u'Fltts>^ikcii^itV^ia«dliiiH^f-ol'tl^%«lH^i <^^r. 

caiii0dli%aiiU^t)tt» Sjttttiafds ^^y^^f^foibf ti'iftH'^' 

a* ders 

der^ i6r\irf^pxi% ther provinces w itakt iOiiSki^* 
fiiein 21 lekgut^^ which was called 'die paeificattoMP 
ofGhenu ^ *-•' *• ■ j- -r'- * ^^- '-*»i('*f»'; 

If^ at this crifis^ the pfoiridces of BinbaiAt' iMd^ 
joined in this Icagtiei for throwing off the yoitocrf 
Aitftrittj Wie Low Cbuiitries would now have en^by^^ 
^'fbr^wo icMrturies that indepehdettcty fer ^wfaic&s 
theyUately contcndcdiMvitb-fo little liatni6M]ri 
atfd-fo'ttiuchdifadvdntage'. ■■-'''' i '*'■.■•"■ \ -^-'^ * ^^^^ 

The athbitibn of the lords of^F4aflders^ttnd'i']il^^ 
bam, jeateus^ of the authority -and the<d#^^6F4h6^ 
Prince of Orange/ '«opc the ^effeft dFa%ift^j»eit^ 
jeft, which would'hairef-gi7eii't5tffiencea» tS«*a*ft- 
powerful republic in the world. * ' " ''^^ 

The league wa*/ ftdth this want of -agreement, 
coTifirfed to the Sevett 'Proviivcesi kncjwii uittfer'thc- 
name of Holland, and thefe executed in 1574^^ 
the ffemoui treaty of Utrecht, which is the great^ 
fundaimetttal law of the republic* By tbat law Wirl*^ 
liam Prince of Orange Was d^eclared the* thicf^^ 
with the 'titles of tJaptain, high adniiral, andftadt; 
Jioldcr. ■ -:■■• '•'• .■■• .'^>i''- '■"• <. ■ ■ '-■*'-■■:. ;^ 

Philip thought he ha* a righttcy fet a price oh' 
the head of this prince,* whom his ^ridir nudb hibi^ 
confider' a5 the chief of rebels; but what the golfl^ 
of a tyrant could not effeft, fuperftitioaatcomplifhV 
ed. A native of Frenclifconipte, name* Balthdittr* 
Gerard, affaffinatted him at Delf in the -fight of ills' 
wifi; NSlbO'had loft her firft hufbaiid; and her fkhbr,- 
•' ' ' ' Admiral 

t9i^A . ii^^ 4bh<%<?9^ fBViA the . Roman cadw^: 
religion have appeared to this princefs, if ihe.b&> 
-Ik»^: it «»blft of ioli^pg, fych deed* J, 
loEhe fim: rcffiublic owed .tpo large a jdeb^ of gra*- 
doi^^ to th$ memory of the JPrince.of Orap^q, noi 
MojRWfc .M?*iHric^ hii{(m i^ ,the dignity ,he|4l^. 
h^cfjiti««, ihPHgh he was ^ff^ s>P^y f^Teii /ywf. 
old. This prince juftifie<i^^;jpJl^qe qfjtljf rJHvJ'f? 
lapifer8,;ii>i§piBfiding ip viin;ii*%rw;jr4s .?fee qjpa- 
iWI»45pCA>ft^ jtMf: ian4 a»rtifi?a fcrc;esf ,^r, he^^. 
<)WKf4> iui;tfa^ engagetaeiVi^.lK had with the %>a« 
q^^iap^fneatSj the repu^tion pf/the grt^ffihero. 
of his time. . ,,. ^. . , , :, 

"^he life, of Prince Maurke was .^n a}(PP^ VQ^n' 
tf^upi!e4 fceoepf battle^, feges, and, v|<^9i;ies.;;Ia-. 
tc^^^ted with his fuccefl^^Sx .{i^d his glory,,, he, ^r 
fftritiuiajfily fojighjt another ,prowi^.jt)efid;es»jj[jftt^. 
Jilf Jaiw#s,,\v^icJ» he had^ g^jhqred,, . T|}p,4^ 
the,greateft ggivqral in )<jurpp(; c;o)jld not^t,isfy,l)j^. 
ajpfe^qj} i l^gf ^9Je.£tftd,|h.eiJc(lrua;.ion,of the w.qj-Ij, 
accomplilhed by his father, by raifing a tbro^f? jii 

Mrr#f;»e,n|ij'.^i?l}re4 of jjie, ffifigdOjip .qf^arns-: 
^.';?> ttije c^i^jj; ii^r^a w]>Q cqyl44et,erp>ins.t;iejHS; 
<l^[6'fii.P?*f<??^^^^ge qfhi^. ,lintevpFJ?t^„CQJp|i](PPi.- 
<^^A'.h9,t}mni^^, de^gW. ..I?5¥..tli»t,,.r5:|)vljlica.n, 
whpitjiovjg^ 1\?; loy«^ Maurice, , Joyed jns^ c<mm.Y:> 
WdWfSi-ifkS''^S4.r^Sf^ .dffpieafure at ia,:^rojaa: 
,;,:nL/. againl^ 

jij^O: Xhfi .l?bei:ty of ^^s fcl W eitiizpns; tJMe Matr- 
riqe i«ked with difappoincmeat fmi apger in hh 
co]Qntciunce. This anger foon . changed intqi iisif 
tied %^in(l the grand; penfionarjr ; an4 the ftddir 
i)9^er j^>npe4 a refolution to remove that .obftt^ile 

The republic, which ^^uld v^t - th*t, iiniQ> .h^CH 
beqni whpUy empkgpcd m con^jde^kig^h^ of 

cfU^fhi^ it^ liberty and its power, bedat^e !^gi? 
^atfijdjjy v^ qyarrel^ concermng thein^uence.^of 
thc^l^jdu^Jn the aftions of . mea.— Twq ^fe^s ,^ 
tida^ xhtp4^on f and to fuch{a' d^g^efc y^niitim^ 
minds of the people inflamed, that every perfonM^iiif 
obliged to declare himfelf a partiz^n of one jeif the 

BameTelt had joined the fed V/hich ww. tjjcf^ 
tolerant: f which was^ alpnc fufficient ,10 ci^^ 
Mwnce attad^ .hin^felf to^the pppofite party. j agi^ 
he :P«fhed his abufe of authority, an^ihi^infcjfe 
encc over th<^ fanajtic^ /O; fafy aMO'^uf(; 0Hec.<|J| 
the i^vpft yimious lepofelitaa? that fver ex«n:e4,;t% 

***** ^ ■ ^^ 

•perifii. on a firaflbld. - . - . ^ot 

The- end of >this yidita ww: much: lefe: unhapi^jt^ 
than that of the inv^d^f^ ;/f;hagrin empoUpne^^^C^ 
days, and bent him to the tomb, d^YWred.vWt 
rcgrcc^or wt having fe^en ab]e to plaw? thaicri^iv 
upoA his. bpQW, . whjic4>? was tfee only ol^i^dtfifebiP: 

amtjltiOn. ■■■. ,■.^• * .:,•,::■- .• ■.'■ ^^l \ ^•■.fv^ /^::):> 

|Hk yePlTaaxne'htftbiidti^ Ih-hls fttilily/ Mkurrtit 
Jaarii^-dki$;wklM}ub chiMrto, the republic conibv 
tdit Stitm i^n' FTetfe^rick; faii-Bcotfaer; whoj,' with 
xl)iP&ifiie'«tledt&''for «rar; Htid'a tnbi^-cdinceahid 
ambition, oontributed to render hts 'cbuhft-y oik 
•f'A^'flteieft'powtri of'EUife^. ••■ '1' '•■■■ 
v^ ii'««»d«rJnfg«hi'Ufe<of tl^i^fHtdt'fabrdet'tM f^ 
Umi ^Mffe^irotA'thc Pb/tt%iM>'ihefi' &ild(('ii«ttrfe- 
■ ifteftt«ii«'i«ytfi'th^;Eaft ahd ^imMwii iH^fir' 
nHftpHift^^ acktiowl^dge- ^'tt^ itt^et^ei^'eb^e 'of 
4ibfti to ^bdm ibb had allied- tlb'tidb' df t^ 

^ff toj-ii! Mtj / ! ■ /■- ■..;t;'.i;ii ),.;■..)■■, ■.•■.■;i T "> rj>'!;:. • 

'^I'Fisdetkk Itffit at his death oneohtyTiMi^^i^eii^ 

xy-OQC years of age, who was immediatelyittrdSEliS^ 

ya^h- alt the- %^pointnient» <<f bis fathcK "' ''fli is 

faftmg ftadCfettldier, who poffdfed the -warlike 'gii' 

WUtt of *i$ tfnetftors, h©i being' able w iHi^ 

AiiiMofl'tbif- posters ^HfcH'wa« it peict witBtfie 

lipabti^V -rfaetltmned^'trf 'efeploy'' tfiitti for fubjri- 

gtitittg'fefe <idvm^: i^id'iitiftiiad <>r^rmilfiog the 

foreign troops, agreeable to thewtfft-Haiif rhcTeptitJJ 

l^n'#tk« b^d n)>'fiSrt)^ aitcaifibh'fiSr -fteirYeiT^e, 

htatfHChtdjfhim to himfdf, aM ftnited xhHih tm'i^ 

d^ %ife«tt«»iattdi ■ -''■>■■ --' .■-• -^ •' '''•'-' ■'■•■- «-x''^ 

« - 4Urtaldjf J tNri^' the" yoim g > p«ri&e)e 6h the '}^M W 

rier, who had penetrated even to the city>-''v^h^'' 
mat being ot)ferved, acquainted the magiflcat^ 


t^h their danger. ^Tfae gates ^ereinftaittly Ihut^ 
the citizens put under annsy the eifinon ^tuounttd 
on^the rsmports^ guard Ibips ftationed in the fk>rt9 
the floces opened^ and the country laid xttid^^tj^. 
The fiadtholder^ difconcerted bythofepri^t^iratis, 
wad obliged to Confine hi^ demands to the nemdilU 
V of" a burgemafter; « and thus retired ia^&fi^ feiia 
Mbeforea city ^ where te flattered himfelfiieih<ittidj 
in the 'diaradter of &)V3A:t9gny havegiveo' laws^to 
Holland. . :•■■ -- ;, ^-^ .Xf- ->f^ miof \ 

This ambkious young man, crtiworthf lofcbebi^ 
lE^^eitizeh, iinee'^lie k^ew not how 40 cohoaiciidiA- 
fclf with being the chief member o£ a repubUc;:di^ 
like Maurice, the vidim of texation; He leftvno 
pofteritytbut ian infant yet unburn * - . '■'' 

i^^ Wheftthis chiidcame into che world (fayifAe 
*^ Abbe Raynal) tJi& populace of Holland, o>j/Ko 
*• neither know tew to fupport tymnity^ or piidcfhre 
^ libeny ; to be the foverd ga '. themfelves, at>to 
^ ^ obey a liiafter, ' (hewed^ as much.^ attaditnent^ to 
^^ the infaftt as^they iiad teftified^hattodifor tiku^fii^ 
" ther; and^ihe ppoud dries, v.which; they : had 
>*^detefted iniiie:»one, they wi&ied* to fee revived 
** in thcotheri" . ^"^ ■ ' .t - ^: » .u^iv > ..ii 

Fortunately there were then magiibrates{(itthe 

i^ead of th^ republic who,' without deipating^popu^ 

lar favour y preferred tbe-jhonoiiDiof fdfVingi^^thtir 

Qoontry to the advHntdige of making peictizsuhtsriahd, 

'by a wife and generous plan of adzseymftjraticii, the 


tjikf^e^fid of oafifam andadmirdl^iieraK 
, J ; At : ^1% pet3iod Cromwell came, under thtf tide 
oiE.prooe&or^ lO arrAf himfetf in the royal o&mlc, 
^idfzmcbed Ipyi&itB' in the blood of its laaeima£ter« 
'jrb0rvinfortonaC!5ijQiu«iaft$ of the throne^ which, he 
. jhad mreituined^ ^ing before this ferocious enemy, 
, iiad ^fosuid ^an* afjbio) in Holland, and noelHag 
.norci was wanting to make Cromwdl its foei . ; « 

John de Wit, the grand penfionary, fo^indr^hini* 

;^mf plftcefdl in confequenoe^f^ his viFtUfsf^i in^oppo^ 

£faoa£D the mofl; audacious, ufurper, the.moft-ablc 

trpcflitioian^ andtht moft wipiacablp ; c Aemy that 

i'perhdpdie^erexifted. :»"» r/: * 

If the moft fubUme< ideas/, tlie^ moft, patciotic fe^« ' 

d6cQents,<:6uld..ha¥t enfured the viftovyi' Jt>hn de 

olVKrit Would (have triumphed, over Crotftw<eUc but 

!i dm HfHlaoder found qot in bis fellovv^ oiti^eofr^ the 

. £tme retborces^ nor the .fame cofifiden^^, nor did 

. hr^poflefs: the : feme dfcfmdency .^fi^rthem^ as had 

jieeb obtained fliniEngland^. by: tliremt^n. who iCalled 

birofelf the prme^or of his <roiiotfy . .: 

■y^ Holkod^ cxhauft^ by hcE>eforts:f(3n babncing 

the empire of the ocean, was forc'ed fx>:iigti a trea-. 

;i.ty^jby>.wshi«b?tbe ftai^s-general of the Uniied-Pro- 

' vjocetrriftgigiod.diemfelvev^* to abandonfthe intt- 

:;S*>reft;otAe piFim;€a of tbe.houfe.of Sce^vartrIo pro- 

. JiilcahiNthw nq)hew ;jwirie« :Willian> ; aj-kdmerer 

144 Of the Bepkklifs rf.^apifa aiUMMmd^ 

^^ to admit the prince of Qrgoge, or aoy of 
'^ defcendaatSy as ftftdtholder or governor of ^hfi 
•* republic/* 

When we conlider that France^ in the early parC 
of the reign of Louis XIV. was fo mean as to fub-« 
fcribe to the conditions impofed by Cromwell; and^ . 
in complia^ice with th90i> to drive from the king-* 
dom the two grandfons of Henry IV*. Charles lU. 
and tbp Duke of York, we cannot be furpriie^ 
ibat^ Holland preferred the pcace^ of which it had 
ta much need, to the honour of giving an aiylvMH 
to foreign princes. , . ^ 

All great events in the hiftory of any nation dcMj 
pend upon each other. If Cromwell had left a foOn^ 
as ambitious, and as rapacious after, dominion as 
his father, that Ton bad never dcfcended from tha 
Sovereignty of which he was for a moment in poTr, 
feffion; Charles had never recovered the EngUIb- 
throne; the prince of Orange, who had himfelf 
figned that declaration, publiflied under the title of 
the perpetual and irrevokable eJi£iy (the fubftance of 
which was, '^ that the office of iladtholder, gover- 
♦* nor of one province or of many provinces, JhauJd 
** never be cottferred on any perf(m. wbateva,") would, 
not have beeninvefted with that dignity; and the 
ixrpublic of Holland would always have been go* 
verned by its own magiftrates, and continued a 
democratic (late ; inilead of being as, it now is> 
a government fubjeft to a n^er^ who bears the 
modeft name oijiadiholder^ 


6fl^^iigpkbtrc^ of Ragufa and HoUMd^-^ 14 j 

' ^Ife ifeftoratioh of Charles IL reanimated the 
fHeriife rf tlie Piincc of Oninge. They ufed every 
means of rendering the adminiftration of the repub- 
fit bdiotts to the imihitude, and at laft obtained the 
riif'ocation of chat.edift, which had been published 

In fain did the grand penfionary reprefent to the 
people that, of the f6nr {btdtholders who had beeii 
^fBcblifted in the republic, two had endeavoured^ 
l5y fecret means, and the other two in a more opea 
xtbttrQeir, to introduce tyranny into the ftate : the 
penfionary himfelf was obliged to confent to fee the 
PUnce of Orange invefted with all the titles of his 
ariceftors, after an adminiftration purely rcpubli- 
i!ah, had prevailed in Holland for nineteen years, 
fli order to level all obftacles to the abfoluce au- 
tWbrity of their chief, the multitude, whom it is fo- 
dkngerdus to govern, even with fuccefs, maflacred 
John de Wit, and Cornelius his brother, who al- 
litbft equalled him in talents and in virtues. 
^ Thus, of two illuftrious citizens who had held- 
thirdffice of grand penfionary in the republic, one of 
thchi (Barncvclt) died upon a fcaffold, and the 
Other periftied by the fury of the people. What 
ail exaniple is this to men, who poffeffing neither 
their talents or their virtues, afpirc at being borne 
by the public fuffrage to the higheft offices of a 
monarchy, or of a royal democracy * ! 

■'*- mm. 

* The nimtf given Hy thcFrctich to their prefect gcv^rnment. 

Vol. II. L --- • - - -But 

146.. 0/)i^iiJitpuJUics:^:J^^^^ 

But a title, more fuperb than that of govcrndr, * 
or chief of a republic, was refcrvcd foif William lU*! . 
Prince of Orange. , . ; : , >" 

James II. king of England, who might have been 
better inftrudted by what had happened not kmgbie^^ . 
fore, trifled with the liberty of the nation; and^ ^^ 
willing to make his opinion triumph in every pointy 
dictated to his people in / religion as well as law^ ;. 
Lofty and violent in rhis temper, h& difdained^ as. 
Ujdworthy of a fovereign, ^ that management which> ' 
throws a veil over authority, and makes men be-» . / 
lieve tliat they,A<3: frpin inclination, when in truth . 
it is the hand of foine lexpert condudtor which Icads^o 
them on* ; 

Deprived of all, by grafping at top much author 
rity, and ceafing to be a king, in confequencc of; 
his fcekiipg to be a fovereign, the defcendantiof^ 
Charles I. preferved his life, but loft his crown;, 
and it was given to the Prince of Orange his fon--in-<'' „ 
law, who united the titles of king of England and? 
ftadtholder of Holland. 

Though William III, had, under thefe two:. 
titles, a very confpicuous part to a(ft during thcv 
reign of Louis XIV. his name docs not make adiy 
very great figure in hiftory ^ for the fuccefsof his 
arms was owiii^ to two iliuitrious warriors, worthy. ' 
of contending for the prize of glory with the gene-» 
vaU of France :.anji though he had caufed.the.. 
ftat-es of HpJljiLndJQ deQlar^ his. dignities^ hereditary . 


I • 

in fittwiir dof his male iflue, as he died without 
chSlIiien>' thib' firftifakwi, levelled at the liberty of 
the Seven Provinces, was without efFed, 

Holland; at this period, appeared difpofed to 
folfatt^ ttoe wife, coimfel of the late grand penfion- 
arj^/de Wk,. and to^free itfelf fronn the authority 
of a ftadtholder. What occafion, faid they, can^ 
there be for a chief, ©r 'perpetii^l governor ? Pa- . • 
trtotieburg(>niafters are found in all our cities : t!he 
repobUc :hard(b good admirals; and money co pay • 
troops^ and to place at their head an able general : 
itsiindependence is acknowledged by all the powers 
of Europe; and have we acquired liberty for no 
other, purpofe than to facrifice it to an heir of the 
houffe of Orange? Or, is it necefliry that the 
treafure we have gained by commerce, or faved up 
by loeconomy, ftiould be expofed to the caprice of 
a ftadtholder ? What advantage has Holland 
gained by the war in which Prince Eugene and; 
the Duke of Marlborough diftinguiftied themfelve& 
fo glorioufly ? Her name was fcarcely mentioned 
in the occafion, and yet we defrayed the whole ex- 

vThis^ife reafoning circulated through the whole 
extent of the Seven Provinces, and fufpended, for 
fof ty-five years, the nomination of another perpe- • 
tual chief. But, unhappily for the republic, an 
attack Wis made upon its provinces by France, in- 
thei fij^ap ij 747^ and' the friends of the hou^b of Or* 

L 2 angc 

i i 

1 4S of the Republics of ka^fa and HotlaniSH 

ange took advantage of that event to bring into 
play the rights of a prince of Naffau, who pofleiTed 
the ftadcholderlhip of Friefland and Groningen* 
The province of Guelderland had fome years be- 
fore declared in favour of William of Naffau : and 
in fine his caufe was efpoufed by that force, which 
is fuperior to war, and to the wifeft revolutions : I 
mean the multitude ; a body which very rarely em- 
ploys its power for the temperate reform of abufo, • 
and the recovery of its legitimate rights ; biit Which 
deftroys every thing, of which it cannot clearly 
perceive the reafon, without careing about the in- 
jury which may be done by it to public affairs; aiid 
which frequently proceeds to the correftion of 
abufe only by the commiffion of other abufes. 

The regents of the republic had certainly com- 
mitted great faults : they had raifcd an ariftocratic 
power on the ruins of that of the ftadtholder : the 
burgomaftcrs were become fo degraded by a vile 
felfifhnefs as to farm out the taxes, and afterwards 
take a (hare in the bargain ; the -confequence of 
which was, that as the concern was their own, they 
ihidied only their own profit, and direfted the col-, 
leftion of the taxes in the moft feverc and opprcf- 
five manner. * 

This proved to the people, that if the chief, 
whom they had lo(l, was fometimes defpotic, a 
thoufand tyrants had fprung up in his ftead ; who. 
iiifplayed, gn every occafipn^ an odious and hiimili- 


'€^ the Republics of iRagufa and Holland. 1 49 

au^rity. The pleafure of overturning thefe 
f^^l^tsi^ of triumphing in their vexation ; of aveng- 
ing., Acir contempt ; and of crulhing them down 
uoder the authority of a fovereign, fo entirely bc- 
Mrildercd the minds of the multitude, that they be- 
lieved themfelves fecuring a great advantage by 
placing William of Naffau in the feat of honour 
audi of .power. This prince, although he had done 
nothing to ferve the republic, obtained more than 
I^d been.granted to any of his predeceffors ; for all 
bis appointments were declared hereditary in f avow 
of bif pojlerity ; and even daughters y in default of male- 
fffii^f were to he admitted to the enjoymen ' of them. 

What a return did the people receive for this 
blind zeal ! The new ftadtholder aflbciated with 
hio^- in power thofe rapacious courtiers, who op- 
prieflfed the unhappy Hollanders during their ad- 
n^iniitratton ; removed all fuch as dared to oppofe 
his injuftice ; fold offices and employments ; caufed 
himf^lf to be named diredor-general of the India 
company ; appropriated to his own ufe a part of 
their dividends; took no care for the re-eftabli(h- 
ment of the marine, or fortifying the frontiers; and, 
in. ihort, reigned, like too many other monarchs, 
for himfelf and his partizans only. He died, in 
^.jjii^ unlamented by any, except thofe who might 
have looked for new favours at his hands. 

The princefs of England, his confort, was de- 
(;Jape4 : ^Qvernefs during the minority of her fon 
■"' " '" ■ ■ L 3 ■ ■ ' ■ Wil. 


150 OfJte R^puUia. gf R<^g^{a^m<^Hi^^a(f4. 

William V. and Loqis i Dukie ; .<%f BrvH>f^iK^^ ^iko 
had been brought from th§ hofi^mrP.tG^riflgapyjjby 
;the late ftadtholder, to be the gxpveriv>r ofi .l^i? fon, 
.was appointed comipander in cUiief.pC thje fprcs^p^ 

During the courfe of this mipority, tfoJianjlj re- 
tained nothing of a republic b\u thp.^n>6.;;;:lrhe 
princefs, feeling no affecVionfoiia nation tiAtp iyjwtjh 
•ihc came aftranger, govcir^ied uufh api ia^p^rij^if- 
Befs and feverity^ more agreealjje >to f^he chaf^d^ 
of an Afiatic emprcfs than to tUatpf ^,fu^:y^.Afa 
freeftate. . .. .. ; j ,.-: ,, .,- . ,-y {\ 

. As to the Prince of Brunrwipjc, train^jd ij{^ in 

courts, where, therfc is nothing.. feeni but poi^flpwid 


and fubmiffion, he taught his pupil, no fe^tjpients 
but what were deftruftive of civil liberty, j He^ll- 

■ ed die army of Holland with a rnuUitude of for^jgp- 
ers, particularly German?; difcouraged tbiq ftatippal 
'Officers; introduced new maxims into thp :fqi'^:ke, 
and detached the troops by every pQfliblp qiq^s 
from the intereft of their country, as if h? was pre- 
paring at a diftance for the laft revolution.: .This 
agent of extended his authority even, ^nto 
the civil department. In the name of his. pupil, 
who was then become of age, he formed all. t,bie, re- 
gencies of pliable men, who never had jin.a^iini- 
fb'ation any will but his, oj: confujted any perfons 
but themfelves in municipal affairs. ; > . / 

Notwithftanding all this, William V. continued 

. until the year 1 78 1 , to be beloved and f <^fpeded -by 


Hfateaftdfei^: '4!rtJ4eW hatred Wa« turned agaihft 

't*i<*D*ft^^f*'BftiflrwlckV wh6 was, in confequenoe, 

'^6tt!gfed'tb^Vj6ltth* ycpiiblid: btif> be left behind 

hifri; ift flW miiid of His jHjpil, the principles which 

lifaft' i^irtfidircd hirtl'fo odiOu$.^ di the averfioh of 

-"^illiaihtrasdireiftted'againft France; ail his sUFec- 

• tioffis ^cehtrtd^ f h ■ EtigJand t ami ' it was uflder the 

•itfffil'ehccf 6f thtife feritimems, -that- the prince, in 

^^hlttept'tff tteattesi itt^de fomanyeffortifor cota- 

rihadiftirigthe? wlllbf hisfcotrntry; .and for fofcing the 

Dutch to aid the Englifli in opprefling the Amcri^ 

- fcihs, -^Ittd-'td declare themielves againft France and 

Spakt'm the laft war, it was rtot owing to him nor 

tb^thefprincefshisconfort, that this republic did not 

'Hvgr^the chains of flavery ; or* that the lofs of its 

'iMHhb^ and of its poffeffions in Irtdia, did not fall 

^tht'fecrifice of its refiifal. Abufing the power he 

^bfleffed as high admiral, the prince gave all the 

• 'ddiy he could to the fitting out a fquadroa intended 

^agaihft England, which had infnlted the flag of the 

'tepublic; and he allowed Vice-admiral Byland to 

carry into Portfmouth five (hips, which ferved as a 

convoy to a large fleet, and to take fourt(^t*a velicls 

^tfbrt any declaration of war. 

'^ When he UAderftood what a vigorous refiftapce 

•^Vice-admiral Zoutman had made againft Sir Peter 

Parker; who, with afquadron of very fupprior' 

fo^c'e, was* obliged to fly into Iheker; he was fo far 

itova (haring the public joy, and riie honour and 

. L 4 glory 

glory of his^ CQpnti^y^ ih» ht'<Qviii OM^^ifl^iaMc 
his vexation in prefence o(::^ officer rwha Jbforcn- 
^^ him of the news, .bui:~ (juScred. cfae& mirds to 
^c&ape him^ at leafijfir^ the Ei^li/k.^trf npt beatM.- c 
t His partkiity for England wa^ fmicbi a* tomsice 
J^l\x^ b^ome the declared enemjiroflHfdUaiid* TMs 
4)€ tpanifeflod in giving thofe order s> fey ^1¥iiicliiii}he 
4^iicch fquadrqn was detainedfroi? JQilii^ng tbQ9^&:micb 
4eeCi which lay waiting fof %\xe&% 'ixi i^im »^Aat^. 
:.This perfidy, (poropleudyop^n^ditbe eyet,i^m)l:£be^ 
patriots^: from that nioBnentflthey b^gai^. tQ foruft fni>- 
litary aflbciations; and to affemble difit^eiK bodi^^ 
lof . volumeer>, who praftif^d the . ijaartijU pjftorcife 
Jike. regular troops. , : u 7 ^ 

The (ladtholder, alarmed at the daily progTcfs 
made by patriotifra, had recourfe to thofoabjieft 
means which tyranny difdains not to employ >.:iic 
hired both waiters and preachers .to propagate Jihels 
^mong the people; he converted ;heeyangeJicaUeats 
pto. rqftrums for publishing fedition ; he ariimat^d 
j^he troops .^^inft.the municipal. officers ; he caufed 
|Jie ^larm of iroi)bie :to be- echoed every where ; and, 
fVtting up the ora,nge cockade^ left, the Hague un^ 
der pretence that he was deprived of the command 
yf the city^ . He then ftiewed himfelf, without any 
appearance: of pomp; as if reduced to, the, moft. de- 
plorable ftate ; and after going. in this'mainneu to 
2^ejand,, he paffed on to Ericfland {. and, alvv^ys 
aq9prppj^j) hi^ family, endp,avpure^ to excite 
I every 

-^mf^^d^ liusit'i^oiyceraM^liieh' awaits an unfof- 

• ^ Aided fity^xiii&'anidce, and^thc fuccours fenthhti 
by 4iioreign xrotirt, licJ hfts rcin(bited himfelf in -un-' 
limittfiautborky; brake the baftds which united 
^n^&nce to' 'Holland'} and ^ by forming tfcem^agaiii 
'lidtit England; ht has^rendcrcd aborrhre the fthertic 
^conoeiv^ed by the g(!>6d partriots, of* giving to Hoi* 
Ctmi! a'^osiftttdtioK very fupef lOr t6 th^f which ex^ 
ifteA tuifder the fifiR:- ft^dtholders, and Which has 
becngrbwingiwdrfe iHider^hef th^ec laft thieft tif 

' iBeftft'e iwamine the coAftitntidn of Holland; I 
(hall take a review of the events which I have bdih 

I feav« ihewna people, irritated by Spanifli defp^- 
ifm, 'a«id-by the invalion of their privileges, ffimg- 
glc 'agaittft a monarch w'ho was then the moft 
pdwerful prince in Europis'; preferring death to 
oppttdfion^'furmountfng,' in a Country commanddd 
by the fea, both the fury of tyranny, and thatof th6 
ocean; exetcifing thcfirft'^right of men united fit 
fo€iety,that of cKufinga chief; irtipofing upon hi'm, 
a^theiiril of all duties, that of defending and pro* 
tefting their libtt-ty; and granting him, on ihJit 
ct^hdkion,' allthe honours, all the privileges atl" 
tached'to the dignity of a monarch, 

' The firft chief, after having been himfclf thi 
pbjedt of perfeciitioh under arbitrary aurliorityjl 


which he had therefore partknihr cadfe to^ hSfc, 
ftill darkly meditated the tneatisof dbt^imrtg it; and 
« fecretly nourifhing', even to yeath, the defigft'ctf tt.- 
viftiing from the republic that liberty to which tie 
* owed his elevation. Happily for the hohtirar of 
his memory, an atrocious crime, of which he w%s 
-the viftim, prevented the execution of ^ hiS guiky 
. cflterprize. • ••. ••^''-'-" 

: ' The fon of the firft ftadtholder, invefted-by the 
unanimous will, by the free choice of his fellow- 
' citizens, with the fame titles which his father had 
merited, could not defend himfelf from this frenzy, 
which i^ the difeafe of chiefs. The laurels which 
he had gathered in the field of viftory ; the repu- 
tation of being the greateft general in Eumpe ;the 
honour of being the moft redoubtable protedlor of 
•liberty, could not fatisfy the ambition of Mau- 
rice : he bad all the authority of a king, but ftill 
he wanted the title : and becaufe he found a cou- 
rageous refiftance in one virtuous republican, be 
^ poluted all his renown ; for the hero, covering 
"himfelf with a religious veil, and employing the 
mean difguife of hypocrify, Ihcd the blood of 
the pureft of mankind ! The fpeftre of the generous 
.JBarnevek was ever after prefent to Kis imagination, 
fnd he was borne down to the tomb by remorfe, 
and public indignation. .. . .- ■■ 

The third chief appeared, by hi^ condiift, 
lefs intent on reigning than finilbing hi$ life'^in 


f^^e-ji tsfVt^Jl^i^ roQ){be^ed hiap^Teif without referve : 
w^S tyiri|^ th^ arms o^^fbreiga^r^ againilhis country, 
jBnd>wa!$:4^^rmU>^ to penetrate into its bofojUy 
,i|(^ a&a w^fciulmini&r^or^ but a bloody conqueror. 
; A^acci^ of having failed in. his guilty projed, 
.jand feeing nothing, around. him but diilruil^ ^is 
.d?tys were jliortened by vexation ; and he died, like 
Maurice, without having acquired the fame glory. 
The fon, who owed his life to this ungrateful 
. i:Uirfi )>ad,pQt then fecn the day ; and the republic 
Jfell .un^AT an ariftqcracy. JLt was .not at th^t period 
,able 9r intelligent chiefs that Holland wanted, but 
true citizens, who knew how to divide the authori- 
ty,, without diftindion of rank or birth, to all who 
were capable of exe;rcffing it : citizens who would 
.have exerted theipfelyes in guarding the rnuUitud^e 
fro^i all oppre/Iion : who would always have (hevvji 
^jthe l^w triumphant, and not their will ; and who 
would have encouraged induftry, and repreffed li- 
centioufnefs, not only by fear, but by the exaniplc 
pf. found morality, and a wife pubjic fpiri.t. 
. . During the courfe of two interregnums, the arifs. 
..toqrapy fell. into the fame faults,. the fame injuftice, 
,and.fJ>e fame e^eifes: .nobility, and antiquity of 
jf^tnjilifs, appeared to them to deferve the preference 
^n the diilribution of honours, of rank, and of lucra- 
tive employments. They caft, with the fame obfti- 
n^cy^ both duties, taxes, and privations, on the 
.^4lfjtu<^f; without regarding, their ii;iurmurs or 

15^ -■■ (^jly^<RepHhlic^s.0f JRjsguf^ 

complaints, until ibefe murmurs, and»thcfe com- 
plaints, were changed into the cries of fedition ^nd 
fury. The people, defpifing the counfcl. of pcai*- 
fionary de Wit, raifed to the foycreignty the heir 
of the houfe of Orange; defpoiled themfeivje3 in»hi5 
favour of the valuable , privilege- of elefting their 
governor; and, in order to deprive the ariftocracy 
forever of all hopes of governing, they declared the 
title of ftadtholder hereditary: 

Under William of Naffau, the republic ei^l^rged 
this facrifice, by extending this favour to all the 
defcendants, or heirs of the houfe of Orange, with-, 
out diftinftion of fex* : ^ 

It was impoffible to pufli to a greater extremity 
the excefs of hatred, and a blind defire of ven- 
geance : but alas! what was the confequence t^ 
the multitude ?— a civil war, of which we h^ye 
feen the commencement and the ifTue; and liberty. 
crufl^ed down under abfolute authority ! 

On the death of William of Naflau, his fon, ftill 
a rninor, became nec^flarily the chief of the re- 
public ; and his mother was appointed governefs. 
This princefs, who in her heart preferred her for- 
mer country to that which had adopted her, facri-i 
ficed the interefls of Holland, to thofe of the court 
qf London. , . 

A foreigner, called from the bofom of Germany 
to Superintend the education of the young ftadt-^ 
hoidl|er^{,afrcr having been appointed to the chief 



Qf^aiKepMa''0fRagu/a Hi Holland. 157 

cdmtoahd brthe army , lairtdgated the right of intro- 
dlitihg-itttb' ft the Haves of defpotifm ; and he thiit 
difbcuVaged the military fpirit of the Hollanders, by 
friiftratihg tJieir lawful hopes. The regencies were 
foorr compofed of vile courtezans, and vile adula- 
tors, devoted to the defigns of the governefs, and 
to the Prince of Brunfwick ! 

The republic, whofe interefts were fo oppofitc 
to tbofe of England, became the fubmiffive ally of 
ftSTJvali the Hollanders were not even permitted 
t6 pr^ferve neiitrality in the caufe of freedom i 
btic were required to employ their forces againlt 
thofe, whofe only crime was their being willing to 
gain the rank of citizens. 

Holland was at this time reduced, by the perfi- 
dy, or at lead, by the careleflhcfs of its chiefs, to* 
fuich a ftate bf weaknefs, thar, without the protect 
tion df France, the Cape of Good Hope would 
have been loft to the republic^ together with its 
colonies and polfefiions in India : nay, Holland 
was even in danger of feeing raviflied from her 
that v^aluable filhery, which feems to convert hej^ 
failors into fo many hufbandmen, who reap th<J 
harveft of an immenfe field fowed by nature* 

Such are the misf6rtunes to which we have f^Qvi 
this republic expofcd, which, from the fterility of 
its foil, can fubfifl: or^ly by its commerce and its 
induflry. The lofs of its liberty, and its prefent 
degradation, muft: be attributed to the blind em- 


pire which'the malmtfdof tai betfb fefle^fed^^eo bb- 
tdn; to the want '6f 'attention- tb^life' tdiidi^^^ 
their chiefs, who have excee4^ thfet^'|)Ovr«r& Ui-^- 
the courfe of their adminiftWtioh; and ti;> Ihtf^greatci 
authority of its regents under thcf ariftecfacy;- * ■ 

Thofe people alone are frilly w^ifc^and d*fetvingHi 
of liberty, who place not the depofit of their glo- 
ry, of their good fortune, of their very exiftence, 
in the hands of an abfolute chief ; whom, in the 
courfe of hereditary fucceflion, they may find 
abounding in all the vices, without the mixture of 
one virtue : — who, in an interregnum, never au- 
thorife a general, ignorant of their conftitution, to 
come among them, and to ftifle, under fervile'and 
oppreffive prejudices, under anti-patriotic maxims, 
the noble and generous fentiments which ought 
to form the public charadler : — who, diftinguifliing 
the rights of nature from thofe of fovereignty, leave 
to the mother of that prince, who is deftined to 
caufe the execution of the law, the empire of tender- 
nefs and maternal care, but confide not to her the 
tuition of the ftate as well as the infant : — who, 
forefeeing' the extenfion of authority, oppole to -it 
a facred bond, which it can never break : — and 
who, uniting the intereft of the chief, with the glo- 
ry of the nation, never fufFer them to feparate. 

In fine, that people alone are prudent who, in- 
flrudled by the experience of ages, and by the lef- * 


fons convey^i in xh^ hift<»y ^f nations, know tht 
two rock.8 betwiaen which they miift ftcer, to arrive 
at public Ubeiry: and who avoid with the famC' 
care the qrag$ of defpotiftn^ and thofe of ariftocr a* 
cy ; that) if tl^y have the good fortune to efcape . 
I^e pne^ th^^may not be daOied againft the other. 

) » ■• : 

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i.^O". ' 

• a. C 

HAVE (hewa by what generous efforts Jthe fe- 
ven provinces/ which form therepubiic of Hoikndi 
were emancipated from the yoke of Spaia i kQft 
they acquired the right of chuiing a chief; and^hfi^ 
ihey have imprudently deprived themfelves.of fhtl 
noble privilege, by making the title of ftadthQlsler 
hereditary in the houfe of Orange. . - ^ 

With refped: to the lad revolutiony.asit ha3.h«|^ 
pencd fo recently, and under our own eyes, I, (b«^ 
only mention foine particulars of that affair. > .1 

The ftadtholdcr, who may now be called ti)tt 
feigning prince, had, fays the author of the Hifkory 
of (he Revolution, three means of lubduing patriots 
ifm, and' bending the patriots to his yoke. H^ 
began by employing that of fedition, which b/^A 
always fucceeded fo well with his predeceflbrs -wbO 
aimed at governing defpotically : but it did <ioc 
anfwcr his wilhes, becaufe the patriots were fuffif 
'iicmly powerful to difperfe the feditions*v, . vi> 

The prince then tried the means of corruption 
among the provincial iUtes^ in order to obtain 
fuch refolutions as might fcreen him in the exercife 
of the authority h^ had . uiurped. The attempt 
fucceeded in Guelderland as he expefted; it pre- 
i^Ied equally in Frielland beyond his hopes: and, 
Aotwiciiftamruig the firmnefs df three cities of the 
jprovinceof 2Lealand9 he accompliihed, by the aid of 
the grand peafionary, who was neither a Barnevek 
fler« drWn, clMrftdtidboii of the Zealand 
fardktadked the prorince of Utrecht from the patri'<t 
Mk cai]fe^';fi()r wbick' this province had fliewn it* 
ftii ibr'4efoced^ in the oommencemett of the rew 

""^ftliia pionaces of Oreryflel, and ^ Gronengen 
remained incorruptiUe : that which is named the 
jflm\u» of Holland, and which includes . Ata* 
Ibfdam, after having wavered for a time, wa^ 
fizt by the zeal of the patriots, who gained a 
flttjoRcy in the ilates fufficient for giving law to the 
eqiMftnan order, and to the deputiea of the ifmail 
dtiestf . la (pite of the explicit and well kaowi^ 
nfifiies of the citizens, thefe deputies ventured to 
4!Mfe againft thefovereignty of the ftate^ and the li- 
beir^ oldM people. 

^'^ Tkeptince had, as we have (cen, at m(^ a ma«. 
jedsy efime voice among the (even provinces; bus 
tbe province of Holland, contimiing advecfe to Jum, 
fHl a flop to his authority. 
VoLU. M Thi# 

i6i 0f4h€ £onfiimm of Hofyni^ 

This determined hini to employ the third m^fkis^ 
which was that of violence.; a. mea^s which had 
been rcfolved upon at Nimogen^ after the death of 
Frederick the Great^ bjr the general conient s^.the 
; ftates of puelder^ and the cabineu of EngUnd VfA 
Pruffia. ..:.;,- 

It was however deteraiined^ before thingifliould 
be driven \Q this extremity^ to.nuke one more ^^ 
tempt at working up the populace to a general in-. 
fursef^ion^ and the . following plaa was dbwifed foF 
tfaatpurpofet - . ';^« . /» 

The Brincefs of Orange^ who took upon^lsear Uio 
principal p4tt in the pro^dtyJdegan by..caiifing t|ie 
mifcarriage of a negociation for accomodatingdnttw 
cers, which bad been proptofed by the Gpust» qi 
France and^Berlin> and earned on at theHagiHt:. 
and (he then pretended to have in yiew^ a mcan&xif 
bringing about a complete reconciliation bocweea 
her hufband and the ftates. ' ^ 

The coiij[^quence$^ which muft refult from this 

^fpecioas ddfigni- Wj^re, t^t thcprincefs woaid ei- ' 

ther arrive^ ivithout obftrudbion^ atthd Hague, 9r 

file would be fcHToed c^ turn back. In che^tiV 

cafe^fiie would find it ea(y to ftir up the peopte; 

to animate them in the courfe of her jcfuraty^ cuul 

to excite a fedition^ fc much the more. difi(cidc-U> 

^Xilppref^, ai the troops which were attaobod to the . 

. patriotic -<auiiib} Jitm 'emplojyed u Ut^echi^ ^^f^ 

*4. i-.., .iiJ.. ^ 

dkl^1^(Ms^t}£ Holfemd; ' If, on tixe othdr faand» 

flte ibbiild- le ftopt in heir courfe^- k would be aa 
' o^m^/ilfi k^'Of^violence, which wCxuM furmfii a 

phiiisxt'ttfti. ydatl^-'^tice to demahd vengeaiite 
^iltidfmta&trt^'t&iiKmer, and wUck Ue could 

iidt ia bofiour alk>w to pafs unpunifhed. ' 
•■ TJicfe hopes were realized by the event. The 

Fritfc^ b6C)iitt]^-5vai^t^ to pafs the 

•Safcf^tTfddpi, ' attd^pipottcfl td the Hdigtie V im the 
'iiAd^VMkM tixnA WptOftiVforitit );^(Te t^bfeved in 

chef Kb^{iL The princefs neveithelefe ^exclairmid 

'^ikik^ftilMidf 1^ htx dM name, as 

-miK^^im -tif htr^htiSy^a^^ and itwai fobo an- 
'iiMliilrt6«i,^t4iac a l^roffiaa arioiy wa^-arrire*, fot te^ 

MlBil^kigtheft&diAioiaer and his txy^drt into the 
^I^Wittfeof 'Holltod, tad hirmt)lihg:riie patriow/^ 
«3Qfi%*ie(t'M^5 ftfoBgly fblicited to- oppofe the en- 

"tfrityoe of a foreign power ihtq Hoilatid, and all the 
^¥&ii'p( policy prefenbiid the ixie^vete tOit had 

iiuljly^eihttufted ii<»f>^iPifr vr(iakenirig Eftgland, and 
^t|«fM[h6iij| from thftt'4cihgdi9tn on6 of her fiiieft co- 
^Mfelt^-lsy affift!rig Hdliand;fhe 01^: have bound 
bli* to hw fdr ever j fence it woald have 
*W(N«(^~j^(Mfi<)ns entireJy to ' Ker friendftip' : 
^^UH^MigU^ «i6' HollMiders fof<^(bed fo Ik- 
»»^4ii!Hftn««' t<!r tlw FnaK*' during ^ -t^^ latt 

'^tft^^fiidi tilt lUdtholdtr mod* <tfii» aathority : 
1 ." M 2 it 


1 6^ Of the Omjlitutim of Holland, 

;•.'/';•'!) ir -;,o.T c >: ,r-^'.urft i3-J-)cI sHj bnjs j ojkk*? 

tirely from all alliance with England, fince^fil^jl^fPii 
tlA^^ret «f fth9Mlatter,^^^w{^wfir jT^gfff jqriitf,^ 
^jlfti^^at;©! ^ny, ,one 0f.,tb9MB0WWi..vF<?»|jl({§W 


means of preferving his'^^ftU«;.«I^clrJbiS-J^fl^^0Hr%f;fi9! 

\sft^,fK£em^iW, jjiixjift one- of the J>ritp:i^^fifti 
^^ cof >w^^iG^;,.wa6 to have-bpei^, .that f f; |^ft@<(eife 

France would have been the more {tcwcc^j^jji»f^ 

Ucn<:ertaiiiIyi!lt*jojTOyb%x%:?/u&f>iWfiSS ^** 
©eders^^tp pfoc?ed ,a^^ ^l^yi^t.jiivj white nS'-FiSf^ife. 
army oppofed their paflage : but (jd^ .5|^;«»ft^)j|§l| 

ifady ,ftill, ti^,e,,tlwrninc?f>a««y <>C- hS?fi»M»#?5fi* 
m»dettjis ^f e^/uyfof tbeif..<)14:^ei9yai thf ^ft^^fi^ 
Ji^lder, to recover his f<Mrc|j^^cendency jn thfC re-' 

. . . public^ 

Of the CmfiitutioH ef Holkad, 165 

jpublic ; and the Utter thinks no more of the rer->' 

alBflbMy^^et^«fford«a ott tluiihoft iisipbrtaAe 
oWaiRiii?^"" «*''--^'v-?f-^ "• ■' ■''•■"--;■'••• ■ --,. ■• .■•■■'' 
J<^Si%e>^P#UffiiMi thliA' «iiter«d^ the >dbmiaioJii''ttf 
H^Ikka'^i(hll^^'ttny' ihtem}|}tio»v td -thfrli^tttbt^ 
^«w<^^^ttkb^ikMd>men -. m rl^^i^Ve> of >$dlMl^ 
beffayed at the fame time tlbe confideil<!^^tb<i {:irVi 
tiJidi^%{j;difikdi!Atrttft<id^ifft^itk«hi6 is&moAad 

yiM<iSk>bpii iiiid^l^ Iittlie)giirHraiAV'<t'^^^'cl«>^<^ 
04ei^|ffi4ikVntg'abtiiidondttti« pl«e6<>,^ty ^frb^Ifii^ 

llAJ^ khk tiv^4l^ith'gain>aed 't&<> ftl»ifittr$:i^fll^ 
{ird^iiide df HblUhd/ renrcid^ihtd' Ai«(l«yA«fM;'4h% 
li«eff='dfWWbh''%hfcyfol'ti<Wdi'n I---'' •"->.■; «r :.:^;.'*.'. 
3^'7ti^4i!ttiis'««ere'at'feli!at'tlttl(ife|»&i'a^ lti«o>twc» itif«> 
iri^te JF)Me>^vhbr w)st« ail%Mbl^'«^thii Hag«(t}j 
jflf^igieteid all the rdblutioniv afT th<^'d6<^ijes/«ali^ 
^Vixa^ieaistiw^n^ tiie^roi^iAce'of^tl^^ht; «rid, 
immXAni th^ ^rpeftfidii of oft^J >^roik>dticea 
t^jSitA tbe'ftadth'old^^ they iHvitiid the-'prtitcdk^ttf 
return, and ordered the nation t^'mtit iHt tirftng^ 

'^e'li^iteigntyof the ftitteis b<^ihg thus dlti<tled;' 
tl^ ^djftkded witbi- and deftroyed' eairh ^\m'i 
^JsS^^ifW the fupenoritf of force M6nc; that wifiif 
Jgiftoled^,- ■ ■ '■ ■••••• ..•■:* 

("A^tdli^ath appeared Birpbied'to fi^hd a iteg^*^ 
aA$^^€krik9 around t&e Ibdt Vcfe 'ttit fc^r tbfltt 
p»^e'J' biW When the Pruffiin' ariny iiMvW; Af- 

"•-^y oWj nipfiji,.' •.•■?*. I^ivl >;>;* i:)VO>^l*OJ .• i^!>tef 
i aildx/q 

orderft p£ that part of theAsiiim'fsSttfAA^ 
Hague, had refufcd to opeft theii*gates5^ti>ith*fo 
ftraBgvn) though the . ptbfiG bH ^ Am ftxerd^m ^aW^ ' 
fifixieo hundred of the enemy pemfi»*befofttvtiAi9\ 
lines^ they diftrufted their po>^seirK<ifi tfe^mgrtfitf ' 
ayiny "w^ which tbcy wem t&troiindcii^ kftd^itioc 
findrng,! acneng iehe nch^^itiiiabitanti^<tf (hiv^ohyj '< 
diat . courageous zeal which rifes aboTe danger^' 
ii4iith 0(»rider$ weaithtu^>miifabigv *Md ilfihcM'kV^ 
Talue te aay thing but ^ liberty^ they <tecermii&^ M^ 
capitulate^* • •. fi ' » ■ ».- ; ..v^vv«' '.^ ^v.^ 'vA^iiifSy 
The deptkties of Atnft€»dlim tSioisacA^'i im^tliill^ 
oEccafion^ witb'd&eycimimiffiondrsi£>5xhc^ftaui(^l^^ 
Hagtie^ ii4i0(e it^Uidott&^iBriere e^ 
thi& ftadihoIdier»." The '&)mser praf»Cid) <m)^ fik^ 
^deleft bs the ;.{)i*eliniinaries of tbdv $id9tsih$0j^ 
jmSkmi JUid ^evxn thefe^ivece- either et^eit^^f^ 
fefufed, .ii:r :i 

« % the-fix^HQEticie tbef djemandid> thdr7li^f0»w 
plejhould have a proper infittence in tbt admui^hmfim^ 
ITbjs dcoiattd the* commiffioneiKi dared < not f^j^iy 
^ppofe; th^yoidy.repiied^ tbgit.M emmi^S^' 9f Jf^ 
iHfos i^^take ibis oi^e£i into cmjidmitiom^ wuf tim^ii^ 
. people mujl wait their report* . - . ;:; : 

. The fe^^o^d aiticie dema&dedy that ti^ ci$^' miti'- 
t^^mid kedp ikfinr ^rmt (nforimriy^. • . <. 

'»1 \' .!■•# - ■■*• '-C 

rflflitfaeitiiffid article, fbe deputes infifted^ that th ^ 
jptSSvi^p^tm^^^ Tqdiis the commiffionertmtjt 

JbsM jt§ti . ie nquiredi The comfnifiioiiers yiQrp 
,;«!Aftq^;IV^'%|N*6i!^ tt/iboukl OfOC r/be i ifti- 

ii0!9dcfm^i)roiirkkd ffatt i«9 per/tm^JbattU^Ae molffi^d 
'/ll^il^bimg)Vow^ Air 9rmige.t9ckade.! fim.^tbi^ promiibf 
iMktfeikxbMMnred; fbr.QMa ftrangers^ ^ha y^esfB^ 
iiaitrj|riHiAg:«o a|>pear wkk that badge of dlavoryv 
I^pui!#)fi)ip9ifelv9r' expoTed ta tfao ftirjrof the mvdn 
titudeu ^r ... , 

.c%4heifi2tth^iiicle^e deputies dmiaatf^ that 
alfy^fimy whether of tbe^ ^MI or mititary diriment ^ 
7$bgrkad retired into Atr^tdamy or into tin pUses prtfi 
H^Jild\iy^^iifija mty, flmdd fM bt mokfiid either intbek 
ffr/oiUAniheirfropMy^^^^' / -y 

The commiffioners had the bafenefs to anfwer^ 
x!&w^thty coedd not t/ihe > npon ' then^ t^ ^^g^ ' ^ '• this 
foiniy as it mufi depend 0(^ the jdtisfdSHm ivkith^bis 
JftHglM mc^efiyJhmU require for her royal hi^bnefs. > 

M 4 After 

Scpteinheft'X7?&7ifVv>i ofii to ^n^niyolqnia -{og blod 

^t^qh ^b^'mpDHffdr:a1i tbdnDpnooodiiig dit]^a^ 
tioQ^^j%94iifdebiiitim^(ieiiiiaodi Uing nattfidtg^iofi: 

kmuin ^ ^e^}yrioir!Qhbofi!^cai^mtbtxiy/vls^ 

^^^fpf^dffitfimiSi iQ^ht\ j:c^iBbtictfd^c3tate<flr i^m, 

^ij^ jftthfifeii\ybp ^p^3Wf:;iq[>ilnit:chara6benv^' -hd^ 

T^nAi^Frtfatmisfem^lh^afls^ o^iHoilandiWaftpd 
upon the Princefs of Orange, to learn whatd&cqfacxi 

l*9PiflW\r?i%wed36>r ifeejhgiderinffjhcyijauitoci^to 
■jrjijfijtdr; wen 


X^m. 9 i!/lii^ ^9 

hold any employment of the goverai|^fi^i'^''''^''i^^ 
^r.:TjllmhiAiitfsi:io6] in 

flfwiy ditertts^r/(i^foUtiot8$i^byv.wU4di iT^tllMi^flf 
profibritHuiQuinrasrr^ teaiifit» ngiSitijS^ a^'^^fL 

.fitoM j jfrholDongbt/ tte^ dti i iucpipe conviftddft kif^Mi^ii^ 

^idjefeattns gutU fixcduVjof^ineMddd^lbwt^o 
.M&it>tbcLsid}i nti^ati^Mii/'the^m^ft €»Mhi4l9»i)r 
circumftance which'^canreftAin vrtie^pra<»ttdii^ 

«imrrwlm^li»^iB9f)dledri(fti(So^^ ^ Plrufi^ 

Hol]ap<^clbn)Xhe>ci{^<»teci^^ of ll»^)efAiKi6^ 
ja»rc|ifiQfafide{creed/^'cbtt ^^ui^m^^ff^Sfi^ 

offcetBemi<iF(mj^nned tuf the ^ftMes geR€frJil^ imd let^ 
ters wmt)6Biirixonftquencei«€» the mi Aiders of tM 
t^i^e>im i foHign emnftsy i ifo ) idelxidtid th^ iei^ng 

viSjtMhiBJifcixtenceijiug&ti'tb d^t^r^^tt^ fi\Mh )fM 
praS^ottoEidvofer 9&le£M«MKtbaLi«lrdVikudidn«^^^^W^ 
am(fufe;itb/nBiid8r i\om. ^^% fb both^p^atfief/^itol 
Dilifelr)ki0\;^i fecttr^^ tfaevtf p^^eAioii even ffoixi dM 
/idilii^Ibf^)*i*oor^ef 'httW beeft^^ I ^ 

?gfilberitl«$fottVeMs/ tidoiTecitit to be fbl^gotte^ j, 

*- o«- 

;-'^?7 obftacles 

dbftKClM ivhkftr dwAftd ta Jtippoh tkenimtiorf : of a 

the prov^iMM'of the kkKgdotn infldt tDiihe^eaipire 
•ttf re^ifewf • Hdw happy ought they to eflieebx iHietn- 
^felMft> fAr ifMVriig found, fn the chie£^ tlie|r fte- 
ftefi/ dt ^iiiM,: mem (blickods for the viittbtoof 
'MSK-{kk)ipi0 than his aficienr prerogathresy ftady to 
iaoific^ pfttt '^ his power to the gean'afc.Mrifli^ jpcid 
to git^ft free confenc to the extenlive plans of < i c^ • 
Xomty 'fieoeHa^'foit tegmer^kig the manarbbyy And 
''#iiforiii^ in dor ationir . : 7. ...:::,... = ; r ' 

^ ' 'WerKwre feenl tkert^ublk: of ^Hottmid ficik* uti^ > 
^erthe ftt>«ggt0>6f liberty agiiinft juibMacy popver ; 
*k# tlftr^dri^'otifctTe '44)111 kind of i oHiftiMcion^iM: 
«pp»*ff(wr^'h^ .,i ^-^/. ii.-. 

' \<91h^'#iFft fomdtmintiil kiMp of thk'ftcltt^ie^ »4 . 

"itJtreleKf. ■?"■ -.'^v* v; ^^' ^ •■v.-^i-l-.rt'- ^.'tf., . 

- The fkft article of this aft feapoW^'-'lNll -^ttlie 
''^'fefcrtfcmiticm iKrtit*'fi>rdvery by tlA^ta»3*ty^^ ks 
•♦if'rhey fonfeed'feuC'oneflMSe and ^Bgl[# {Mx>vifepei 
** without prejudice however to the privfltgtfij th^ 
'** ithtHiHikies, the tifiigeir,* ,ami: the righl6'<rfi«ach 
^** 'jMrovi*€«^ orof the •ekies which eomp(ife<it.V'» ^ * i 

The IF^ffiifth haW aAed m^fc wifely ^s aNPid eftfltx , 
Tilifhcd the union of a31-^t^^r depArttSfewsl wA^r 
idort certainty j by mm^kaving to any dff thMi eicKer 
iSftrnfrpfivilegtey or ^ pamcttlar immtiitttieiir Mi>-^ 
-thmgafiifprefiw a ft^ iitt^^leiiging^te: 

^^' the 

Ofi4hcCi0ifiUutk»^Hoami4^^ ^TT 

thb&mv^CBsmtxjf'y thsnr ill .'being' governed -fay on(f 
geticnd lasr^ kmi aU^[Mirtkipating the fame reguU** 
tiOBSj^: the* &ni0 appointments^ and the fame pEero^ 
gadvesiv' ..»i ,-.'•,.- . . -''*«. ^ 

Bf liici feocmd amcte of this a£k> /&? ef^nfai^MtM 
aPT' engif^nt rf^mtlty' to affift Mrh vtber : this vfwi * 
not a fimple inritation which it was advifable w^ 
ntate^ t«!c a/dijty- which it was neceffary tb: pre- \ 

* ■ . * 

• Thr^jttticttfs which regulate ^^the dtfeiice. of ithe; 
ftate, do not determine to whcfcny in times* of trocN ■ 
blef and ^fodrd, ^ the troops fiioirid be fubordinai^/ 
Thb isi3fte of ^ltf)fe omifiotisv which pr^esrltlitfB 
the '{)n3viflccis> looked only ta the ptelent'iilctftmit^^ 
and were not caipable o^ layfaig the ibundatitiil of 
dfti^le liberty -* Iris alwaysntfo^ffiuy tor ieftfiUM^ 
in the^bofom 0f a republic, a ccMtie of a4itlK>f hyg 
around whkh ait good citizens may unite fotflupb? 
pfdiing*Nfiti«tt9. • -> r> 

in attributing to the fbKhhclder, fay therflinti| ' 
articlei^ the fHMivifional 4eeiffirai of ail dificoltiftt/ 
<(4iic!vaHgjht'aiife Wtnong the pnmnces, they View- 
ed fafs' prudelicdi > thaui < reiiande m William >Kt be^ - 
eauftV fuppqii^g'' thift prince deferved' their eoiifis 
derice/fais fucceflbrs, as time- has pfovedy ; tni^t 
biiiifldiiiedilifd<ab)etolbtifeifcL ^ 

•ilRodMir! impropriety, i^ lefe evident fs^ that^ 
dMttring;' \if!^tAi^ ^enty^third article^ ntM w^^voH 
^ttrntwibtdftiiaj be done eontrary ta thetreaty\efumttii 

• thus 

T7» C/ ibe Ccnfiitution of HoUmd, 

thiis the cxiftcncc of a ftadtholder bccomrt ab- 
iblueety ncGeflhrjr ^ ^ b^eabfe that -- puBl^ ^^oim^i^^ 
iliere fliall be a ftadtholderrlaftd^dittfc^liflf tfig 
fapptQff\oh^ of that office w^enjitd bi^"ttkgaiv-4^o 
^OKfedeluc^'ifhouM'iii-this-mteiii ^i^tdha^ kiWf 
ftoffl tbd priyfleg^ of feft^cMiig it^-^fodiil^eoWvirfi 


m^''ai4^m^iktk^i'-jfbiiiP''^e^'m oaf i^ifieKtmiifii 

JeHt. This is a dangerous law, for it grant#;¥lft^ 
V0t0 fiy*5aiif»'««e *ngle> {#dvihtfe,^>^4a4 gi^iS^'^c 
ftyih<>ld«r^^^^f)^^cirfti<y,^' by^fe^<lcih^6fife'<dl|W^V' 
tS^'ftoiHf^ingvtheJ^M&iuti^^ of ^tfe^ fixPOth^ei^i'^^^' 
A-Tht«rtkte^^hidh^ttiulyi%*«lliim«s thfe^ft^^ 
)9atend^a republk' 4^ m ^hinth f^ iv^'^m^ifMU 
]^reffed,- tiiat neither pMC^^^n^riYUcepail-bi^^cit^l^ 
4d Huar^ Unierfak^ ^^nW impoft^ fi^n comr4tniti(M^eJhitil^^ 
My hut iy the uHMinMSconfeMf^')tbdpr^^ 
mU other affair Sy. what ev^rjhall be refifi&ed^imiy''^ 
fhtfi^ity ^fl^^tig^s^}if^tk^:^pr9iiiHdesjia^i^^ 

{bWiribigtitf of th^ rQ^^\^-4,v% tbofe of^HoHin^i 

ft V«id ^J««l<ler4attdi i : i > --: i^ ^r\^^ ^i\^ ai f:>s^. 

X SJacA of tbefe haife^tbeir' ft«^&;::tifld^ ^iAidn^^lifP 

fia«^i^^ t ompo^Ttd of the pleftlpoti(Atifl»'k^o#4k€Pi^^ 

yi/zMoqxu ij ••-' •' v^ ;:i5>- , v.vii-ii^^ifjr^in no ^^Mi^ji^cf 

Of the QmftituHon of HcHand. % 7 j 

getoci^K )?f fefr Ifiwe^ Pi^r afi lead ougbo to be, vwiwHk 

c.v?rh^fo.|^fjiifH>tf«uiarie&h»y^ a^ ti%^ <rf,di^t^mg 
flKfe i;fl95i|K)fVy*fafffW^ as; wilA ne4;a4«Ptt >(^)4(9hM)f>^ 
l)^'A«Pb§th0r>rmajjier^: (QC/'Ci*^^#^$|95f„ :(|h$^j moil 
be cxprefsly authorifed by the provinces, of whii^It 
tl^ejr^^arqj jl^f rfieteg^ ^ .^l^i if )ftb^ f *pee4 ) d*ir 

r^e^«ft^^eftj»^6SbprftpAr.f,a w4iMI^ JEor .t^lft^irfijfi 

%p4s*ni^^i(^jp*?jt '*i^4 .give >^«4i6i»fi«ii W^ f^^fe ^<tfii 

ad in the army as their depuiiffiUiol)FMitipigbw,4fj 
^9^^^^ %R»s;«v«ll t^o€fee««<:ai ^«r(hill« ilf>j^y 

o§^&im»^^&^ ^ C^tfyaOte^Hms ^iw'^fii^ 
^Mj^^jji§ues on merchandize, imported or exported 
for the ufe of the arn^y ; and what dccifiyeiy. veri» 

)74 t>/tl>ii'<}<fiiflimii>ikifHmn^^ 

*fics tfeeir fovereighty-otdr «ltc arttiy>-«J tfe«t ttie 

right of pardoning deferters re(te^ in f biemV- v • " - 

Thrfe rights alone wouW^givif ^€iac^*«*enr to 

<htt repitblkAft poip?*r,^ tf thcf ^irWe iSrtMire dJftii*9*y 

> ex^yetfcd in the treaty of ttnion^i bot^tfet^ fltcjueht*. 

rlyjoome in eoitipetitiott with th^yfe^bf fcg#fi!ia9i^*» 

der, and with the authority of the coyn<!il>^*!PWfiii?i 

^^ Tibocwithftanditig' thte eM[e«il4t;f v^ ^)l# -^k^i in 

tdkiefatbe Mth^^taki^lb^ ;t4^^fi«KM^ m^ 

^amt o£ his advancetnenty is conceiwd/arg^^feffik 

ICftiidy clearlbr ei^pliifting his pwvlll^^te, '4«ePfl46fe 

«f the MpubliG. <^ :I>1fwcar (fey» h*9^iM'**'^- 

^♦< ttrifc^ to the coniwferifitf ftatci 6^ tfi^ libW^G^ttSfi- 

*f tries, natnely, t() th* higher atid4?fe« ittfei^A^ 

•^•ders of hOWes, >a!ld to Jfhe nmgiffeWte^'^'flSfe 

**towns <rf Hollattd aftd Weftfreifland,^#*o*6j^ 

^'^ ftnt the ftates of thefe -proviMe^ Ho piPfSCiP^ 

♦^ obedieitce and fidelity-to.thein) ttttdiiilfo t*HletfJ> 

« firia guard that the officers of th»'4imf^*i^ 

** are lind^ my of defs^, 6bey the brt^4^a^rt#i>iafaiAtf- 

^^cu dft!abU(hed byfh€)f<^onfederHt^,'aiiia^p^ 

•^larlybyihWfeof HiG»k<iat'^ *^ '- ^ ^- -' cj«juj. 

• This' <^Aft tlKMt r^Ddefl the -pi^efefif ^adth^iaep 

kexcufabte ^, for - itot^ ha^hg obcfye* t*(^ -ifi^iiMt 

ctofes ofthe ftates^gett^ettaJ d^rirtg th^ iaft »#«f.^^^q- 

. : It' ift thufe ^ft^esy :3iri^ eftabHOi tAagittfaW!» 4 rfiJ h 

t^iMs^ tcMma&diei^ ife the #t>niHd0^;^ii#£i($»f^ 

«y!en^>tbiM3si^ft impoWBanfiOffi^i^s.* ;Th)»fea» iNn ww T 

^^ cd 

.q4 upon»t&cm48> /Jk? t^.J^^I^/ link, mm hndi^ Ak 

jiates gener^ of the united prwmca%* . The motto <l£ 
lhar< WBUk i^.^ ju(b and. modeft < QwKm^ ; ^ehporoc^ 
/m^tmt*^) r&iif'jm9UeJt*\ikings ^ire incftajed iy tmp- 
«^J; ki is iftl^ truti> tl^af;; .difeord rcducea: tineas 
to iiothffl^ wbich has bficiLr^c«»tly)OTia€ed:in)cUi 
; republic* .: a. . 

t\ i£die.fttt6SigeiM»tal hadagt^eednoti^^gmnt:^ 
>^kf( tcif BiHMifitfiDk'thcmpp^iritmdm of ^oteiiiiidBt. 
mchief ofthttr t0i)b()Sdif thejr iiad not pemitteAfaitfli 
to. jilteoduocdbreigoQCSi tn4wxfefom:e.tK>!kiihn«m^ 
Qfficqrs^ iS they iiad not ruffcred bim.a>pheTeiil^ drit- 
jtpUiuiiy^^ni^/^ turning ic iioom ft i due 43fabd(Maee' 
iiPutbr.fiQ9«Libiic; and. if, during die iaiiiiwar^^ they: 
4ji;iKifMrQllroft iQ confort to oppofe tho t^kntokidm 
qQQl^»V;lUld^to;furni(h France with the fu^oourft net^. 
^^ary for ftrengthing her fleet: if on the. refiuikl* 
^vlJh^^&iJdtHoldor to obey the refQlutioos cf; tile 
iln^es §9i^nd^:they had unaoimoufly fafpendcd his. 
<;^^fa^l jB9dif:r(h^y had afterw^ reinftaiod hiar, - 
i^lD9<](dinKH^ (tf ihis.i\^ plaarudf oconfti-^ 

tuticAi whidi wouid haiKe cAe^rly linEiio^d hts anhopu 
l|$y4*fi^;.t)iey(<vhad «don9* the6( ihiog^i^jioGK {)4niiit:^ 
wwpn;^ ^stoicome togiTc :law3. to ^ rcpubfiic^firhiifc 
part3^^fj|Fe;Bll umted.ingeiieqUacGocd«j ^r/^ :. » j . 
.J cPfl^tKWfe f ii M Holland ^ , befixles tke; fbui6i:||en€l-a! , 
f^lffj^W^HCif 11^ which4s compafediof:*^ 
vtm^fHI^ !i)^>ured by the ftatfe^rof 1I1& diiff^^ 

^;iji.\'i.v; . 'for 

i^S Of tU Cmfftkmim ^ EOmd. 

for three years only, and their refpcftive ftates caii^ 
at any time, recall them. 

The deputies of the province of Holland have 
ihree roices, while thofe of the ochers ha^ but one 
%t t9fQ\ which gives that province a great prepon^ 
^entnce in the refolutions of the council of 

The deputies prefide week about in their tuiti; 
t;hey hold their aflembly every day in the caftlt ar 
the Hague ; and their principal buiinels is that of 
military affiurd, and of the finances. The revenue^ 
which is chiefly under the infpedion of this coun- 
city confifts of the fums which the feven {Ht>vinces, 
and the country of Drente, are obliged to fumilh 
annually for the military cheft; and thofe which 
are paid by the conquered countries to the general 

There are certain occafions on which the whole 
council of date is obliged to appear before the 
Hates gejcieral ; but when the flates defire to confer^ 
with the council on any particular affair, the latter 
deputes two or three of its members to the college 
of the plenipotentiaries; and this is another ptooi 
that the ftates general reprefent the fovereigiity 
in the eyes of the council of (late. 

This body, the council, is compofed, befides 
Its twelve members, of a fecretary and a treafurer, 
who are confulted, but do not vote; the votes are . 
«tken ttcrb by head and' not by proriace^isis the- 

"• ^ ^ ' W it t 

omia.,, iqj 

pta^ace^wth the ftatts general. When the &idcr;r 
holder affifts at the council of fiate he is the pre^. 

fiident^. .- 

> ■ .» 

. Xn A snpmcAtj^ wh^ it is propofed, in France , t9, 
fuppjr^f^ ^^tnb|unals; fuchas ;he chamber of ac- 
countSj X^zp Q|:)li^ed to fay that there exifts one. in 
Holland. It appeared necefTary for affifting the, 
cofixicil of iii;ate iu the labgur pi attending to qjl the the fin^ge^ ^d jtfcifyiQg, the accQuniSjj, 
This, iribunai is cowpfedqf fgufteen ine triers^ which-<ire deputed by each.prQvine?r . .. ^ 

JKpdiflipfc it wQuld be more wife in the French© iiK 
fte^^of difdaining the inllitutions of other gojf rn* 
AeAtSA^tp recreate a chamber . of ^ccounts^ afier 
the* 0|,an^pk of Holland^ to be compofed ,of qj^ 
x|ifim^ from each department. Thefe eij^hty-threfi^ 
deputies afiembled in the capitol^ (hould \ be^ 
cb9^;g|Sd. with infpe.d;ing all the accounts of the di^ 
TfiAoa^s*: and examining how the money^ receivedl 
bx'^c munieipalitiesy and not brought to .the na* 
tiQjj^l t^eafuryy had been expended. Such ao efbi- - 
b]y^Q)m€^ would, prevent much abufp^ much depre« 
dfki^^^j^d fubmit to one central authority^ ^ 
tj^o|^4^Yided ajuthorities which ar^ difpoTed tP be* 
lieve' themfelves independent. 

."^^i^e isjalfb. in Holland a cbaniber for fuperin-* 
tqif%g«>the coinage, of money ; tbe menibprs c\ 
wj^c^,^e ^^bpfen and appointed by. the i^ces g^p^' 
oriSh -r'tl^e reafoA of this eftablUhnjejij j(rj«^.% 

■ fSigPffkB- light ?fveQM»ing-W9Jt»e3[t*P»:4tf«*?c i but. a, 

<(Hirrepf5J0mmereebdaginipqdayi}^%tly »!;llW 
::Q>ecic ,^Quld bis^ an egi^dl: pojtion oof aliogr { mji^ 

/n <:9nfeqH<5Uifft of sljif^agrwniOTt,oanc..cogiTOf 

body, always fitting at the Hague, ^}i^i^¥?S:f^^ 

.«f>ft4^^!3\y» .a^flxfe*:?^ ifffhei^tSffiSfiS^oSfif oar 
fufifjnjtlww lS90?rMg?-Tc. ;lc. Lsj-inibfi vifaardoob 

n»an)f ;4gleg^gs a^^fe^^jbvfciiyj^^lJfHrilffigp ^ 

own deputies^ and let it fend as niany as it^y^iUy 


^ibe QmJiitutM of Ihttand. 179 

? 'Iflie'geArRa * ^fTei&bly is not compofcd of moft 
tliaf? fort J^^V)r^ forty-five members: no diftin&ion 
^SHSoSi is^^ferved among them : they fit continu- 
9%^^&iid^^tik!bh member prefides in turn for one 
ifmll^ ^1?!f«tt^thei^ are no cabals $ no Ifecrec com- 
6i%&tioi£t*^fbrmed to obtain the dignity of pr^ideot 
Tdf iShehmiftnfbcr in preference to anotJicr { nor for 
'rkdud&gxettain individuals froim the chaih - - 
The (bidtholder may prefeht himlelf Wore ^ 
iD!ttes'g€ttfe^9 whenever he is d&Tpolbd ^6 ihakc any 
]^k^fitl(kf'tehdixig ta the comiheh weaU but h4. 
)iai'^ rigiic to fit there as a metnber> nor is any 
partmd^ place affigned him. Whai he ha& made 
:«^ij(al^ the (bites afk>his opinion; and he 
fetitts^ that they may take the matter into 

'William HI; who, afterlie4>ecanie kingof Eng- 
I9 retained the office of ftadtholder, had a chaife^ 
of ftate prepared for his reception, when he weM 
to the aflembly ; an innovation which was tin* 
doubtedly admitted out of refpeft to hb titlr o£ 
king; but, after his death, this mark of dif* 
^tSnAioii appearing inconfiftent with the honoul^ 
^ ik^' toitfederate fovereigtis, it was aboliflied. 
^he '%^ of the prefettt ftadtbolder ii a common 
cttBr: ■'■ \--- ^^ " '^ ■-'■ • ■ > 

.«^'']^kui 'it IS ditt^ (iates often ItnoKr how to malnii 
tMQ ;heir pre-eminence in poinu of little maokOki^ 
^"^ N a ' and 

1 8o- Of the Con/iitution of HoUaiti^ 

and fulfer thofCj which are much mofe efiential j^ to 
be ufiirped ! • 

■ The eqireftrian order of each province, com« 
pofed 6i nobles^ forms a diftinft body, whicln A* 
ways deputes one of its members to the Sates gc^ 
neral. : 

The deputies of the provinces, thofc of Zeland 
only excepted who are chofetufor life, are recalled^ 
ibme ix the ekpiration of three years, fome not xill 
fix : but they are always appointed with a proviib^ 
thiat theit conftituenfs may recall them ma momcni^ 
i^en^er they pleafe, in cafe of malveriation or vbl^ 
fidelity t6 their inftrudions. 

The office oi grand penfionary is, i^ HpUam]^ 
h^Tct in c6iifdquence to that of (ladthokler* Xhk 
minifter, who is alfo keeper of the feals^ has.a feat 
amoiig the ^tes general ; and all propofala made 
by him are in the name of the province of Hollaac}^ 
Although this important commiffioa is conferred 
by the dates of Holland and Weft Friefland for 
only- f^t years, the fame perfon is almoft always 
re-appoirtted, unkfsrhe be found unworthy of being 
^ontii;iUed ih ofEce. If the patriotic party had tri^ 
\impb^ in the laft revolution, there is no greM 
areafon to fuppofe jchat the prefent grand penfioniU'l^ 
would have retained his dignity. 

This t)fliter is r^arded by foreign miniftdfl as 
the firftmiiiiftcir of the republic ( and it is tb him 
that ambafTadors addrcft themfelves oxv all matters 


Of the Cotiftituthn of Holland. 1 8 1 

of mere form. He it is who holds correfpondence 
with other courts ; and as he is the perfon who 
ought to make himfelf acquainted with their fe» 
crets^ the republic allows him the difpofal of one 
hbodred thoufand florens, of which he i^ not re^ 
quired to give \viy account. So true it is^ that 
neither republican nor monarchical governments 
negle£t thefe (hameful means of corruption, by 
•the aid of which they pry into the difpolitions of 
courts, and difcover all their proceedings. 
• I fhpuld have given but a very imperfeft idea 
of the conlHtutioh of Holland, if I had abridged 
^ny of thofe details neceffary to^ its development : 
auid the United Provinces are, from their fituation, 
4b intimately conneded with France; and their 
weight in. the political balance is fo conliderabU;, 
thlit Frenchmen ought to examine all the branches 
of ith^if adnuniilration^ that they may form a true 
opioiop of their poWers, of the importance of tbqjr 
atUiiuice, and of ^be means by which it may be 

It is the bufinefi of the council of ftate to exe- 
cute the refolutions of^ the ftates .general ; prepare 
filch matters as muft be confidered by them ; poiijt 
Otkt Hfit moft advantageous manner of raifing troopf , 
aj^inqx^s, and fettle the proportion which (hould 
be afligned to eacfc province. 

in the month of Odober or November the coun- 

iSA noakesm eftinuttC'of the expcnces which appear 

N^ nccel- 

I i i Of the CoMjliftaioH of Holtand, 

ntceffary for the cnfuing year: this they prefthf 
to the ftates general, who direft its being ratfcd ih 
the provinces according to the following' jirtipor* 
tion, which; was cftablilhed in the year i6iL " ' ' 
■ Of evierjr hundred florens the provinc'e df Chie!- 
^fiartd pays about five, that of HollanfffWy-a^hr, 
tH«-'o"f belaud nine, that of UtrecWfit«,-tlKit^ 
PmfJand eleven, thit of Over-lftcl tfi?ei5,* itrd'tfi 
6f Oinaftcflgen five, and flic 'coutttj^'Bf llriwtr 
only one fldfcn.' •• '' '• • ' ' '* ■'■ •'i'^'f' '-'^ »•'»♦-■ 
. fii(s- fable of-propdrtions'evi'dfenfiiP'W(«« 'the 
ibptHbfiinportance of the pWvin:efe'6¥'W8lfeAd''oVSr 
z\\ icfie*-^tlier provinces joined in tftis'ftftH>tf?'fiiMit 
tt'ilone ^ays more thin all this lix ^iH«S^ofeilK»il 
•' rmpdfts are dtWanded in' Holland? ¥i;fe<»«»t 
to an ancient cuftom, in the name orifl5c*^ttaf» 
M^eiy stnd-'tff'tfee'cwintil of 'ftittF'f'liarfffie'^nt. 
jftofts paji! there art,rn^ropoiTO)rfWffiPferti(!brfa 
VidtA oF the Vepubfic,'' more-'-^afachftrfife tatllt 
jcSntfibSiors^ aiitf xoibn excieffivc tlianr ai^^ftijJj^iw* 
ed m lany other iWte ih Europe, - '' ^'--' --* 
After the attebufit 1 have given^ it My^apj^^ 
cxtriordiriiry, that there (hould havi^1>ft?h fiich 
riifleritidns between' the Ifedtholder an6'^fe-'%atc5:; 
but" Ac canfe origiriates in a circtHiflWiiberiiffi^ 
fenders ^the^'pHv!%b^ thdt? goycrriW^ *r dAtoi. 
minSkr ^ery obfcure: " He is hbt'odiy^flSidthbTder 
^'geHcfal of tht Seven Provinces,^ tnrf ftadtlMder 
pf each* provi Acein- iJatticular, ^nd Kdlds -Itis l^utho- 


*ity 4uwicca£ts. npt cprnsfpondUig yirith ^ch ,<^er^ 
Th^f>,'^je«in\plc^ Jjis privileges^ «c, Jift .virtue gf 
hu opgiiiai.^tle,. i^ucjjiinQrere^i^teniivciin iJiie pro^ 
vince of jGue}^(:rl^d xhaix Jn that of y.trecht : aod 
bU.po^f:r is ixioije. limited Jn^t. of, HplJjajQfl-.than 

:poitMWi ui^her influence he <;oi\14,Qb(»ip>.iia$^b.eeii 

vj||ii;ef^i|ir^«m(: Autjboritjt he. .was.i?otij}c4^p. vt any 
one of tbem : while, at the fame tiq\(^^;^]l,;he (e- 
»ep pj)Cff^c«,Ji*vf, not been unwjm^jif^Vi/epcll- 
iac^ilf^ 4ifur^aiUQps.,v b^caiojQ^. if 4ie.¥^pj)ged.iiyP: pf 
tb/^fpmviaccsj^ there w.c^eftiU. two iajy^chl^ 
|4(I^;A'.iqB^:c^htt 4^c iexerdr<^4r * '^^ 

^ikhMh99^ oC^^,|»rinppal.vicc5ui|i ti^c^co^ 

^.<^?F^itWQ«e$,4i:e,.9pt.^avem«4! bofiitheL fam^ 

<i xi |^ ^c c» .ia^anoti^ «^J\ . dowfl evenr, t^ng.: 
and thitty while democnicY.aiumates.otw, paaof 

., ,:TKqr^tArfi,;ffiw;fio^l(5 families ia,thc provinces of 
HaUi^rAnd.^elai;^,ra^ whole of tW cbiCs 

lM^^pf;]^ii^ ip .^V ^^^ Againft Spain :.[ arid it 
i;ai# !;;« acj^Qwledgedf that jiot^ility . cou^d not be* 
copip «fxun£): froai ^ nobler caufe*. la the fiy^' 
ciiber ^provinces .they haige bire^ bcjt^qr preferyed^ 
^ff^Tfii they Tetaio all the pride of ^th|? /Spaniards^ 

N 4 whp 

• « » 

; 84 Of the Conftiiution of Holland. 

who were their ancient mailers^ they difdain cotn* 
inercc, and prefer indigence to what they call a mif-* 
alliance : pride therefore unites only with pride^ 
and their union frequently produces poverty and 

*As this body hope only to exift by civil And -mi^^ 
litary appointments, they favour, with all their ef- 
forts, due power of the (ladtholder ; in estpeftadoii 
of being recompenfed for their zeal, and devotion, 
with lucrative places in the ftate. Thus vaUitJ' 
condufts.inen on to bafenefs : and thefe imj^eriout 
baron&^ould .rather be noble iUves than rich tt^ 
publicans* ? ' .> - 

: \ti^hat>I have faid may ferve td convey ajuft id« 
•of the geocnd' iCQnfkifucion of the feven prdvincea^^ 
but? the: adminiilration peculiar to each i$ ftiU Uff- 
Juiown*;: I Ihadi? therefore give an abridgment of 
whatrMiDftmoanier Yays, itxU DiStUnnairi Dipk^ 
matiq^^tuwis^ the head of Holland, of the liv 
by •whachJthap province is governed, ^ 

/ Tlii9iprtixvimiial:>fbsU6S of Holland are compoTed 
of twa npceAlbprjrihd firft is the body of nobles, 
commonljir cyticld titi^Jrim order > the number ^ 
, thefe Jiobles^js moite^rmined, nor is it always Ae 
fame: ttieyj.'t^BS:,r:by^»' niajority af*vot^s, thofe 
; whont they aro'scitiing to admit imo their order,, 
but it is feldom compocfed of more than ten; Tb^ 
ftadtholder^ iss firft- noble of the proYiote, is pre- 
iideut of this.ordcrv M .' .\. : . :.- 


Of the Cot^tuiim rf HoOand. 185 

Ti^e body of nobles debate in their own afiemUy 
the matters which come before the provincial ilates: 
upon thefe they refolve by a majority of votes ; and 
their refolution, carried to the provincial aflembly, 
ftands as one fingle vote* It appears from this^ 
that the whole body of nobles of one province have 
no more inflqence^ in the general determination of 
«ky matter^ than any fingle city which fends a de- 
puty ta the ftates : of courfe^ fuch an ariftocracy is 
•not much to be feared. 

- The fecond member of the provincial fiates of 
the province of Holland^ is the body of the cities 
of that province, which are fuppofed to reprefent 
the people. Thefe cities, which have a ri^ of 
iending deputies to the pnmncial:ft^ei, iro eigh- 
teen; in number ; from whence we may cooclude, 
that ail die other dties of the lame province^ as 
well as the towns and villages, which fend no re- 
prefentatives to the fkates of their province^ boaft 
of freedom which they do not enjoys becaufe, « 
fhey communicate not their wiU to the ftates g^eral, 
and enjoy not tb^ right of fuffrage, they are con* * 
' fequently no more than fubje^ of tbe flates« But 
the wordMrn-ty founds fo fwoecib the ears of men^ 
«nd they find fuch pleaftir^ in repeating it, that . 
^e name is '^tm retained by thofe who have long 
l>een "deprived of the thing. ' 

. The Hague is the place where the fUtes of the 
^^ovince of Holland afien^les ; but, although they 


Acf gfiro vi^ fioil&e jftatm-^tv»r«}^T^ 

ID* the- tint 99^--;" v.';;:' c- J lA.K.':^ ?rT!);n/n?vr^*'. ^.^•• 

fluu cf^thc. cqttfcftrkia\^4^^ Md,. couajting: the 
'vccegiiireil ia tho iffembly of thefc fiWiQ^ati^y^^ 
bodjfDfcnQbdifety, :i(be;4ii^iges .ai^nnm^^Or tbtr 
najork^ftf ftrbidfa^ta^nftkuttHi ^irefo/t^m^^ yfifkh bas 
the fiiMfirf]QfiilaiKijf!twkhr.'>]:ir%ed:' tOutbe^prpvincc 

•nJ]^liB:d6piit3rf.a£.tafjif eiipis <al^vQy^Mlcc(ntlp&me(i 
Jby'jQi t o^A^sffhite^ wbom.: Ibheynooti'^^a fidaw^tep or 
/iff!bflp|baxi^^>Qoa^^ >KbQ addreiTcs ; :tke ftatesv it^ 

^hBipuisw (Appear Ota bt(ftnt>oiii]r M.MeniMud^fsld^ 

tnxiedia'i%e30fttufidoib.^^ i:<v i 

Tbd times 'ortnceting of the ordinaryai^{embUjie$ 

.«BB.£|ccda vbmv during^ a:w«ri; or ujid^f^y^cnti- 

ttabinnniilnfttQGeS) :exirwrdihar]r'^iftflfitobilie&;; are 

tedaaahttfeirijftidaddKf^ at)tbe Hagqew^ u . ■ 
vibiiUl jMtMiii; wbichr are» t^ihe reiblved vpon iti 
tii&>aSi«U]!r4if ilie ftatee^tao^ difcut^jin the 4i£r 
ilAneiUrrfgpiic^iof jtiMjiekiM bttdrelJiHitt^ in 

the daces ; and re(4^iitions are there determined bjr 
ii majorKy of $|k^ voiQes pf thftiBgentt iwl^ con»- 
|i»ofe)tbcis(ab4 QQtti^ of the cwf^litu-, y *; 

"'. / 

^^£j^«fslVxll«l^gall^^ their yOit^ 

tke government would be truly demOCratic?^btft 
flieiisu^ is dTirc^ly otherwirc. In the pcatcri part 
bFthe cities of the province of Holland, ' the fautv 
g^bniafiers^ ftre now appointed by die. ftadd^ofaicr 
Vtft of cwd perfons eleded by the cocmdii ofcth^ci- 
ty; tht cities of Amfterdam stnd' £>ydeiv irerchc 
imly cmes which h4ve efcaped this ufarpatiov^ r'^ 
The ftadtholder recommends, in all the ciidet, 
^6 iperfoif s whom be delires to have> ia^jdie »§te« 
isies f and^ his -rftcommendatioa is fo: effd^Maal, jtlfit 
thejrare eodrely compofed of meiiv^'ha.appc3^^ 
nem^^': foohat thofe repre&ntaxi v&i; jUAb ]iayei>odm 
Wiifflttwdiinrtlieif ipifficesiftitt ttoe^ce^criuottivoair 
than th«i^t of thei|)rlnoe/ta\-a3iQi^^ 

- 'HClie Agendas of thc^ifi^iiieiaQnurionlji^efiaBgt 
4^ with-die^-^dmiiiiftrationKof ^shdiiMtidirrisiifaal 
juftice} ai^d «tiiJatf^heici^iifunabriohai> d^csufes^ 
between citizen andxiti!aet£^!ucniUR%^ 
jnffamce : itho&i ^wiuohr anr ofbkh^'iQiputtdit iklnd^ 
tf%:^be icamed;^ bf a^epi^'^ii chb Ibv^drfcignlcouit 

there be a garrifoftv thd;tToopBm£e (iibonlicfiatei to 
)iim; he can command their &rvice when there is 


fM Of the Conftitution ofHoMand. 

occafion^ and the commasuling officer receives 
orders. The military power^ being in the habit 
of obeying the civil power, feeU no difgrace from 
this fubordination, which is fo conformable to the 
prtnciples of good policy* 

. As the provinces of Holland and Zealand have 
formed but one government, fo they continue to 
lisve in conunon two courts. 

The firft, which i« called the grand cmneil^ is 
compofed of twelve counfellors; nine for Holland 
vi4 three for Zealand : of this tribunal the ftadthol- 
der is prefident, and it is the iuprcmc court ift all 
criminal caufes. 

The fecond is called tbe ewri ^ fMknd^ or tht 
pwituid cwrt afjufiict : it is formed of eight couo* 
fcllors ibr the province of Holland, and three for 
that oif Zealand* The prefident is chofiai from the 
counfellors of the two provinces alternately^ Aft. 
j^>peal from this court can only be niadeby prcfent- 
ing a petition to the flates of the province; and ii 
the ftates do not think the reaibns afligned for an 
appeal fuflicient, they dimifs iL 

\% would be ufelefs to dwell on the . ecelefiaftical 
jaws of Holland. Though thi te£armdd religioa 
prevails there, toleration is gehecaliy eftabliihed. 

The Englifli prefbeterians have meeting houfi^ 

:iat Roterdamj jLeyden, the Hague, and Amfter- 

d^i-and the Roman catholics have near a hun- 

dwd and twenty rathe province of Holland, under 


Of tU ConfiiiMioH of Hoflmidi i S9 

the direftion of fo many priefts. A^fmall body, de- 
foted to the dodrinc of Janfanifm^ arc willing ta 
have it bdieved^ that the have taken refuge vsk 
Holland, in order to (helter truth from perfecy^ 
tioa: but no p6wer took notice of their fed, 
4&d it was fuflfered to die away in obfcurity. Ii; ^ 
no uhufual thing to meet, in the, Dutch provinces^^ 
ajanfanift, followed. by an angbaptift, and pre- 
ceded fay a LiUtheri^f each .of >yhQm helieyes^. .thac 
divine light ftiines , ^xclpAyely on the followers <jf 

hil opiutons^^^^ : - .,, ... 

There is at Anifterdam a commiioity of quakcrs« 
lliefe men of pea^ce^ . thefe enemies to war^.aiighc 
well tremble, when j^ey. perceived the Prgfiian-aQ^ 
my approaching; in the name of the * chief ^ tHe 
republic, to fubdueprcut the throats of the good 
people of the country, who defircd to be governed 
by a conftitntion more wife and lefs complicated 
than that of Holland . 

I muft not omit mentioning, that this repuhUc 
comprehends not only the St\<:xi United Provinces 
but . dominions inidififerent countries,- which are 
called the coi}ntjry of ;he States General: thefe are 
fituated partly in Brabant, and partly in Flanders, 
The cities, under the dominion of Holland, which 
ttre JBcuated on the confines of the Germw empirc) 
have given occafion tp ^ treaty, known u^derrthe 
Tuane oi tbf itarrier treaty^ .,,;•. 

• • • • SThi^ 

I90 ef^tht C^fiitutiM^ Mdlmi. 

not^leraod cities in^ t}refbd0mifiiani\D{.die 
repubUie^ aittd p^ciculariy inJBmbtnt, .^flde:iiHiqr 
mttentpt^taibecome mcttbersH9f:th0i0««tfif;r>4nA.'M 
hstvcy. in diaL:£narai£ier9 a lighi, of iuffiige^iiprdte 
ftates^enerak' Xbfiy afterwand^ lowcnedj cbeirlttq^ 
mands ,50 ttxe .tequeft, that Jtitey'tnigb&dhdsrdar^^rfi 
ihe. fame pf etrpgativcs gr^ntoi^tiiemTas attr enjoyed 
by tfaejcxxuatry of Drentha batibptblhefei^eciniinf 
hovebecn rejedted, under pcidsnce that i&esr 0000?^ 
ttyT«ras'iubjugated,i>y.ann5; ^,.1:1- _:., ;,r!!v.ri no':^ 
/ This .refill was impolitic^; and /Cpntrary itnritbc 
fyftem adopted by. the. Roman&ji'Stbo iRscrc^dirifr 
e^ngh to unite: tb , dbeir republi4;;:$be citks wliidi 
tbey:oorii|uerrd in Italy; and cpq^b^jtatbeiJciniMkii 
b^^uii^ thr rights .o£ eitizeosir^n'he itaoft«jeffieftiii|| 
means cf iecunngr tlie fidelity oia^ conquered t^oiiri^ 
tryj; mujOb certainly ^b4/^ to . unke tfactooat. jmcQistb 
tiieir \zmxcjpexm%ii by ^tbfe lame coofl^tption i^ali^ 
low them rto pardfipate the'tyikees^^IasiA 
thus ineorporate i them, with thejjuiijiolpbgitoj^ 
lion; Tlie;;€onqu0ved';afid jtixe icoo^smreray tbte 
becomins^onepcople^ wonlditsepd^^wieh ttiotual J09 
cord^ whatever. ufurper ihouki:attt2!iipt;$d iqpttabt 
ibem. . :»:j *. .■■>'■ .'■■/ru. /-^uy/ i^c^l .z^ni 

. France is atihi^ tttomtnt xnnrc nerfiaiq^orprdbrii 
vingCorfica^aod allherconqneredprcndttce^ bynho 
finglepower ofthelaws^ thanfhe woiildhsaise beehtlqi 
gacriCbnSy which muft.^A&e:3v6B^ned.iuin^^ 
fenilve ftrctxgth^ It :b ime^hat9:it£«rA(r-«oittacS 


Si vahquKhed nation tcr the conftilDiiiiofi of tbe ^ic* 
Mn^ itanft appear td them>Tuperiof to their dim r 
and that is oneof che reafens which' ^mtifi:^ deoorn ' 
Hkine the French iegiilators to perfeft^ a& mudi «« 
pQffibl^tiieconftitucionyon t\rhich thejr are labour*' 
tn^.whh& much pcrfeverance; = What a glorxoui 
fipldrii ittinT^r openingto their Tpirit of jultice and 
fatriati6tii -They hav« no "more obftacl^sto over*-*, 
come: idl have yi^'lded to their efibns; and fo £it 
from having any thing to contend with in €hc royat 
•dtterify^ittleads tiiem on> and co\sers them with 
ici ^banner.' Theletwo grand ppwers^ a^er having 
flievim tbemfelves an oppofitxdn^-have now uoked; 
aftd 4:acht ii beoome more Urcing bf chit wiioRS 
gratkdde^afui ^sUTiidioi^ from their* mutodt bi&dsti 
they march in confort ; ;and bear d|own ts^eiry ^iSiin^ 
dmt wovildr oppofe them. : Abufes, ancieAc:prejf»r 
dices, diikpptar beforeia loveof generai:goDd,:and 
die laWfitdf juftice«: -The defircof the mcmacch^ii 
Miong^riUftin^ from* the wi&iofitfaeoatioa; bnt^ 
what one^pisopoies, the other ieemSiiUFead^rta have 
conceived; How^i£fenuitirthit:eaQiu)c^^ 
affeftmg fpe&acle froitt what is feisn ia Qtbercounv 
tries^ and what fentiments of equity and vktut 
muft it infpire in the beholders ? Stireiy nothing 
more is ;jKceirary9 for eftabliihingt^publiiC'^zp* 
pine^^} than thit accord betweeiio thsocpi^^ 
which demands^ and the power, whiob conibstsi 
Let their .INi^ficient. authorities the^pfoi^ be^mi 
.>:*■• S' more 

1 9& Of the Cofi/liiuti9H ff H&Hana. 

more troubled or alarmed : all that they require^ 
in return for their labours, their privations, their 
iacrifices, is only to fee the people enjoy in peac€ 
the fruiis of juftice. Let then the poor forbear to 
exaggerate their mifery : let the rich forbear to re- 
gret their chimerical honours : let induftry e:tert i^^ 
felf at the profpeft of thofe advantages which arc 
offered to its view : let the bad citizen abjure hia 
guilty principles ; let him fay no more.with a fpiiJjK, 
of wounded pride that there are no longer eftatcs, rio" 
longer honourable profeffions, for never was there, 
more encouragement for talents and virtue. Let 
him obtain the public edeem, and he will find ifi 
that the profit of all offices: let him be religious^ 
and all ecclefiaftical dignities will, be his patrimo- 
ny : let him poffeTs courage, and acquire military/ 
&ill, and there is no rank to which he may not 
arife. Is he ambitious of approaching his prince, 
and ferving him as an efcort? Never was any pe^- 
fon more eafy of accefs: no recommeiidation bwc 
that of being a good Frenchman, and a zealoti^' 
citizen, is neceffary for gaining admiiEon into 
fojourn of kings^ 

J ,. «. 






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1- ili .V«r.J 

■t'l '• <*ri%r 



.•'1 -"^T 

* • 


.;. Tvd-'i'i? 

/{; : » .' * 


C. tss ) 



THit OftitfiH Of tT$ Laws *• 

a\ GRAND career is at thU moment opeaing 
to my view, I am goiag to run over the con« 
Aitution of England : that conflitution^ which Mon-> 
tefquieu fo highly admired; and which he has ce- 
lebrated with fo much ikill^ as to fubdue thofe pre- 
jodices^ thofe partiahtica, which domineer over 
our minds^ and will not allow the free exercife of 
the judgment* 


* It will be proper here to warn the reader not to receive too 
implkitly the following Iketch of the Englifh conftitution» 
Though fufficieqtly accurate, according to the common reprt- 
ieatations, it mufi be ever remembered that the author is a 
Ibreigner, and is writing throughout with a view to the affairs 
of his own country t in relation to which he is to bef uadoubt- 
cdly confidered as devoted to the predominant party* In the 
fliort limits of detached notes it would be impoffible to corre& 
all his errors, and fupply all his deficiencies : what may feem 
inoft efletitlal in both refpe&s I (hall occafionally do ; and fhall 
content myfelf, in general, with referring, (beiide the authors 
mfittioncd by M. de Croix, and our more popular hifiorians) to 
a lite publication oa the finglifli Government^ by Profeflbr 

YttL.lI. Q MUlir 

194 Of the Conjiitutm of England. 

In order to make my courfc more certain, I (fa 
take for my guides the Abbe de Mably, M^ 
JLolme, the author of the Spirit of Laws^.xhcviic 
publiflied under the title of the Parmer of New, J 
fey J and in fine, the learned Blackftonc. I & 
compare the ideas of thefe feveral autbor$^ ;9 
adopt thofe which feem beft proc 
and have the general opinion in their favour. 

When Casfar carried his arms into Great Brita 
the people of that ifland had nearly the fame'rt 
gion, the fame government, and the fame cuflao 
with the Gauls, before that nation was fubjuga 
to the Roman empire. Both nations, upon 

! Millar of Glafgow; to the chapters on the conilitutioi 
Doftor Henry's unfinifhed Hiftory ; to the Parliamcntaiy 
Cory ; and to Mr. Reeves*s Hiftory of the Englifii I 
neither of thefc works, howev^r^ nor perhaps any work 
therto publiflied, ought to fatisfy a reader who wifhes t 
a perfe6k mafter of the fubjecl : he miifl draw fjom the four 
head; he mufl: read, and digeft for himfelf, our ancient recordj 
documents; and more efpecially the rolls of parliament in'thei 
gina], which have been in many places inadequately, and in f 
vtty erroneoully abftra<fled in the Abridgment paffing undei 
future name of Sir Robert Cotton. I fhall mention one infl 
to put hiftorians on their guanl. The iflue of a moft impd: 
ftruggle between the crown and parliament in the 15th and 
yeai-s of Edward the Third, has been moft ftrangely perv^ 
by Sir Robert Cotton ; and the Commons have been reprefi 
as fpeaking a language of fervility, direftly contrary to t^ 
pcated rcmonftrances of their genuine petition^: I am for 
add, that Sir Robert Cotton has millead all the hiftorians 
eoUeft to hsve fetfn. ■ 

' - coir 


Of tlkiiCoHjiituim of England. ig^ 

.coining flaves, ' ^<Df)ted the vices of their conquer- 

ffi^V'and as thofe. vices had expofed the Gauls to 

^tiieattacks of the Burgundians, the Vice Goths, 

and the Fr^ncs/fo they left the Britons without 

-ddfience'^gainft the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes., 

^fiofeiited theopfportunity, and enflaved thetti. 

- '-TJUs* people, ^ho were of German origin, had 

Jthe fame mimners dnd polirics with the Germans : 

and notwithftandiag all the revolutions which Eng- 

4snid -htd experienced^ ' it ppefesrved the precious 

'remains > of Germ^c liberty, even to the time 

'^ofxQi being invaded and ' conquered by William 

Duke of Normandy* . j . ., 

Nordian cuftoras * were now fubftituted for thofe 

■ ' ■ . *. *' '".■,.■.■.■ 

-^jrxnanic laws, ^which. the laft Sax,on king ^ad r^^ 

^£ed^nd formed in^Q a regular code^ -Th^ feodal 

> government was eftabliihed in £ngland, but- the 

'V' authority 

, ."♦' The feudal Ia«^wbkh was common to the northern tribes, 

;|wd4)ot been- unknown to. car- Saxon lUicefton ;. but though^^ thsey 

..Wefe.fftq^iliar mtkgrmts, which wer^ precariously or which eiidnr- 

, e4 §]f /^ ^rni of years, or during- the lift jqF the fepdatory, ithey had 

. fee».£ew examples of the perpetuity of tlje.fifcf. They had noi^.b^f n 

; -fUiSttl^omed to^ the laiV ilep of the feudal progrefs ; but a tendpQ^cy 

rfto^t^ fc^dJbliihment was feen among them ; ap4 if the invaiion of 

^.ji^ijlif ro had.never t>ken place, the inftitutione of this law had yet . 

I iU'riV^d at their hi^eft point. Stuart^ s prefe^ce to iali^an*s Lffiuris" 

. It mjdi however beobferved that this queftion, how {H^hCtfexL- 

d^ law prevailed among the Saxonsi has beeii a . fubje^ of ouich 

iu^trpyct£f. An acc^O^rupf the principal anthf^^ies otQ: oach (^.;s 

to be found in the iih:hapter of Reeves's Hiftoi^.of th^CngljyCt\I^w. 

l^fptbing ean be lefs true^ than that William wholly fuhjiituted the 

''" * O 2 Norman 

196 of the ConJUtntm d/Enghiiai 

authority of the firft Suzefain^ or' Lord VirliSXbiiii^f 
was more accurately marked than it vri^i m Fntnce 
at the fame period, becaufe the Englifh fortti 6f |{o^ 
vernment was the work of a prince, arriBidiitil^ 
a conqueror, and jealous of his^ power : aiid wloi 
having voluntarily given rewardi to tbbfe ofS<^ 
by whom he had been ferved in hi& etptdrndk, 
was free to require from them whatev^f coiiid%:ioH^ 
he chofe, in return for his fivours* *' , S 

William divided England intoTeVen^liiinia^ 
baronies ; and the imnjediate de|)ehdchce 1t)Hhe^ 
upon the drown, gave him abfoluW qommtod^oW^ 
their refpeftive lords, 

^* In the age of William (fays the AbbS de J&Ia- 
^ bly) there exiflied no power wliich did ndt ibtife 
'* its ftrength : and th^ more rJgoroui the ' yok^ 
^^ impofcd by this conqueror and hi^ fuccdtofs 
*^ became, the more the Englifli, who had beeii ojc- 
^' prived of their ancient laws by a fudden revolu* 
*^ tion, regretted that liberty, the remembrance cf 
** which there had not yet been time to eiFacev^' . 

The Normans themfelves, when they coinparod 
their condition with that of the barons of JSTonnaa- 
dy, felt their gratitude leflea towards a f9vereig9^ 

Norman cuHo.-n^ for the Saxon code. Ife twice ccmfinnsdlAfiiaMi 
of Edwasd the Ccnfefibr; once, as we are tpt^^,^ j^;foiusfb£^'» 

ilbp had^ ivpt^ conferred upon them fuch cxtenfive 
bcDra^^as he poiTcifed the power of conferring; 
«i^^c)[ley^^^ecafn and diflatisfied. After 

fy^pi^^ijif the ehterprizes of the prince to whom 
t|iy^ x>wcd their fortune, they foon began to 
^uac.^ which had enrichedi 

theiQ ^nritk the ipdils of the vanquiflied ; and which 
mkri^ alfo delpoil them in turn. They perceived 
the neceffity of having laws to preferve their new 
jpo0^pfis : a general difcontent united them and 
1^ JlagliQi^ who fuffered as much at; prefent as the 
ptWr^ (esjced they might fufTer in future ; and thus^ 
cheir intereft being the fame, their weaknefs ferved 
as arbpnd of union between them. 
-,ltwas, accordii^toM.deLohnie, under Henry I. 
Mftf forty years after William had conquered Eng- 
paid, that all parts of the ftate began to aSt in con^ 
OQftji tor obtaining feme defence againft the power 

^ ^'^ This prince (continues M. de Lolme) having 
?^i^cnd^ the throne to the exclufionofhi* elder 
f^ brother, was fenfible that he had no other means 
** CO 'maintain his power than by gaining the affec- 
•^ tion of his fubje&s; but, at the fame time, he per- 
"^^^x^vcd, that it muft be the affedion of the whote 
0f.tu»]o3^z he^ therefore, not only mitigated the ri''> 
'•*^dfwof the feudal laws in favour of tiie lords, but 
^** iirp aiineipcd, as a condition to the chatter hp 
'^ gjtmtfid, that the lords fl>ould. allow the 'Atipeiirefir 
od-N i. O 3 , ** dom 

^f dom to their refpediv^ ys^sX^i" By Jihis «toan«s 
be extended his favour to two claffrs of proprieton;. 

^^^ Care was even taken*(.fays M. deX^lme^-tofkbi^t 
^f lifli thofc laws of the conqueror which^laj; Jie^rQTeft 
f^; oa the lowed clafs of the people ;'* and,^ia ^o4r 
Henry granted a charter to his ful:>jB(9t5, hywhiph^^ 
ancient immunities of the Gerxnanic gov^r^WCnflU! 
wcrc; r e-cftabliflied. But it is. evident ;thac i^itii^lthf 
deiign was to allay. the geoeral^ inquici|i|Kie^>-t^|^ 
fklfc appearance, of juftice and hm^y<^\QnGP'9^fphkif 
was .often obliged to calm the ft<)rifts wj^h d^Jlr^cat* 
ened his authority^ by renewing \ the /oaths -iviHGh 
bound him. to the faitliful perfoKmancCvof l^is p^p* 
iniies* ; ' . . .' .., i».i:: .t'n'.y^ 

... If there, be in kings, fo little difpofition fexai;?? 
cute laws, of which they have been themfelvc^ idiMt 
authors, how much reafon is there to fiear ^leir 
deviating from thofc which have not bew; jhcir 
■own work ! . . , ■--.•:=. 

.The fucceffp?s of Henry endeavoured td make 
the nation lofe even the jememb^atice of the chai% 
ter which they had obtained frqm him, --: They 
. caufed it * to be fecretly taken frpm all the places 
where it was depojSted; aijd there were fopn no 
trances qf it,; except its name^ to be difeovcjred. 

• This cannot be true, for Stepli^n, and Henfy the ff. both 
"'dif them granted charters renewing andconfimain^ the "charter of 
• Hertry the I. This would have bcea a very» ridictkldus mOdcery^ 
If the Lph^xter fo rcnevvfild&d copErmed ^M then m^e]y.#};U^»r; 


Btft^ffiS fJWpft, wHiri'titey cbiild no longer rrfer 
t<>-*Kb^<fhartef, t6' iTiforiti themfe!ves> fiappofcd it 
miiirh iribre fiivoiirabre to liberty than it was in fift. 
: itpiigfigeneral^feniientation continued during the 
F«gAs*fStfe{)hert, Henry II. and Richard L Thefe 
Jlrtht^ft'^kffeW «t Iftalffi how'to direft their authoricyi 
IWft^Johtt^LackiLiaAd, •■who fucceedcd his brother 
Hibhard^ brought to the throne all the imbecility 
€yf ft cQfttei^{3ftible ahd cbMemned d^pot. This king 
XiJid^Jittle addrefs as to inflame all clafies of med 
agSihft bim, Thti indignation became general: 
and'the jhonarth, left by himfelf, was deftitute of 
luppdrti Thus aflailed by all the malecontents, 
who formed the whole nation, he was obliged to 
ItsfeSWft to th^ diredtion of his fubjeds^ and to fign 
^^'is'ftyled Magna Chartay or the great charter 

- ''^4f this charter had been granted to the demands 

of the lords alone, it is probable they only would 

%BWe bedii favoured in it, by the abrogation of the 

itS^ ^!^rtnic4t pislit of the feudal laws : but all the 

'^6^1e >^^fe in atrfiSj aftd equally demanded juftice. 

ahd /^ It was hence inftituted by the great charter, 

'*' <;fays M. de Lolme) that the fame fervices, 

'^^-Whfieh were remitted in favour of the barons, 

^^^'^ (Ijipuld be in like manner remitted in favour 6f 

:j/f ,^hqir vaffaU* This chaner moreover .eftah|U(hed 

y^^:!aii equality of weights and meafures throughout 

'*' England*; it exempted the merchants from arbi* 

' ^ trary impofts, and gave them liberty to enter and 

O 4 ^* depart 

'.' di^p2xt.tht.kin%dom u^^^trk c^h'^Uthd^ 
^^ ^d to tire low«il order of the-CbiC^^ fince^ir^aiiiSt^ 
;* ^ cd , that the villainy, or bondman (hould, not befub- 
.^^ jeft to th? forfeiture of hU implgracms of tijLl^gff," 
. Qf th^ tweaty^ninth article of tbisiamous ^cbar* 
ter, which includes the nwft eelcfer^ted previfioM 
for the proteAion of civil liberty; I (hullfeiv^ « 
literal tranila;ti6n, ' ..1 V. V.,^-^ ,~\fi 

' * /^ No free 4wn W . i?!f, 5^rrflftf^Vit<W. i«lfe 

» ■ > • • ' ■ ■ .' ■ 

* I have fubftituted a new ^ratiilatioa fi'wi|:idiei6rigiiiai,: ins- 
tead of tranllating ftona the French pf M« dela Crotiu -..ffii 
vediop is by no means literal, nor indeed fnthfbl to the ienfei 
but this m^jheweU excUfed in a foreigner, when ibmCDf.iitvr 
beilinfprmod writers are not pcrfc^Jy- >tf«<d on ihem<¥iQMig^ 
f very part of this important chapter, {o often quoted, explaiiwdi 
and enforced, within the laft five hundred years. f' 

In.pne particular palTagc (l^ec Jup^r turn ihimus^ n^c fiptr^twrn 
ntittemus) I have followed the commonly received interpretati^i 
which is that of Lord Coke ; it has however been qu«ftion«d, \ 
think with reafon, by a late Icarnod writer in hi» liiilory of tM^ 
EngliQi Law, His p&mpbra|ip is as follows , *^ Nor wijl^iv; take 
*« po{reffioniAp^rf9Hi,.p|.;i)xo^r f^iW?» Pf bi«tff«fts, butvtar 
*' the judgment of his peeis, or by fbroe other legal p)*oce& <lt 
•* proceeding, adapted by law to the nature of the cafe," ■ , ? » 
: This conftniiftion will make the prpvifions of this cl^u£r #K? 
tend to proteft the fuli^e^ in all poiate, in his perfituUiiieis^ 
in his r^al and ferfonal piopfvty^ which Ufl; woilM Ql^n^tib.te 
left un^arded, " A^ th^ fevfn^r cj^pi^ioQs ^f thi*i.d»pltr 
«< (pbffiTcs Mr. Reaves) apply to the perfin an4 the ;/r<r6tf/^^ilt 
''/fepmed.Jiatur^l to add fuch as would pro^^.the^et^f 'aad 
lyd't^tjelj ^l\ and hf 5Viot^ the,author)ity,of thc;;iyitJ|iw forffcil 

.•• •■IT 

£^t<^^^?#'Miua#^S«S^An^ fiM 



'^.fi^^^AK^e^ fir /di^&irB^ 9> or ' be :^0ut-l«wed: or 
^^ f ^^ii^ -.' iif , i^; ' i^nyr im^mter deflrojrcd.. Nor 

.;-i:.^i'>r' -r-^.r'--^ i-i^.:-: : ■ . •- - - f ^ wiU 

tec&fiibii'ti^'<rf'Uie' tiFfc^ ^r afid lii/terij to g$ and to fend. 
ia<rli)i toil Mhijmli^cM9r\ yw ^ rrriMl f^fffitum a Mld0ratu 
^fT;T.ttHyT'y** Caly^.l^xi Jut. li!^* • .. .•*» 

TpibU^ixiawbe.addi^ a ftill better auth^rHyii^thfiprcfeiit 
cale~a'n authority not fo much confulted as it jqught. ^> l^jc; ,i;a 
all riueidations of our great charter — I mean the; a^tttda or 
hSii& dPthf-cftitfset'fe «Viginiliy kgrt^'Wwef^n the barons and 
llf^lk^^ 'The correfpondent paflage there is, wc rex eat vel 
mittatfuper eum vi.: Nor fljall the king go or fend mpon him BY;:;^iThhiaj(lriii^ck'd^^kiCh Is omitted in the charter itfelf, 
iy[^rfoiftiyi:<»ififio^£ with th« mterpretation 6f Mr. Reeves, but 
|flltt%rihcpnfiftch^wilh the inlerpretatiohoF Lord Coke, who 
ftfeiVtlMrwordftld the judicial proceedings oiF- the King's BendEi, 
tieftfrisirtke^ iang^faperiia^^ indin other courts aftiftg* iiiider flis 

Mr. Reeves, from biff knowledge of the lattguage iifed In (^ 

meient^law^^'hasr alfo been able to make another hew remark on 

AtitjetoQkiding ^ords of the fentence^ <<lTnIefs by k legial 

1« ._^Wgf*i*i»» ^f hti f>eefs; Ov by the law of the lkiAl> iThe trial 

if|0 jtuyt'lM^^ 'was t^^ T^ldeh of in thefe days a& Judicium 

ii^itAffomt) niuth Wft ftkHHi^ pmium (a 5udgm<(ht of a itian^ 

jdeft^k -W^'htiit ^ wridli^uffty Juramentum tegallum homirmm^ 

^litfci '^^ii/^ tiiik! the Hke, all exprtffivc of fomc Jnmm truths 

or of the perAmi who fwbfe it coming from the wina^e : whereas ', 

Chi/MrJp J^Mf reaim gwt jmigihenf and not upon oath ; fo did 

tbe^/^MTv^, 'as they were anciently csllled in the connty and 

•ihorWMKtts^ ^^'huert ikt peers (f the fitt men tf th$ country ; 

am) tte(ehtt# c^me firMA the bocfy of the county and not frdnlk 

thil' Viciiilgeii But although the iln^t; acceptttion of the w^rds 

\kA Ifttbr ^c^ntr does point rather to the judgYneiits 6f the 

^holders iti Che t<^nt/ oolirti thuh to Ihrti^ai]^' jury, yet the 

.i);j/^ principle 

^ Of the E6)tfi(htimrfEr^niL 

^ yl/iWwt proceed againft him in pcfrfori; noT ^wr* 
*.* authority, under oaf writ, to proceed agiinft 
** him, unlefs by a legal judgment of his peers, or 
f* by the law of the land. To no inan will we fdl, 
♦♦ to no man will wc deny or delay ■ right or jai 
ffftic^/' ■ ' - V ■ -^ 

L ^^'From that moment the Englifli** as M. dc? 
liolme juftly remarks ^f would have been a free 
f ^ people, if there were not an imm^ife difiference 
*f between the making of laws, and the obferying 
•^ of them* 
; ** But though this charter wanted mofl: of thofe 
♦f.ivipports which were neceffary to infure refpeft to 
** it, though it did not fecure to the poor and 
. '^' frfendle&any certain and legal methods of db- 
^* tairiing the execution of it, (provifions theB? 
'^^ which; humberlefs trarifgreflions alone could, int 
*^ proceU of tipie, point out) yet it w^s a prodigir, 
^^ ousiwivance towards theeftablifhraent of liberty*'^ 
There is one thing vcry.furprifing with refpedt to 
this faiiious trciaty; a work which would have bbifil 

principle here recognized is certainly applied at the prefent day 
with correft propriety to the trial by jury as it has long exifted." 
• If the reader is defirous of feeing a very critical and curioUs 
"hiftory of our ancient charter, I would refer him to the fecoiid 
"Volume of Blackftone*s Law Tra6b: and for the bcft explanation 
<if the great charter, he may read and compare the fecohd part 
it tori CdteVInilitutesY Snlivan's Leftures, froiri the 3?ti to 
iHe ^jd'lieftiire Indofive ; and thebeginnirigbFthc 5thchia]>tei- 
of Reeves's Hiilory of the Englifh Law. 


wo^ynif the^)tftrf):-«nLigfatt*nal agb$ ic was pnt^ffiett 
ittrrjd^yoMt-'i-ftf-j, without fpreading-at once tirsf 
o£ light over ail the conftiuuions of Europe, itnd 
teaching aii people what were their reai rights. Th6 
li^eachhftmhad^fince that time, theirStates General 
frequently affembled : their kings have frequency, 
)jy their faults" or, their misfortunes, been,.re3uted 
tp-A (Ute o£ dependence on their-Tubjeds : howithcii 
baaji-JjappeDcdrthat their anceftors have never-bad 
?}»pCTper:i^rit~ JO take odvantage df their iiid; 
narch's diftrefs, and obtain a charter fimiUr to -that 
$ttf4tntil 1^ ;the- Englifti * ? The reafon of diis 
u;jj.j'iV'- ■— ■ ■ -negkft 

iili^ -'■.y.^r, ■.!( • 'r -■: i ■' ■- ■• ■; "" ■ ' .'■ " 

.rjT,TlieT«detniift beQaqciD]ie4 19 rcoetYathe&Md theMtav>)>g 
C^jJE^pratioiu with much diHraft. The fofls areconliderablx t^ftoneit. 
fa-dicporpofeof obliquely J uftifyjrg the late proceedings in France 
l^mmvidtoas'cQinpaTironin'favourof England. The divi/un tftr^ l 
iHai (i{ the atithor meaas the political diftinaion of the eltatei), 
Whidt eziflod till-i789in France, did exift he^' m the tinte of 
Jffh^;^ »it& this <U&reiice only, tbu hcit dK^gream loWity. in 
n9,iii)^ indeSoite, were- individuaUy tiod- ifediUy rummoned, 
wiuTe the tefler nobility were reprefetited ; but there all the noU- 
lity, great and fmall,.. were. squally .reprcfentedbjr a de&lite nnini- 
I>«r. It is uot true that John had no provincet to Shelter him. 
He had pro\ ince? d3 the continent ; . he had the Nonnan illandi^ 
-jaDdhehad (trong holdf in our own iflaodt- He did aftuall^ retiie 
to^e Ifle of Wight, afwr figoing JJiifMi C:6.wM, dr«w to^ethey a 
foreign foicc. and wa|:ed.a civil war;, i^gunft wluch the bams 
foi^nd ir^ecelTary to a^oju the dcTperate. expedient, pf fecfciiig fo- 
^^ign^,ai^^ on ^sk gV.V, aiid,Qfiehng tkefin^liflt croiim<tf tke fqa 

:"' ' ' '"' ' ^ " .. .■-.•- : ..-■ .-v,.-.:! .;..v.i" -of 



ilieglcd has. hc^p thf wMfQ^,fpo««p$l,^<p;Hi$^jlQr! 
veiled until the prcpwc (i9^e,jit9,9J9f .^4J4^yK 

• « / 

<r|i«ijjuinity^ and a JCRJ^ wmority^ WL>lCfY^^|i w)uc]vtli(ifp\^Q|BB^ 
^eiit is^always D^cefiarity .weak» <;osfirai?d tliQ iibcnic^ of (hef$[Qr 
lie. ^orxim .we ,Airly Jboatl, that thc.anclent Woqs of England 
joflafKul more public ▼btut tl^aft tji^ ^obl)».of France^- In £^^ 
tiie diffhmice to the pQlitieal con^itioa^ of the two ewatrie^.fi;f^ 
tQ have Vifrn iirgm ^Jw^iflfc.i^d rfetotitl difiFf4;f c«)% 
coqillanpes. finglajad,, froi&^^r isfuUr.i^ ,(»M^^ccaoie^ 
cQipm^rcial country; aod for^c Pfo|ie<HQf|ji)f,59i^^pKfC^pg^^ 
ynd immunities to cities and towns were /ojai^dj^ecefians^ vTM 
8a]dqp Iwvs pf Athelftap, it if well known^ ^^^'^Jf^^'^V^^r^l^i 
inerchanu who had made t^ee voyages at th^ir own chafgf ;ir|yp4 
the . three pxincipiU por^l. of the kingdoo^ (wluch»^with4ieq|^9i^ 
^dgd^by Wiliiaoi the Conqueii^r^ pDofUttite^ cin«}Uft,pttitfiy are 
iiia^X<k h^ve b«d their peculiar immunities andprivilQfcs^ji^i^illd 
Aein Ix^ikP timp pf,4^ SAxpmu An eficflt« yMA <a«:«idy WJI^ 
tribal to owe. ccmptsacii^ .(acce& in cominercejas d^ifi^fe^Tio 
nc(ndfid in (n.old i4iin writer^. piibli£^ InJDtn ChefncV ^IcH 
UQo^i «9d i( is a (afit vniy nsateridl tp tb^ prefent. jumo&,,^ H» 
lays that " WUlij^m the Coaqoetort oa hb &rft retern to^ Nod|flB||§r{ 
V 4y> bropght; yflth him ai aatichfaUi A<.was haiidiy iio hi^fq^i^fl 
^^ /A aU France ; fpr»" obferves J)e* '^ EngUtid moeh mf^c^ 
<< France in the abDndaoce of pj!eciotts «imW' C|rf/?{..^^ 

Tha foreign maritinie domini^Ai gf ovr Karmaii ibv^rtigiu jnafr 
iji courfe hAvc; iacreafed oor tradff ; while 4bcijr.ntc^sfi^^«^<^p^ 
6m^ fey *« fofeign e^tpoditioos, W,4^ 
tlieiii:^ «|i€0uca|e ihc purchafe <tf chamn.aod Jni^^J^j^ 

^Nf^'ik tdJift^tMt&r of-'iHich the' kin^couf^^^ 

YtaPli#^'fiKftAiM coiporaflo^ ^ ibta MtrVe ifUtam li^ 

deM 'HBc^f^a, bf rtffllng i year aria'^a % In any jpririkfglit 
nWi,*'acilwffig: ttttlveJhito grffd «$ aciitfaefiortfeplae*: 
tfter r t&c tWrr/'toWtfir, and toroughV; l)^came rcceptktei* acAii 
s^ftfli^ fbf':AM^e gra#ilii|^ fnbddtti; fVk'dcrftrf, &fiAl^ei^ ofiho 
cc/mrrj • 

tfHSfj vffittmtfk ^)««!Ht!i''weTe 'C(^MqietKiy iii i6iii^''ptrp«n^ 

If^ivttd- Itf-tenV HI. wheriieMe, "-thofii L'iiiddir efi^ 
*«*Ml4 tiff A»HCiff«r«| barofni; bboana }h-«TaTth'eTdRfoteW(4tmj^; 
•• diit«^» •sfn'ft«fertrftibfe i*ftr»t»tf of 'dptilrte'e.* If^ar. Kmt* 
«»^i<e£f8.-" Th^'tMoAiftbr thedty-iiF Londoii waA 'liiitttt^AJf 
fi^ etrt u fiH a teJ.'" ft ili'thi' civil ^i/m, iown to ihe ^ej^ reS^- 
liafi7llfiV^^'M|[i( of 'ChaH^ (. tIi«:tiKy''of'L6(i^n vM> a pnnei^ 

ifimFttoA'iQA^''J^; Lon^ tett't&«'Wa^ hi deekHn^ Br 4e 
l£t^'-'ji-attf,-anot^^« twm/LgVe W^i yitio yten'thoBni ioA- 
ftMtWfs «Fthe pflbKc liberties undtsr the great chitHtf, tlb aiij;^ 

»/««2ir ite'fci^dom r-f e» l&Mcet coi^ litfirte*^^ 

[(Mf tfi2t''ffi<! ti«t' fit '^))ii«ip1^' a^ftiif & (&{^' 

4lil >Mr c/^AVfi-tt^ttovt ittdudiigv ^ A» faffir iMiMBeik -IbMe 
( nendoa 

part iyf the natkMi, • by attachihg*' thtf -'dthc^' to'^'lfis 
iiitfereft, '■:■'' 

mention of 'the other cities which had Hbmies in. thatifipe^^.ayd 
"^thrpogh her influence on political events^ the jud: rank of the whole 
' third edate, in the government of the country^ fame mere readH/ 
:tO be admitted. ' . ' . ^^'^ 

France^on the contrary^ did not begin^ tilt j^ late {period, ^]be- 
come a commercial country : almoll all the markime and-^PffPfi* 
fafluring provinces, wliich ihe no'iVipoi&f&s^. f^e x^t, annexed 
until very long after the reign of our King lohn^ foipe by inac- 
jiage> and fome by conqoeft^ to the crown of Francb : her cities and 
^>towns had indeed reprefentatives in the idates general, from W^ pc- 
liod^of confiderable antiquity ; yet they wantied the wdght of Cti0K 
jiierc;ial cpnfequence ; and^what little confeqi^ence tjkey had, o£tAM 
defcription, wanted in Parisiahead which <;ouI^, {;i,^e. it 3Uit9,5f'* 
fedt. Tt was not till during the interval, which has elapfed fince 
' the difufe of the flates general, that France has acquir^4 much con- 
federation gs a commercial country; and that a fi^ditions mohibd 
Jntereft has grown up in Paris* from the. management of the. p«biic 
debt> and the affliix of ilraogeiyS, reforting from all pMrta of ^tVt^pe 
to the French court, as to the fchool of elegapce i^ fafi^v^ .mai^n^iiy 
and literature. When the Aates general at length met agaia in 
X789, the third eitate began to feel their new iituation : and having 
theirconftitutional (hare of the national reprefentatioa doaUed by 
:;]^ weaknefs or treachery of a popular miniAer^.niinib'uded by 
,ihebeft^. teacher of moderation, the experience of long ftr^ggks 
iuid varied difiiculties ; poiibned by the ,preteBde4 ^^(!^y^?^'9$«* 
Yalfe philofpphy, and corrupted by the intrigues or |i^>nfy. i>^%^- 
'to^d ambitious men among the nobles* andnear.the throne it- 
fklfg^thn ^ple grew wanton in the exerafe of unaccizftiE»ii{ed |}D^* 
^^kiPiigiit they could not aflert their own iod^epejMieiBCT^'l^'by 
i^irofK^'^^ cjMttduu^Q braaches pfihc Iqgiflatttrf 4^^ ^ ^ I- ^ - 


vj<)ha, Lackland had di(plea&d all his dibje^. 
.^e bad iiQ^pi;ovinGes in- which he could, take re- 
fuge, and from thence give laws to the redof hi^ 
dominions. He was therefore compelled to ac- 
kndwJedge the fovereignty of the nation,, and to 
govern them according to thqir will, or to.refign 
the fccptre. Thus, we fee, it is fortunate foi" aa 
oppreffed people, when all are fufFerers tinder the 
^£nne oppreffion, and have an eijual intcreft in lead- 
injg back thifir oppreffor tdthe rules of juftfce. 
-" ' In the year 1465, Louis XI* tn^dj?, vvithdif- 
Jfcrent lords, a treaty for ternainating, the war, 
>;iKhich. was- called, the war: of the public gooJL 
j'But in this treaty there was no mention madb 
^^df the interefts of the public ; . b^caufe the'ptinc^ 
an4. lords, with whom the' treaty wa^CQn(;)iM^g4, 
x^j^p entirely .epiployed about; their ONvn pjivilfge^; 
:AJ34 g^ve then^felves very little concern about; the 
*pQbiiewelfare> with a zeal for which they pre- 
"jftSrhtJed to be animated. . , 

'^' .'fe was feared in England that their Magna Char- 
^'ta^, might; (hare the fate of the charter of. Henry I. was therefore add rcfled to all cathcdml 
•ijyircteBry with orders to have it read there twios; 
•^ iitcry^year to the peoplfe, to infure its exccutioii^; 
a^^ the ' barons ivere authorifed to form jjl couacal 

9^^t;wcwy-fi^^^ to -wtipm-eArwy 

Jrij^iy^i^j^a.who had caufe to complain of/ch'e4tt- 

frttftioh of tbisj9harter^ were to have-i^eOtfeiff&J^:^'''':^^* 

loB Of tie CMfiit^aim of England. 

If foar of thefc barons found fuch complaints to 
be jaft, they were to addrefs the king, or, in his 
absence, the chancellor, to demand an equitable 
reparation. If, within forty days after this de- 
mand^ the party aggrieved was not fatisficd, the 
four barons gave an account of their proceedings 
to their colleagues; who, direded by a pluraKty of 
voices, took fuch mcafurcs as were judged expe- 
dient for obtaining juftice. They had a right to 
arm the commons, and compel the king, by pil- 
laging or feizing his domains,, to repair the wrongs 
which be had done. 

Without * approving the violent meafures of 
pillage, or feizing tlie royal domains, I canndt bdt 
acknowledge, that, if all barons and all nobles had 
forborne to employ th«i>r afcendency over nations, 
except for thus making the laws rcfpefted, as the 
proteftors of the fubje^ts; and for forcingthefuprenM 
authority to repair its afts of injufticc ; they had al- 
ways appeared too precious to the people, and too 
neceffary to their happinefs, to allow pf that peo- 

* Inilead of intimating a difapprobatioti of tkefe meafures, (the 
moft lenient and leail violent which could be well deviied to €08i« 
pel redrefsj when force was once made necefikry by the refafal of 
the king), it would have bee» tnoffcandid in the aothor tft hsve 
menuoned, withdae praifc, the exception which follow>>>*«>'^ ikm 
" iit^all cafss^ the perfins of the king, the- quetfr, an4 ^^^ cbUdrtn JbfJl ie 
*^Jafe.^* But any commendation on this Hbetalicy of fpuit,. in n 
barbarous age, might have reiiefled too much difcredit on bstm 
]atc barbirifrnft of the prefent TiUrd age in I^rance* 

Of the Conjiit'ution of England. 209 

pic ever becoming jealous of their exiftence, and 
feeking to degrade them. 

Under the long reign of Henry III. the diffenfions 
between the king and the barons held England in a 
il'late of agitaiion. But though the former tri- 
umphed in the end over the arms of the latter, as the 
Earl of-Leicefter, their leader, had found a fuffi- 
cient number of partizans for making head againft 
the monarch, and occafioning a civil wir, the 
monarch, though vidorious, wis not fufficiently 
powerful to exalt him^felf above the laws. The laws 
formed the objedl which employed all minds ; it was 
for them that the combatants had expofed their lives ; 
and the nobles perceived the neceffity of ftrength- 
cning themfelves with th,c love of the people, in 
order to repel that power which fought to cruQi 
them by its weight. 

■^ The Parliament, to which London a-d fome 
other confiderable cities had exctufivcly fent repre- 


* It is perhaps almoft fiiperfluous to advertife the reader that 
it has long been a queflion much agitated, whether the writs of 
49 Hen. III. did or did not introduce any alteration in the con- 
ilitution of parliament. The opinion, however, which feems to 
have the better foundation, is contrary to the account here given 
by M. de la Croix, probably on the authority of Mr. Hume. 

It is certain at lead that knights of the fhires made their ap- 
pearance in parliament before 49 Hen. III. Among the very 
imperfeA remains of our old records, there are writs extant, to 
fummon knights from the counties, in 15 John, 32, 38. &: ^2.. 
Hen, IL It is true indeed, that we have no writs before 49 Hen. 
in. which fummcn citixens aftd burgejfesy but there are (Irong 

Vol. IL P ore- 

210 Of the ConfiimioH of ^ng(4>td^) 

fentatiy^s, nowadmitteddcputies from the borgaigb^. 
and from all the counties : and this affemWy^iflt 


prefumptions and collateral teflimonies in favour of tlie antiquity 
of this part of our rcprefcntation. 

There is one great, broad faiEt, which furniibcs^ a very fprcibljp^ 
inference. It is an obfervation of feveral of our antiquaries, that, 
many boroughs which cannot be fhcwn to have received anv;^. 
clwjrter fince the conquefl, and which (ince that period bave.neverf 
biren of any conHderation^ but in total decay, hare y-et feats ip;., 
parliament, which, it is argued, mud be from old preicription^.. 
This, however, is,only prefumption; whatfollpws ismorcdire^^., 

The ftatuteof 5 Ric» IL "that every one to whom it belcHigetb* , 
f^l upon fu[nmons.come to parliament," holds very remar]kable 
language. It talks, repeatedly of the pradice of the ojf d tzmrs.;. i 
w citiei and bimuzhs txjhich be Uundy and of old TIME nvcre.'umftm, 
to come t9 parliament ; and of the cuftom_ or common lanv ^^ l^. ^11^^% ' 
past" by which a fherifF was to be fined for omitting ^^,f^r,^ 
li^mentary city pr borough out of his returns. This could not. 
have been the language of parliament, if chics ?u>i J>oroughs Jigd , 
not been prefcnt in paMiament more than a fmndred y^an^ wh>cl| 
was nearly the period from 49 Hco. III. to 5 Ric. II. 

But the record which is of the moft precife and conclqfiyi^ au-* . 
thority, is the petition of the borough of St. Albans, on t^ie.roll^. 
of Parliament, injhe &th year of Edward II. The petilipn cj^^P* 
plains that the fherifF of Hertfordfhire had corruptly omitted the 

'. . • ■••"■--■J 

borough of St. Albans in his returns, and the right which the bur- 
gefTes claim, is a right by prefcription* They fay that, they bold^thc. 
town of the king in chief -^ that they, like other burgpiles of .the 
iiealm, ought to come by two of their fclIow-burgefTfSto the kiAg!s 
parliaments, whenever a parliament is called, as theytifedjo ob^ . 


eonfueverunt) there to do all manner of JcrviQC tft thC-Wo&^L,- XfecyH, 


Cf th$ CohfiitHtim if England^ 2 1 1 

ftec^At^ to the prefervation of Englifti rights, thus 
acquired Ai^w force, and rendered liberty more deaf 


then proceed more particularly to fpecify a legal prefcription ; 
for they fay, that they and their predecclTors have always 
performed ftich fervices as ixjell'm the^time of cur Lord Ed'wardy ku$ 
king xf England y THE former king, and their, (or his) procb- 
ifiTORSy (tempore Domini E. nupe^- Regis Jngtia^ pRtORis Regis^ 
& FROGEKiTORUM suorum) as lu the tinie of the king, that 
now IS, always till the prefent parliament • and they refer for 
proof to the rolls of chancery. ' The anfwer dircds, that thq . 
roth cf chancery htfearched^ whether the faid burgefles were wont 

to come, 0r »0/, IN THE TIMES OF THE KING's P&OGSNITpR8,.9J)d 

that jiifiice be done them. 

'Now here we have a prefcription claimed* The period of 
lej^ memory is the reign of Richard I. and accordingly the daim 
refers expfefsly to the relgii of Hen. II. — to the time of the late 
kliig Edward I. the former king, that is Henry the lild* 
an? that (or his) progenitors, which muil at lead carrjr 
tis back to his grandfather^ Henry II. beyond the limit of legal 
memory. It muft be further obferved, that the burgefTes pre:*" 
icribe for a right of coming to parliament by reprefentation,— by 
tnm rf their fcllvw-hurgejes . Let us here ftate a little more par^ 
ticularly the opinion of thofe to whom M« de la Croix inclinesi 
It is pretended that the parliament called by the Earl of Leicefler 
in the 49th of Hen. III. was the Hrfl in which knights frotn all the 
counties, and citizens and burgefTes, from all the cities and bo- 
roughs made their appearance : that the new form of parlia-» 
inent then introduced, was immediately laid afide again till the 
%y^ y<ar of Edward I. when it was revived and thence regularly 
continued. What then was the difhmce of time when the petition 
of the burgefles of St. Alban's was prefented ? l^ttt fifty years 
fiiobitbe time of Leicefier*s parllam ent, and mt t'wenty years from 
tht fo^pofed revival of reprefent^tives from the counties, cities, 

-' Pa and 

212 df the Confiitution of England. 


to ail: for the power of the tomrnons, who.wcrcfriore 
friendly to rcpofe than the nobility, tempered the 


and borcwigbs. Manypcrfons preferjt in parliament at the time 
of this petition mnij Iwvc remembered both parliaments of 25 
«£dw.I. & 49 Hen, IJI.; and not a few probably had been them- 
fclyes prefent in that of Edward I. Could then fuch a petition 
have been offered to fuch men ?nd not have been rejefted with 
indignation at the firft. glance ? What muft have been the nc- 
cefl&ry anfwer I Muft it not, have been this? " Your claim is pal- 
** pably and notorioully falfe. You infift on a prefcriptipn frona 
*« the time, of Henry H. before the beginning of legal memory* 
** when wfi have all of us heard, and fome erf us perfqn^y ki^ovr 
**,tb.^ receipt origin of all rcprefentation of boroughs.*' Qut.Yr^ 
was the anfwer? It was a grave;.and fclemn reference to the chan- 
cery rolls to determine the truth pf the claimi that jufticc might 
be done. — I daiiot mean to orerftrain the force of. ^his record.- But 
the conduct of parliament carries us indifputably beyond the 4.9th 
of Henry III. and affords ftrocg picfumption of an autiquity as 
early as Henry IT. thoagh it cannptbe confidered as abfplute proof. 

Jt is candid to mention, that the authors of the Parliamentatv 
Hiftory do glance at this record ; but they do not carry it fo 
high, as it clearly goes. They had in truth peycr fcea the p^titipli 
■,^^3^elf. They refer to Selden's account o it in his .Tit J^; of 
Honour, p. 709 ; but I can neither find i there, by thaf rcff^^nc^ 
nor by the index to his works. I know not, therefore, hpfr bi9 
has urged the argument. The petition and anfwer. are tplbe f€€fl[ 
in the printed Roils of Parliament, Vol. I. p. 327. : ='«-^i< 

, Though any arguments drawn from the filence of our tnore eftrljf 
.hifti»riaiis, could not avail againft fuch a document, it may no£<bt 
improper here to faggefl one or two obfervations on thatfihtad*: * 

Malhew of Paris frequently notices the prefencc of oihcronHcta 
befide thofe who in modern times are only diftingaiflied-A^ barp^ig 
and who began in his time to be fo diftinguxfhcd without aoy ad-^' 

a dition 

ff •.< 

Of the Conjiitution of Englaiti. a 13 

impatient and military genius q& the barony, too 
much mclined to eiiiploy force in defipnding tliclr 


dition difcrlminating* them as the greater barons. The fir ft con- 
vention Of parli^ent of Henry I. was attended as he tcfls us 
by the dcrgy and the um*i>er/al people. In the 8th year of Henry lit 
he fays the king met in convention or parltaitient at Morthami^ttm* 
the archbilhops, bifhops> earls, barons, Wd sfANv others ; and 
the next year atWeffrtinftertbe fame kin^atfeihtted the archbifhojis, 
bifhopSy earlsj barons, and all* OTHnks' ot the real'W 
(ctTMALiis VNivERsis), that IS, otlot^sfs, Tiox, fpir?tual or ticih- 
'^vilL^petrSf'whohad feats in farliament* ' "■ 

'The charter figned by Henry J. at his coronatteh is preferred by 
John Brompton, and there, as well as in the copy entered in the 
red book of the Exchequer, it is witncfled by ?rchbifhops, bifliops, 
earls,^ baroh8,'^^n^, aud the best mew (oft: .xtihu<y 0^ the 
W^OLB kiNGDOM or ENGLAND. The ^^ men (opt nates) here 
prefent mull be meant of fome order of men diftinft froni h-^ earfs 
^nd barDns>arid yanking under the fherifFs of counries.-— »'»'<' liam 
of Newbfirgh, who almoft always ufes the term ** optimate: ' to 
«prtfs'the Whole body of parliament, applies alfo die fame word, 
as wefl'Ss the appellation of mhksy to the principal r/V/^?-; of London^ 
in the i^th chapter of his ^'th book, where he gives z-?. account 
of a confpiracy' in London. ^ 

Bat there is a paiTage ftUl mere explicit in Radulphus dc Diceto. 
It recognifes the prefence of a diftln<a order of men fu:;ordinate , 
to Che htighti, who are alfo prefent. This was in the i^:\yn of 
Jiciiry !!• That king in his zzd year called a convent' t)n at 
Northampton, and there confirmed the ftatutes of Clarendon n-.adc 
before' by him> and appointed juftices, w: o wereftsorii to ob'crve 
iJiem;: And this was done (fays thehiiiorian) v/ith the'confent 
of the- kilhops, earls, barons, knights, and others of his 
a»|ir«CT«L- ' i:oram Epfcoph, CmitauiiBtirymhis Maitibt^/^ 

^t*jW«4a*i«)pii »Tjss= stj I s . ' - 

'■o.;ViJ^ '•;---.•'-.-■.• -^;:>(.p.- •/•^^:: -...r. m .• Indeed 

Z14, P/^^ Confiitfttion of JEn£/atu(^ 

privileges, and put tlie pg,rliaqieriti in a c^paw^ of 
acquiring new rights without haYin|; rccjowrsfo .to 


Ind«ady if a6nt«fc«rmore early hiftoriam had left ahf^nktdi 
«f Atch a diftiodiaii^ their filence iroiild not have afforded av^ 
deciiive inference. The kniglits, citizens, and burgefles, it ffio\^ 
fcem, might be gcaerally included in the terms of the " Xii^ nmth 
its BarofUy** or *^ 6is*ivi^le S^rgnagfiy^* and nnore efpecially in the 
phrid*e, once ufed by Mathew oif Paris, with the Baronage ^ 
iBe tm'ver/altealm^ " etnk miiverjttatis Bamapo,^ The appellati^h 
of Bartvt yvBs anciently ufed to fignify ^free^jolder in general ;^'^aiUl 
under the name of the Barons rf, a Cowrf/^, Spelman fays, itptpi^Lly 
the greater barohs and lords of manors, but all frcC'k<ildQ'4 jof that 
county were underftood. In the fame manner the tjjhole Baronage 
or tie Baronage of the umnjer/al Realm^ would mean riot only the 
greater .fiijrwrr, who had a righttoa fpecial fimfriAWi^' biitsfli tlfe 
frte^Jfolderj rf^bc, Ih^d^thj virtually jprtfent by^fepre^htatidft": an& 
we havepoiitive proo|^ that the citizens and burgelTes of. cfi^ttxx 
cities and good towns, befide the Cinque. Ports^ were at firft fty.le4 
Barons. Thb is renjarkcd both by Spelman in his GlofTanr, and 
Selden in his Titles of Honour, The citr;?ens of London are 
called barons in the charters granted to them by Henry T. Joh'ii, 
atid Henry III. as well as other old records. Spelnianinffemcei 
toy the Barms of JToriy Cbefitr^ Jfarnxiick^ Ftverfiam:, and itlfiny 
other towns; and Selden, VoL JII, p« 7179 <}uotes aclofc?^)) 
of l6ch John, endorfed to the Barons of Tarmoutb, Ip/hvich, Nor^wicbg 
Orivell, Shorehdm, Port/mouth, Exeter^ Bofeham^ and fo forth'. I know 
BOt the contents of this roll, but I tHmk it worthy the attention ^ 
bur profeffed hiflorians. It may poffibly prove a writ pf Tammoni 
to parliament, and would then be direft evidence ; at any rate' tt 
fliews the citizens and bm-geflcs to have been called Barons m the) 
time of Jghn, though, ftom .th« language of ft^hew.of ]?iri|i 


* . ■ \ ■■ ^ ■■• ^ V ? 1 

Englijh Jujlinian^ was aware that nothing buf me 
t JKiiSb adminiftration of juftice could enable him to 
gov^ra a . turbuleint body: fo£ n^^Uty i ^ and that, f to 
itf^anquilize the peopie -^fae xnuffc infure to thein 
Sflieir poffefTions. ' - ^ : - ■ "- -'"* " "^ ' -^ 

*;: jflLt that peribcl^Be tdifi^ giiic 

preponderance Tn p^rfl^jne}^^^^ .i;bey . hoJd,/ax 

;this id^y. It is their faj^>.. to, oive thft.hqniili^wi 
Kondkion of the people, until they raifc thenxfetves 
^^hat natural equality, Avhich feenfis as if it bifght 
^'tb* |>revail among all mankind. 

' ^he fummons which the lords receive from the 
j^mg to. attend the parhamait, imports thax.they arc 
pOt^ aiSpQibte, iKrdm negotiis traSatuH^ isf ewkiUum 
if^n^rij for treating of arduous buflnefs, and 
^iVlilYthai? advlccje That of the cpittmohs ex- 
prefles thaT they are to meet j^ £sf cott^ 

^tfiisn^um^^fir doing and (^^^ ... 

iv^^'^rwithftanding the unwillingnefsof Edward to 
leoofenc to: Magna Charta, be found himfeif neccf* 
-Stated to confirm it, and to makeaftatute ^ by whidi 

Nvliere he gives that title to the citizens of London^ it appears that 
It W^s not then commonly applied to other citizens and burgefles. 
Thcnapiie was changed in the time of Henry III. and that may 
navc'inifled fubfequent hiflorians as to the ^^* — Mr. de b Croix 
migfit here, have remarked, if he had pleafed, that the cities aqd 
gQodt lowhs of Fiance undoubtedly^ had deputies in the ftatpfi* 
jj^njnrat, io nearly as 1 24.0/ 6t the 25 th year of our Henry Hll 
f TJac ftattttc dc Tallagio non concedendos 

P4 it 

it€ Of }ke x:dnJHfuMm ^pEngh^. 

itiBA^httd, thkt m impoj^knil ke levMhtvitbaur the 
conjentof the peertand the cwrimons. This ftatute, 
alid Magna Charta form alone the two great pillars 
of the Conftitution of England. 

Whilft the commons of England were exalted 
to a level with th? foyereign ppwer, b^ their cxclu- 
five right of grantinig or withholding the fubfidie»; 
and while the nobles had with them but one common 
caufe, and united in forming a rampart againft ty- 
ranny, France prefented a very different fpeftaclc. 
Therp the nobles . opprefled the peafants and Jn- 
. jruUgdjfh€irweakfl?f$i. . ,/^ When agentleraaA*' (Ifjrs 
Mezeray):^' met thisi peafanthehad pillaged^ he 

*' called him in derifkin7^7*<?'^^»^<>WM^/' and 

. it was this which give rife to that horrid fedftion 

diilinguithed by the name of * /^/rj«m>, whic^ 

.•-..• ,-, •. ... .coft 

* - . ^ • 

♦ In tlie comparifon hcreiiaade of tkcyftate of England under 
Edward T. with the miferie? of Franceit thci period of tkc jMcfnerie, 
the author has bcea highly his own.cdttotr^ It is by 
no means fair to contraft withthepblitical £tQ8taon of the Framm 
in one coontry, the condition^of Ae Pni/ti^/ inthe otker ; becaufe in 
hfrth countries the Peafanis were at thattimemene (laves, afld as fuch» 
were no members of the political community in either. . 

He has been guilty too of fome anachronifm and milreprefen- 
tation of fa(^s for thepurpofe of degrading ancient France. The 
rifing of the Jacquerie did not take place till the year 1357 and 
ended in 1358, full ffty years after the death of our Edward I. 
nr.d not above ixveniy years htiort a fimilarinfurreiflionhere onder 
Tyler and Straw, for the fame declared purpoie of exterminating 
The gentry ? an event in our hiftory to which it would have been 
more corrfe<!^ in all points of view :to have compared ibzyacquirie. 


t !■ 

Qfibe CwftimioH of England. 


coft the ndbilhy fo imich* bloody and was apfSeafed 
only, by the deftruftion of lb many thoufandsof 


It 19 true indeed that Mezewy doe? give the dcriv,ation, ivhich 
Mr. de la Croix at once adopts, of the term ycc^uerie ; and that 
he thinks It the moft probable derivation ; but he at the fame time 
affigos two other etymologies, one cf which may be preferred, — 
I mean the derivation of the name ftom thst of their firft cliief 

As to the occa£oa of the, infiirre^oa^ Mi** 4^ U.Croix is dill 
more unfair. Mezeray does not impute it to any adual and im- 
mediate oppreffion— indeed the iituatioh of France was fuch as pro- 
bably to leave the peafknts more than ufually free, in the midft of 
civil ctmtendoas for a diluted AtccefTion^ and after the great flaugh- the principal nobility at the battles of CreiTy and Poitiers :— 
buthe repcefeots it ^ the Ifru^al project of a few drunken peafaats 
for tJie reform of the ftatc. Twenty or thirty peafants at fi^auvais 
l[fays he) " getting too mtuh ^wine into their heads , one Sunday feilintd 
'^'^ iifcourfe on affairs of ft ate, and the mifiries of the time!. Some 
♦f,-ef them complaining of the nobility, that they had ahtmdoncd their 
f^Friuce (the Dauphin) did not officfe, zs they might, the progrefs 
"** if the EngiAJh; and took k9 car ^ftr the deli'uer ante tf the )iim^t (then 
**^ a England ;)' 'that they. were monfters who devoured 
"odier' menl/^ (Mr. Thomas- Payne's awn new fimile !) " and 
** that fchcy nfed' their fwords- only toflafti the arms of their I'aflkls, 
*' the company heated by this hrutal reafoning (as the hiftorian 
•' Hterally calls it) refolved on the total extermination of the gentry ;" 
lund proceeded to the inftant execution by dcmolifhing the next 
€bateauy and murdering the mailer, his wife, and family. No man 
who reads this acconnt> and thinks for an inftant of the fccne, the 
^me and place (a Sunday^ s eonverfatim o^ver a bottle) and the ft r ftlt a ii ng 
jlofnca of complaint, hut muil attribute the infurredlion rather to 
the licentioufnefs of the peaiantry> than theoppreflion of the gen- 
try» The inftrrreaitm in -England iinder Tyler and Straw, arofc 


220 Of the Conjliiution ff England. 

he might, by taking advantage of it, atchieve fome 
exploit a^inft their liberty. 

This king began by pretending that in virtue 6f 
his royal prerogative, he could exercife all' afts df 
authority;- a power*-of whifch fome 'of his prede- 
ceflbrs:had^fct him the example. ' In order to reri- 
cler himfclf lefs dependent on the parliament, W 
rather to render a parliament lefs neceflary, he re- 
quired fubfidies under the name of benevolences Cft 
free gifts. - The nation tolerated this abufe, which 
gaive to the kidg very /great influence in the eldt-J 
lions of menrbdrs'bf jteriiament: while by Ibadf^ 
with favours fuch Ixwyeis as were hafe ehttii^Ti- to 
pervertthefcnfeof thelatws, he obtii^led intei^i-c- 
tatioa-i conformable to his defigns.' •" ' ■ ' * ' ^'^^' * 

It b «vidc»t, from thefe mekfure^,' Vh'oW 'fftiWh a 
fptrit o£ dominatioh has? the advailiafge over-i'^te'- 
p!e^ who do not mafcethe prefervation of their li^ 
berry their moft important conc^fn; Defpotifirf is 
a foe which winds without ceafingtotihdthe IfeA'^es 
of liberty, in hopes of difcoVering fonie'wdak part 
where he may penetrate. HenryV ddtttute^of moridy^ 
and* unable to levy any taxes without the cotifent 
of his fubjeds, endeavoured by changfhg the nihie to 
deceive the people with refpeift x.o his raiiing flip* 
plies. ^ H'C folicitcd benevolences^ he opened loans ; 
for it fignified little tO'him under what fbriii riibri^y 
was'Vaifed;-' ill that he 'defired wa§/. tl>e nj'din^ fl? 
feducing^ the guardians of. Jibg%..?^4li^ 
who pofleffed the confidence pf jhc/peoplei-rr? r^" / 


r» ■ 

• . . J * » . ■ \ ■, < 

Of the Confiitution of Er gland. Oti i 

' ^ Juft at this time a ftiddcn tcmpeft barft out lA 
the bofoin of the ftate^ -which threatened to phmge 
this veflel, diftradcd by divided imerefts, into a 
fatal abyfs. Laws and prerogattvcs were no ' longer 
the fubjeft of difpute? : it waa fanatictfin that trou- 
bled every mind : and the danger with which the 
catholics faw their religion threatened, made them 
wholly regardlefs of that to which their country 
was expofed. The nation became divided into two 
parties; and *' Both fides*' (fays Mr. Hume, t?he 
rooft impartial of hiftgrians -f) *^ hoped, by their 
*^ unlimited compliance, to bring him over to their 
*^ party; the king meanwhile, who held the ba- 
*^ lance between the faftions, was enabled, by the 
'* courtlhip paid him both by proteftants and €a- 
** tholics, to affume. aa immeafurable aiitltorirfj 
*^ and though in all thefeme^wes he^^as really 
'^ drivcA by his ungoyera.ed'-bumour, he cafually^ 
^^-heldacourfe which led more certainly to arbi-» 
*.^ tary pow£r^ than any which the mod profound 
'^politics could have traced out to him. Artifice^ 
*5. I5cfin?ment, and hypocrify, in his fituation, would 
V, have- pvit both parties on their guard again ft 
*f;him,.5Mid would have taught them refervc in 

• AJr. de la Croix is rcmifs in not mentioning that it is of 
tH rdgu of Jtienry the Vilith he is now fpeaking, Perfons not 
(ionverfant with the Englifh hiilery would condude he ijUJl meant 
tiat df Hchi-y the Vllth. 

if 'Ttt En^fifli reader may perhaps judge a little differently as 
to the charaftcr, of Mi-. Hume. 

^. - *^ con> 

222 Of the ConJHiution of Engtmcli , 

** complying with a monarch whom thcy^' could 
** never hope thoroughly to have gained; but 
•f while the frankncfs, finccrity, and openneis, of 
*^ Henry's temper were generally known, as wcll- 
^^ as the dominion of his furious paffions ; each' 
*' fide dreaded to lofe him by the fmalleft oppofi-^ ' 
*^ tion, and flattered themfelves that a blind coni- -• 
'* pliance with liis will, would throw him, cof • ' 
*' dially, and fully, into their intcrefts/' 

The French conftitution has not this danger to ' 
encounter. The reign of fanaticifm is paft, and 
though it may throw forth a few fparks, and darken 
fome part of the kingdom with its fmoak, it witf * ' 
produce no further evil. Reafon has too much en-' 
lightened the face of the nation for thefe fubterra- ' 
neous fires to overpower its brightnefs, or fead thtr' 
people aftray. The c-atholic religion is now re-" 
ftored to its natural purity ; the wrath of fome of 
its minifters will never have fufficicnt power to bririgj' 
about any change in the nation ; and if they fhouitf 
one day raife a party for endeavouring to overtunt ' 
a work which has thrown a fhade over the pretend 
fions of pride, it would be too weak, even if 
fupportcd with all the authority of royalty, to re- 
inftate them in their ancient ufurpations. 

Under Edward the V!th the monftrous lawiif''" 
againft treafon, invented by his prcdccefTor, were, 
abolifhedi but that 3^ounjg and virtupvis ptijicc^ 
having * only pafled as it were over the throne^ -- 


Qff the Cwjiitution cf Engiand: 225 

tHe laoguinary Mary afcended it, and threw Eag- 
laxKl into conilernation by her cruelties. 
„Tbe fanaticifm of one part of the nation could 
alone have afforded her opportunity of exercifing 
hpr barbarity on thofe who were devoted to her 
vengeance* The reign of this odious princcfs liap- 
pily terminated in the acceffion of a young and 
amiable fovereigri, whom policy, had prefervcd from 
the fate which hatred medicated for her; and 
which ihe could not have efcaped but by conceal* 
ii^ her religious opinions. 

Though * the ftar-chamber, that ready inftni- 
ment of the tyranny of the two Henries^ was fiill • 
fublifting ; though there was (iill the inquifitorial 
tribunal of . the high commiflion ; yet the glory at*- 
tached to the reign of Elizabeth ; the art with 
wluch ihe maoaged the averfion of her people for 
the new iubfidies ; and the facrifice which ihe chofe 
to.make of fomepart of her domains, rather than add 
other impofts to thofe with which the nation was 
burdened, made her government, all defpotic as it 
vas, .exceedingly dear to her fubjeils, 

Elizabeth had exercifed her authority without ' 
inti:oducing any falfe maxims; but James the Ift^ 

* A curious and intcrcfting hiftory of the Court of -Star- 
chapiiber ami the nature of its proceedings, has been lately prinud 
^^an old Manufcript in the 5th and 6th Numbers of a periodic^, 
^OK called Colle^anea Juridica. The author of the hiftory wa$ a.* 
^r^Hodion Who long pradlifcd with reputation and fuccels. in that 

222 Of the ConjHtUtion cfEiigtmir \ ' 

** complying with a • monarch irhbrn they^fcbtrfrf ' 
"never hope thoroughly to have ^gained 'r bint' 
•f while the frankncfs^ fincerity, and 6penhe&,-t)f 
*^'HenryVtcmpei* w«re generally -known^ ar wc!!*- 
^^as the <ioHlihioii of his furious paffiony ; cacii'^ 
*^ iSde dreaded 4!0'l<yfe -him by the fmalleft oppdfl- ^ 
*^;tion^' and llattiered themfelvcs that a blind cofltf*^ 
'^pliance with :1m9' willy wehild throw him, cttfi-"" 
* ^'dially, and foUy^ Hito their intcrefls/' '^' ■ 

The French ^offftitutidn has not this danger ti>^'* 
encounter. The reign of fanaticifm ispaft, an^^'- 
though it may thtow forth a few fparks^ anddarken 
fcttne pan of th^ kingdom with its fmoak, it WifF^ 
produce no further evil.- Renfon has too miichittt-^' 
lightened the face of the nation fi^irthefe fiibteita-'^ 

■ r 

neou« fires to overpower its brighfenefs, or fead'Hii^^ 
people altr^y. ' 'The datholiiJ religioh^ is Attwre-" 
ftored to its natural pui^ity J the wrath ^ fbme'df'' 
its juinifters will Jiever have fufficicht pOwer tt) tMiibJ^ ' 
about .any change in the nation ; and if thty ftioqltf "^ 
one day raife a party for endeavouring^ to ove r t u rn'^ 
a work which has thrown a fhade over the prcteni " 
fions of pridcj it would be too weak, even if 
fupportcd with all the authority of royalty^ to fi-' 
inCtate thcfn in their ancient ufurpations. 

-Under Edward the Vlth the monftrous listW^''" 
agaittft tneafon, invented by his predeceffbr, wci:cV^ 
abdliftied i but that ypunjg and. vii:tu9vi§^jif c v 
having "only pajfled as it were over "the throne^- 



Qf the CmjUtution <^ ,MnzkHi: 2a 5- 

tlifi.lgoguiinary .Mary afcended it, and threw Eng- 
Isa^ iixcq.j:oai|ernacion by her cruelties. 

iXbc. fanaticifm of one part of the nation could * 
aVwc have afforded her oppoxtunity of exercifing ' 
ker. barbarity on thofe who were. devoted to her 
vengeance* The reign of this odious priuQCcfs hap- 
pily terminated in the accefiioa oi ^ young and 
amiable fovereigri, whoni policy, Mdprfcfervcd from 
the fate which hat;:ed medHi^f^d.ifor^her; afid 
wjhicli Ihe could not have •efcaped.butby conceal- 
ii^.her ^religious opinions^ ? 

^JTJliqug^ * the ftar-chan^ber, that ready ioftni^ • r 
mcnc of the tyranny of the two Henries^ was fiiU ; 
fubfijl!^ngf though there was ftill the inquifitorial ; 
tnbxiiiaLof .the high commiflion; yet the glory at^^^ 
tacbted;,^ the.r^ign of Elizabeth; the art with . . 
whiich ibe majuag^d the averiion of her people for 
the new iubfidies ; and the fa^crifice whichihe chofe 
toj:{i^f ,xif j[pn>epart . of her domains^ rather than add 
ot^J^p^s to thofe with which the nation was^ ' 
bi^eojpd, made her government, ail defpoticas ic 
was^.x,^ceedingly dear to her fubje3s, 

^Elizaipeth. had exercifed her authority without - 
introducing any falfe maxims; but James the Iftv- - 

* A curious aod intcrcfting hiftory of the Court* - of -St«r-'^ 
^Kai^^r ami the nature of its proceedings, has beea Utely priiitid 
*oman old Manufcript in the 5 th and 6th Numbers of a periodif^lt.: 
'%9iOt\i called Colle^anea Juridica. The author of xh^ hiftory 5VW ^ 
IMr^Htldion who long praftifcd with reputation and fwcceii in that 

''i'i m 

224 ^f '^^ Conjiitution of England. 

in cxcrcifing an equal degree of power, betrayed 
in every inftance the principles of defpotifm ; he 
had, if it may be fo expreffed, a tyranny of words, 
for he was continually repealing, that the ptmjer of 
Kings could no more be coniradiEled than the power of 
God : and the privileges which the nation claimed 
fo glorioufly as a heritage from nature *, were ac*- 
cording to him, but indulgences which they had 
enjoyed under the toleration of his anccftors. Such 
pretentions announced from the throne, and echoed 
from every pulpit which was not the feat of truth, 
ipread a univerfal alarm ; and the prefs, which 
multiplies thoughts, and diftribiites knowledge, was 
employed to contradift thofe falfehoods; and to 
fupport that natural and politic fyftem both of which 
it was the wifli of James to deftroy. 

A fed: now fpruns up, the followers of which were 
tailed />«;7/^;zj,who,without avov/ing as yettheirdoc- 
trines, endeavoured to overturn the royal dignity, 
and the prerogatives "of the peers, in order roplace all 
families upon a level, and eftablilh a perfcft demo- 
cracy ; while the couirt- party, extravagant in thei 
principles, and feeing their privileges threatened 
fet the kingly authority free from all laws. Th 

* They claimed thefe privileges not from nature as the right 
of men ; but From the laws and the conjiitution as the rights of Eftglijb- 
men. " If we Ihould yield our liberties to be but of grace (faic 
♦' Mr. Griwc), thefe walls that have km-wnth hoUitjg 6f tbe^ 
•' thefe many years y ivculd blufi ; and therefore we cannot i 
•* duty to our country but fta«d upon it, that our liberties an 
" privileges arc our undoubted Birthright and Inheritance." 


Of tie. ConfiitutioH of EnglanJ. 225 

punC9.nsj ever animated with the fame zeal^ abo- 
liflied fucceilively all thofe fcandalous a&s, by 
which the parliament had deflroyed ecclefiaftical 
and civil liberty, and had conferred on Henry 
VIII. the whole legiflative power. 

The ftarchamber ; the inquifitorial tribunal ; the 
martial court ; which only ferved to give an appear- 
ance of legality to injuilice and viplence, were an* 
nihilated. But whatever was the fortune of thcfe 
(wo parties, their hatred always increafed with their 
hopes and difappointmei^ts. 

'^ When the puritans (fays the Abbe de 
** Mably) were poffeffed of the public authority, 
'' they caufed Charles L to periih on a fcafibld : 
** and when the court-party triumphed in their 
*' turn, they were not contented with recalling 
*^ Charles 11. to the throne of his fathers, but 
*^ granted him the moft extenfive powejf/* 
. It is to this period that the beautiful and fublime 
thought of Montefquieu may be applied. '^ It was 
*^ (fays he) a very fine fpedacle in the laft century 
'* to behold the vain efforts of the Englifti, for efta- 
*^ blifhing among them a democracy. As thofe, 
*' who took the lead in aiBfairs, were not actuated 
*^ by principles of virtue ; as their ambition was 
** inflamed by the fuccefs of thofe who had been 
S^ the moil daring ; and as the fpirit of one fadion 
f< was only repreffed by the fpirit of another, the 
government changed without ceafing. The 
Vol- II. Q^ aftonifhed 


2 26 Of:thedQii}ifiitsiiim ^^Eitgbnu^ 

^ aftoniflied people ibagh&for josnaocraqa^''.^.*..^^. 
' member ofxitw^to<.l>e founder. iind^ in £li£)C9d/' 
^ after muchcommotiosi^maay cond^^ fl38l;.di&P 

* tlie vcrjri;:go»ohiiiiBmt ;;'wrhichL ;they . itad/. pro- 
^ fcribed.'/ .. i ^ ix 7: .: . . j'jvi'-i . ^ r . -.- : . : . ^- • 

'^ Charles TI. (fays M, dc Lolme) could not* 

* bring' hmrfeff;to forgivfc the people, the inexpS- 
^iable critae,i of jwhidiiie: looked upon them to: 
1 Jbive be$i|j[rgitkilty; '^and^ toit upon recoTC3fing>> 
^jtheancicAtpQwers^ of the crown, he dnly waited < 
^ fpc.fraj^ .d^|»Qltiicfk^:to brsak thofe protiaiiea/ 
^^whicjiiad- procured his reftorationi-r '^vrvri;"iv 

^* BiJt-the very Meagcrnefs'iif his ixneafurca frUfio 
' trated^ their ifoccefs; his : dangcrour alUilnces^'^iLj 
^ tift : comirtentj . and. the ewravagitnt' wtos^ yin- : 
^ which he involved England, joined. tO'^tiid fincH' 

* quent ahufe hi made of hia auriiority , >: betrayed : 

* him. The eyes of the nation .were foon openedy 

* and faw into bis projfedsj whenx^nvineedf atr^ 
Mength, that nothing. buc Sxcdi^andiracfiftibtejL 

* bounds can be an.cffedual.check on ,tb^' vie^s^^: 
'and efforts of power,- they refolTed.^finaUy -fio^ 
' to tak^ away.thofe remnants of defpotifaiwbitfa - 

* ,ftill xijad^ n part of the regal pxH^rogi^tive,, . ., : , :, . 
'*i.Xfee miltj^ny fervices due to jhe-Qft)wni,j;feO- - 

^ j!iem^i|is ^iht .ancient, feudal tenor^Si^.b^ l?©$n^ 

' \^€r.ei now repealed ; th^ftatute> for holding 


*^ fMuliaments once at leaft in diree ycara^ was now 
^Vended lithe habeus cvrfus a&, that barrier of 
^^ -Ao liberty^ of the fub)e&^ was eftablifl^ed; and^ 
^fudi was'the patriotifm of ^the parliaments, that 
^' it was under a king^ tHe moft defiitute of princi* 
*^ pie, that liberty received its moft efficacious fu{i- 
** ports/' ' .'' ^ \- 

One refleAion on this fubjedl muft^prefen^ itfelf 
toievety mind. If^he £ngli&, with {& clear a title 
a;^ that of their great charter (obtained in the 
t#elfdi. century) had to ftroggle without ceafing 
againft arbitrary power, untii the middle of the fe* 
ventecnth century, how muft it aftohifti the people 
of Francei^ who were far from having fucK a tide to 
urge, toiiiid themlelvcs arrived akeadyat the point 
to which all their hopes were dirededfi The diflSkr- 
encef becween the French and the Englifh conftitu- 
tibns^isj'fhat the one will be formed at a fiugte caft : 
rcccivf ;its'perfeK9:ioni' its folidity at once; while 
the o^her will have been the v work of many ages. 
Thei fi>rmer will not be cemented by illuftrious 
bloodrbot, on the contrary^ confolidated by the 
wiflieiof the prince, and by the unanimous accord 
of the natibn : and proving a fource of happinefs to 
all, it will neithfcr be altered nor difturbed by any ' 
ia&ibn.' In a Word, this conftitution is liot the oak 
"whicB' comes flowly to maturity, and runs the ri/k 
!^ bii^jj ' crulhed down by the impecu<9Us animals 

-•• . • ■■.■^- Q^i ,.:.•.:: ^ •: which 

220 Of the Confiitution if England » 

he might, by taking advantage of it, atchieve fome 
exploit agairfft their liberty. 

This king began by pretending that in virtue of 
his royal prerogative, he could exercife all afts df 
authority ;^ a pow^r 'of whifch fome -of his prede^ 
ccflbr$:hadfct him the example. • In order to ren- 
der himfelf icfs dependent on the parliament, or 
rathier to render a parliament lefs neceffary, he re- 
quired fubfidies under the name of benevolences ot 
free gifts. . The nation tolerated this ^bufe, which 
gaive ta the- kidg very great influence in the eldt-l 
tions of menrbcrs* bf jterliament : while by loadfe^ 
with favours fuch lawyers as were bafe eholigh to 
pervercthe fcnfe of the laws, he obtained infek^f^tc- 
tatioaa conformable to his defigns. ' "? ' < ^ • ►^^ 

. It Is •evident,: from thefe mekfure^," h'ON^ 'miTdh a 
fptr it of domination has the adrailtatge over a'fi^o- 
plc^ who do not make ' the prcfervatior^ of their li* 
berty their moftimportant concern; DWpotiffh' is 
a foe which winds without ceafingro^ind the feA'ies 
of liberty, in hope^ of difcovering fonrte'weak part 
whetche may penetrate. Henry, deftitute'of moiiiy^ 
and' unable to levy any taxes without the confent 
of his fubjeds, endeavoured by changing the name to 
deceive the people with refpe<5t ro his raifing Tup- 
plies.- H-e folicitcd benevolences, he opened loans ; 
for irfignified little to^ him under what' form mbney 
waiJ'Vaifed ; ' all that he defired wa^,^ thje meanji^ .qt 
fcducing^ the guardians pf. Jib?rtx, ?m4lJivPi ^J?6f fo** 
who poflefled the confidence of the -people^ 



~t ■ , •- ,4 ^ 

0/ the Conjihution of Er gland. 2r2 1 

» (■ - -I ' , , V. 

' ^ Juft at this time a fnddcn tcmpeft burft out lA 
the bofoinof Jthc ftatCj -which^ threatened to phinge 
this v.effel, diftraAcd by divided inicrcfts, into a 
fatal abyfs. Laws and prerogatives vere no * tcmget 
the fubjeft of difputc : it waa fanatictfin that trou- 
bled every mind : and f he danger "with which the 
catholics faw their religion threatened, made them 
wholly regardlefs of that to which their country 
was expofed. The nation became divided into two 
parties; and *^ Both fides" (fays Mr, Hume, the 
nioft impartial of hiftgrians -f) ** hoped, by their 
•^ unlimited compliance, to bring him over to their 
*'l^rty; the king meanwhile, who held the ba- 
*^ lance between the faftions, was enabled, by the 
'* cpurtftiip paid him both by proteftams 'and ca- 
**.tholics, to affume aa Jmmeafurabie authoriry} 
*^ and thougja in all th^fe me^fitres he ^as really 
'f driveA by his ungoveraed^-bumotir, he cafualiy^ 
**-held a courfe which led miore certainly to arbi-» 
^^ tary pow^r, than any which the moft profound 
*' politics could have traced out to him. Artifice^ 
*^. refinement, and hypocrify, in his fituation, would 
'^. have- put both parties on their guard againft 
*Mjim, and would have taught them referve in 

♦ Mr. de la Croix is remifs in not mcntioiiing thtt it is of 
t^C- reign of Henry the VllJth be is now fpeaking. Pcrfons not 
^nverfant with the Engliih hiilory would eondude he Ibifl meant 
tHat 6f Henry the Vllth. 

'^"I'he En^fifli reader may perhaps judge a little differently as 
to the charafter, of MV. Hume. 

aiz OftbiCwiJIitittiottofEHgtaHetrs' 

<< complying -with a monarch whom thef^btrfd ' 
"never hope thoroughly to hstve" gamed rbiii' 
•* while the frankne6> fincerity, and openhe&,'X)f 
*' 'Henry V temper were generally -known^ ar li/^l'' 
*^ as the doiniinion of -his furious paffions ; cacH** 
*^ €dc dreaidedtO'lefe hiib by the fmalleft oppdfl^ ''' 
•^/tion^' and flattered themfelves thata blind cortr^'^i 
**pliance witii.Kis Willy wemld throw him, cttf^^ 
*Vdially, and fiilly,^ Hit6 their intcrefts/' 

TheFrenck^onftitution has not this danger t*'''' 
encounter. The reign of fanaticifm is paft, ai:^'''- 
thottgh it may thrbw forth afewfparks^ and darken 
fame part of the kingdom with its fmoak, it yirilF^ 
produce nc> further evil.- R«k(bn has too muchietr-^' 
lightened the face of the Bation fiDt thefe ISbteriSi"*-' 
neous fires to overpower its brighfenefs/of fead tfni?^^ 
people altr^y. ' The dafholic religiofh' is liBwTcr-'^ 
ftored to its natural ^purity; -tlte' wrath cif fbrfie 'df ' 
its minifters will Jiever b^ve fufficicntpoweir tbWiHfef ' 
about any change in the nation ; and if they ifioqiff ^' 
one day raife a party for endeavouring^ tb ovemirtf "^ 
a work which has thrown a ftiade over the prcteni'"^ 
fions of pride^ it would be too weak, even if 
fupportcd with all the authority of royalty/ to re-' 
infltate thcnx in their ancient ufurpations. ' _ 

..Under Edward the Vlth the monftrous laWs' ' 
agaittft tueafon, invented by his predecdTor^i werc^__ 
aboliflied i but that ^^'pun^ and. yii:tvip^$ ,.lftij>f<i,iw-' 
having only pafled as it were over the throncy^ -^ 


tlifi.faoguinary JMary afcended it, aod threw Eng^ 

• . A ^> Sim ^.' » .* 

land intci.conileruaciou by her cruelties* 
;.Tb€. fanaticifm of one part of the nation could * 
aVwe have afforded her oppoi-tunity of exercifing ' 
kfjT. barbarity on thofe who were. devoted to her 
ye^eance. The reign of this odious princefs liap- 
piiy terminated in the acceffioa of a< young and 
amjiable fovereigri, whoai policy h^wipreferved from 
the fate which hatred medwi^^d: for. her ;« afld 
wJl^ch &e could not have nefi:^pe4.byt;by conceafl- 
iqg, her religious opinions, ^ ; 

^JT^iqug^* the ftar-chan^ber, that ready inftru^.'^ 
vuBin^ o£ thp tyranny of the two Henries^ was flill'; 
fubiif);ing ; though there was &\\\ the inquifitorial ; 
tribuaal of . the high commiffion ; yet the glory at«> ther^ign of £lizabeth; the art: with . 
wh^chibe tnajoflg(;d the averiion of her people for 
the n^ew iuhfi^ies ; and the facrifice whichihe chofe 
toji^fd^^x^f j[p.n>ep^rt, of )ie;r domains^ rather than add 
o^(^;ii|Di^s to thofe with which the nation was: - 
bi^icijj^ made her government, all defpotic as ic 
was^^^c^j^ceedingly dear to her fubjeils. 

^Eliz^eth, had exercifed her authority without-'' 
introducing any falfe maxims; but James the IftV- • 

* A curious aod intcrefting hiftory of the Court - of -Sttt--' 
-^ham^r and, the nature of its proceedinga, has been lately pnirtid 
^loman old Manufcript in the cth and 6th Nunajbers of a periodioAj 
^o« called Colleflanea Juridica. The author of the^ hiftory 5VW .»/. 
lM^Klldion who tong pradlifcd with reputation and fnccefs in that 

vb in 

224 Of the Conjlitution of England. 

in excrcifing an equal degree of power, betrayed 
in every inftance the principles of defpotifm ; he 
had, if it may be fo exprelTed, a tyranny of words^ 
for he was continually repealing, that the pttwer uf 
Kings could no more be contradiEled than the power of 
God I and the privileges which the nation claimed 
fo glorioufly as a heritage from nature *, were ac- 
cording to him, but indulgences which they had 
enjoyed under the toleration of his anceftors. Such 
pretentions announced from the throne, and echoed 
from every pulpit which was not the feat of truth, 
fpread a univerfal alarm ; and the prefs, which 
multiplies thoughts, and diftributes k.nowledge,'was 
employed to contradidt thofe falfehoods; and to 
fupport that natural and jpolitic fyftem both of which 
it was the wifli of James to deftroy. 

A fe(St now Iprung up, the followers of which were 
tailed jOwr/V^/zj, who, without avowing as yettheirdoc- 
trines, endeavoured to overturn the royal dignity, 
and the prerogatives "of the peers, irx order toplace all 
families upon a level, and eftablilh a perfeft demo* 
cracy ; while the court- party, extravagant in their 
principles, and feeing their privileges threatened, 
fet the kingly authority free from all laws. The 

* They claimed thefe privileges not from nature as the rights 
of men ; but From the lazvs and the ccnftitution as the right's ofEfsgliJh^ 
men. «' If ^e Ihould yield our liberties to be but of grace (faid 
♦* Mr. Cliwc), thefe fwalh that ha*ve kno^ivn th hcUing of them 
«* thefe many yestrsy ivcuU blujh ; and therefore we cannot in 
•• duty to our country but fta«d upon it, that our liberties and 
" privileges arc our undoubted Birthright and Inheritance." 


K)f the ConfiitutioH of EfjglanJ. 225 

puric^JiSj ever animated with the fame zeal^ abo- 
li(hed fucceflively all thofe fcandalous ads^ by 
which the parliament had deilroyed ecclefiaftical 
and civil liberty^ and had conferred on Henry 
VIII. the whole legiilative power. 

The ftarchamber ; the inquifitorial tribunal ; the 
martial court ; which only ferved to give an appear- 
ance of legality to injuftice and viplence, were an- 
nihilated. But whatever was the fortune of thcfe 
(WO parties, their hatred always increafed with their 
hopes and difappointmeqts. 

*^ When the puritans (fays the Abbe de 
^' Mably) were poiTefled of the public authority, 
^' they caufed Charles L to peciifa on a fcafibld : 
/* and when the court-party triumphed in their 
^' turn^ they were not contented with recalling 
*^ Charles II. to the throne of his fathers, but 
*^ granted him the moft extenfive powe|." 

It is to this period that the beautiful and fublime 
thought of Montefquieu may be applied. ^^ It was 
** (feys he) a very fine fpedacle in the laft century 
*^ to behold the vain efforts of the Englifli, for efta- 
/* blifhing among them a democracy. As thofe, 
^' who took the lead in affairs, were not aiftuated 
*^ by principles of virtue ; as their ambition was 
^^ inflamed by the fuccefs of thofe who had been 
\,.f^ the mofl daring ; and as the fpirit of one fadion 
i* was only repreifed by the fpirit of another, the 
** government changed without ceafing. The 

Vol- 11. C^ aftoniflied 

^^ aftoniflicd people ibugh&foridanmciHCjr^i.ImfcflKtf'' 
^^ member of it.w^ found^^-indjinithfejcnri;' 
^' after muchcemmatioa^xniay cdnizdR:^^ andj^di&P 
** tcrs, theyiijjJrerf ?^doto^t:oni!nitct6emfel«0ELt6^ 
•* the very- /:go»ohiftieMcr:whKh';- they ^ pro- 

'^ Charles TI. (fays M. de Lolme) could nol' 
•^ bnng' himfd£;to forgirt tbe people, the inexpi- 
***ablc jcritne^iofiwhiciiiip looked upon them to 
^Mnavc beftur-gtoljyr^^and^ bent upoa recoTWing* 
'Stheancieotpowers of the crown, he only vraited < 
** fpc ;:ate jO|iporturfky:to break thofc prodii£e$^ 
•^^whicfihad jprociired his reftorationi-n . J',\-:\ :.:w 

*VBut-thc Very ,«agerncfs'0f his mcafureafriift:' 
** trated ' their iiiccefs; his;dangerour a^ittIu:esl^.- 
* * thte : comirtenti and. the extravagAnt' wlarsi vda : 
**^ which he involved England, joined to^-ttodfircn'^ 
** quent abufe he made of his. auiilTtority, .betray cd : 
'* him. The eyes of the nation .were fopn opened^ 
*^ and faw into his projfefts; when; cQnvinecdj at- 
^Mength, that nothing. but fixed; .andicceiiftibtea 
*' bounds can be atn.cfFecftual check on tb^ vjcw$,v:' 
*'. and efforts of power,- they refolv^ed/fiitolly -ft^ 
*^ to takt away.thofe remnants of defpotifuxjiybicfa.- 
^^ftill njad^ fL part of the regal prerogj^tivct, . .. : , ..^ 

fi.The military fervices due to jhe^qfOwn^jtfcC : 
*^;itemaias pfjbct.ancknt, feudal tenor^s^.-hft^ febsn/. 
^^^ri?;*dy; jii)pii(hfid t ;.th^ ^Iw^^^^fim^ij^i^Mk-. 

^^ v^ere. now repealed; thj^ftatute^ for holding 



'^ fMurliaments once at leaft in three yeara^ was now 
*VaKi&edr;the babtus cvrpus a&, that barrier of 
^^ tbe liberty of the iub)e&^ was eftablifl^ed; and^ 
^ fudi was'the patriotifm of ^the parliaments, that 
^' it was under a king^ tHe moft defiitute of princi- . 
*^ pie, that liberty received its moft efficacious fu{i- 
*^ ports/' 

One refleAion on this fubjedl cnun:>prefeQ( itfelf 
to^every mind. If the £nglifi>, with To clear a title 
a^ that of their great charter (obtained in the 
twclfdi> century) had to ftruggle without ceafing 
againft arbitrary power, until the middle of the fe* 
ventecnth century, how muft it aftohifti the people* ' 
of France J who were far from having fucK a tide to 
urge^ to fiiid themlelvcs arrived already at the point 
to which all their hopes weredirededf il^ diflSkr* 
ence^ beoween the French and the Englifh conftitu- 
tibns^isjfhat the one will be formed at a Angle caft : 
reccivf^lits'pcrfedion,' its folidity at once; while 
the other will have been the v work of many ages. 
The fi>rmer will not be cemented by illuftrious 
blood rhnat, on the contrary; confolidated by the 
wi&criof the prince, and by the unanimous accord 
of the natibn : and proving a fource of happinefs to 
all, it will neither be altered nor difturbed by any ' 
fa&ibn^ In a word, this conftitution is iiot the oak 
whick^ comes flowly to maturity, and runs the ri/k 
of ht\fi^ ' cr ulhed down by the impecu<9Us animals 

:Q^a -• - which 

. . M * ♦. . 

2zt ' \ 0/ the CofifiUutioH ^ EfigiaikL 

virhich may rulh ^againft tlie io&int&glm^i but* an' 
immoveable coloflus, caft with art, and exaA in all 
its proportions; which will be perceived from every 
part of the univerfe^ ^nd frorn which othet«natiblis 
will tabe models of government ♦• 

-; •♦. . *^'btt 

. * The vamt]r« w}uch has ib long charafterized th^ French iii«* 
tiovi* and whi^h was ^ .more operative principle in thpir revolutioa 
than many may imagine, is eminently conspicuous in this cbmpari« 
fon ef the exifting English and French con^tutions. Hitherto the 
reader.^ fcen M«d^ laCroix^with the^nioft unpatriotic partialitksi» 
conuni^^lly diigrmiig apd viHfyi^g ancient France in cpntiaj^vnth 
aocicnt Eogjiaiid. Now apQient and n^odcrn England, and in them, 
all th^tmftofc liberty in (he civilized world, are to bow Wore 
<egener|t^ France. The fcattered rays of glory, which have 
given brilliancy to our hiftory for a facceffion of ages, all concen- 
tred i|i one pointy m\ift now fade and difappear beifbrc the bu^.of 
new light, whkh h^s ihofie from Paris, to. daza^ a%d confume 
mankind* Wc hav^ been taught tp a4j^ijQe oiir cpnfiiuition^ be- 

caufc . ,. . y ■ .',.,. 

... 1 * ) .■ -» • 

'Tis Rotthehaftyprgdudof ad^y, . i 

Bat th<^ well-ripen'd fjruit of wife delay* . 


Wf think it a prefqmption of its excellence, that (at wai /aid in 
praifc. of the Roman cohAitution) the fabric has been for centiirict 
receiving every addition which fortune and wifdom could beft9W. 
We trud in it, as more likely to anfwer for the practical protection 
of the liberty of all, becaufe it has been fucceffively modelled and 
meliorated by the hand of experience, as real imperfcAiona deve«» 
loped the;nrelves in adlual oppreffion% and. differen( fcmediea 
rq)eatedly tried, by repeated failures ftimolatcdnew cFoits tQ find 
at lafl: what might be more effeflual : — becaufe^ ewy clftaiigc has 
been made by the united force^'anS united wifdom^ the conflidi 


X)fth€ ConftitwiiM if England. ^ 229 

*^0n the death of Charles II. (fays-M, de 
^' IjAm^ Yi/tpxi ^ feign^ which idf6rds a moft es?- 

- ' " femplaty 

' -■ I . . . 

^ad CiMQpeddonSj the mutiul compromlfes* cpaceffions and accqoi- 

modadotis of all the powers, orders, and intere^ in the great p6- 

Utival ibciety of the nation. Ndr is it kmohg oar lead fecuritlds 

thai there is fcarcely one of oar principal ndbility, who docs not 

tjitak it his firft and beil pri^de, to trace back his origin to foxne ii- 

Ibftrioas anceflor, that^ fought and bled in the field, or on the 

feiffbld, in defence of.the cbnttitiitlon of his toiiiitryl Batdidfk 

cbjeifts of our admiration ana confidence, are ndw/it'Te%m9, io^bb 

our condemnation. I do not think, however, diat M.'la Crol): 

tia« cnofeii very happily either his topics of pfeftfetice, 6t hU flnii- 

Istades.; If the French conftitatiofi Was confotidattd by iht^Hani^ 

Mttv accord 6ft)ie nation, why was it neteffaiy to AimM'ate^9 0Xit 

of /i^ orders, left they might oppofe and defeat U Y lt%:tteik t\i\% 

Mnammiif, why do we read ofmc lion after motion, ^nd p^a)t)r'ajded 

to penalty, agsdnft rifra£iory prieps\ or'^fe daily acconilts received In 

the katiQnai AHembly, of tumults and'ptdts frf th^^dStbriiht diflti&s? 

Wf%y are ttie prifons filled with perfons accUfW 6f/^zif»A/f^,iibl-c than 

wene cbnnne^ in the Baftile and other (l^e'prifotfsrfor two centu* 

lies ? and why are the frontier towns of Germany crouded with 

French emigrants ib formidable hf their intreafing numbers to. 

the National Ailemlily themfelvai, hs to be theobje^ls of the ftrongeft 

refolres and of menaces of ofFenfive war? The conftitution of f rance^ 

lise thai oTcngland, has been cemented with blood : not 'ndeed like 

' burs, with iltixlirious blood, glorioufly fhed, but with blood ferocioufly 

' drawn in laVaee mailacres and butcheries at home, and row in a civil 

warbf amoR horrid kind, raging throughout the principal colony of 

France ;' of all which the (hocking apology has been, \i\i2iX, the hlood, 

Jojkidi was none rfthefureft^ Whether thefc were neceffary evils, 

IS stiiother qdeftion'; but that they are evils, every man of humani- 

' ty'inuiR allow ; and that they did, and dd exift, is publicly notori- 

/pu*i''j||id JW^y de la.Croix has himfelf in man jr palftges tellified. 

^30 . Of fhiVi^^iuaioff ^\^^limd. 


•^' caiphrj leffoTi bath to king alifr^peopi^'bjanies 
** II. a prince of a ihbre^igkl di(pdid<lnv^HougK 
^* of a Ids comprehenfivc linderft&nding than his 
*^ kte brother^ purfucd ftill more openly 4;he pro- 
?' je6t,'^hich had proved fp fatal to hx^k,mi\fJ' 

*^ James H,<%s the AbWde Mably) had both 
^* his heart and' ft3Kil 'cngroffed by defpotiim. He 
^f bcli€v«ed^ hitfifelf poffeffcd of fufficient authority 

I '• 

What then becoi|[ie8 of the unanimous accord of the nation^ in con* 
m-diEin^on tcrtlie Wod (bed in odr ftniggles for the conftitution 
4)fEiiglan41- ■--. •. ■; ■:■■'..:•-. -:'. 

•'4.'ffhe|»i»rfQ£Bon ^. t\^ nct^Pi^nch. cenftitotian U ftr.ongl]f,^rted 
t^ ia Qrqi^ f|3^t U it fo. clfiu. (tq wave all fpecul^tive 
^arguments) th^t there are no omiCions in importani points; no 
proofs of poiitive vices in this all-perfe£l conititution ? Did not 
the committed of revifion/ befbr^ it was fihaitj^ decreed, make 
piany tnofteflentlal'iltiratioiu Sn it^ from what it ^^^tis^^ ttild^ the 
origii^al detached: 4ejcr«^,>; ^Wa? this rigbtj or was it yitmg^ If 
it was rights does this fad of foch fundamental, dianges An fome 
greaj; parts after a trial of only two-years, furnifh no prefump- 
tion in other points agalnft the infallibility of thefe philofophical 
popes in politics f If it Was wrong (and fo a very large propbrtioa 
.of the prefent leaders thought) how cm the exiftitig con^totidn/ fo 
altered^ be ftill j^erfed ? Do we not know top* that iin^U^^- 
ting of the prefent aiTembly, the king and the aflembly have dif- 
fered in their opinions as to the tru,p mode of fignature and other 
a8s of the prerogative under the conftitution ; and has not the firft 
rxercife of the royal veto occafioned great murmurs, mi^^aces^, and 
tumults ?— Mr. de la Croix's iimilitudes of the Englifh and French 
conilitutions may be fufficiently applicable, but are rather ill pqiei^ 
to his country : the oak is faid to live nine centuries ; the ColoiTus 
was overthrown by an earthquake, not mucK above half a century 
trpmits creftion. 

" to 



** WthpBt ^^9>^k4ge of jparliameA.t: he fgoke 
^* indchc flyte-fl^aiijabfoluje fovcreign in hi$ prpcla- 
*f |iMM;k)qr$ift ?he apeoly profeffed a religion odious 
** tQikisbfobje^a^ {, ari4>.vf^.\4|?rir^sx>f dpfbroying 
'*^>thfcirs : iWitfc»«a4lp4^'/yfpii^9P^ ailianccs with 
^''foreign power^;; i*;kfpfirAtt(jarfnt)?Tpn ^ fQpti ^and 
.^* threatened to oppress ftlJ^iW^c^Mfift^^ 

** The Englilh* who faw their libertv attacked 

' even in,its firft,pfincip],e^r>r^ef?,W'i:6d,t9 th^^i;^ 

dy which nature and reafon points oyt^ta the 

people, when he> who ought to be the= guardian 

** of their laws, bfecoAcs their deftroyer : they with- 

^' dcicW tlie obedience which they had vowed to 

^f Japjfs, ^d ^>elieyed pemfelye^ difengagjed ,uQn> 

5f iki^omhs which they had interchanged with a 

king)' who deemisdhimfelfraifed above the obli* 

gitBtt'bF^dhcTffngto his own/' ^ ' 

; Th^s revolution, very different "frpm that which 

,4a4. PfCjC^ded i;,, ilillied,not sW- national honour ^ 

;it m^: a xonCcquencC; of the progrefs of knowledge 5 

and tlie principles by which the people were dired- 

ltd." "^ The nation fpoke butoneoprnioh on this oc- 

canon: all the bonds, by which the Englifli Nv^re 

3^ttacJ[>ffd to the throne, were hrok^efl: and J^nxe^ 

Il^^who, the monient before, was a monarch,, fur- 

foanded with his fubjeds, was now only an ir^div 

yidtiJlUn the midft of the nation. 

Q.4 ........ It 


23^ * Qftbe Cvnftitniitm pf Enghnii^ \ - 

It muft however be acknovlt d|0d . bor; ^eatly 
circumftances concurred |to snaktf<tUs' rdyokitioa 
peaceable. James abandoned voluntarily the 
ifland, 'where he cguld b^ neither a king nor a ci- 
tizen : while William, his ibQ-in4aw9 who felt no 
fcruples ^bout accepting his crown, fupported him-' 
felf on the throne of his father-in-law with all the 
forces of Holland. 

LquJs.XIV. who employed hW whole power for 
reinftating • the unfortunate prince on his throne, 
was rtbt'feconded by the Jrilh, upon whofe zeal he 
depended : neither could he affect the landing of 
twenty ifeoufand men undcrifte command of admi- 
ral Toiir^ille. In fine, the datrffe of the jp6opJe tri- 
umphed over that of the two. kings. 

** This was (fays M.; de yoltaire) the trj^e epo- 
'^ cha of Englifli liberty. The nation^ reprefcnt- 
^^ ed by its parliament, now fixed the long conteft- 
f^ ed limits of the rights of the king, and thofe of 
*' the people: and haying prefcribed to the Princo 
^* of Orange the conditions upon which he was to 
'^ reign, they chofe him for tl^eir king, conjointly 
5* with his wife, the daughter of king James. 
*^ Frdrti that time the prince was known in the 
** gl'^ater part of Europe only by the appellation of 
** William III. lawful king of England, and deli- 
** verer of the nation : but in France he was ftill 
*^ regarded merely as Prince of Orange, ufurper of 
*^ the dominions of his father-in-law.'* 


Cf'the, CdtiftUution of EngUaid. ' 233 

__ • 

-^ itisxcrtaa&i^hatthe^Eitiich nat not then 

fuffidcatljr cnfighteoed nor fuificknciy acquainted 
with the refpcdtive- rights of the people and their 
chief, to comprehefid thjit the pa<9:y by which the 
inhabitants of «.. kingdonaioblige thetnfelves to obey 
a monarch, is buta fyfiidli^gmsiiiBi'CXMiTzBij the con- 
ditions of which equdiy . bind 'the / two parties : 
that, if one of the parties derogates from the en- 
gagement, they both re-enter irttjovtheir firft privi- 
leges ^« As a king has it alvrajiisfin his powerijto 

« ' 

* The doftrioe of the original iC9ntr|£l m h^re laid down with a 
very dangerous laxity, and in truth Mfj,ile U Crpix. appearjr from 
his fubfequent admonition, to be himfelf acquainted with the dan- 
ger of his own principles. He exprefles himfelf as iif^ inalljdates 
at the head of which is a king, th* political <f6iitratl, or pa6l, 
were binding bctwecfn the kin^ only anct^e m)ifontyof-M'mithitude : 
for in this loof©,' vulgar, and treacherous fenfe he clfeaflyufes the 
term of " /«?//<?." , 

Now this is a miftake. The political paft is between him or 
ihem, in whom is the government of the (late, ivhatirjer he the form 
tf that gtnternmehi, and each individual hiember of the ft.ite ; — or, 
in iftore technical language, betwceh that moral perfon tvho gorucrns^ 
whether confiding df one or xnore natural perfons, and allknd each 
of the natural ferfottSy who altogether form the political Jiciefy 
to be gtnjerned. It follows then, that where the governnient i& 
of a mixed firmy as 2. limited monarchy ^ each individual is bound, not 
only 10 t^e confervation of the monarchy, but alfo of the political 
privileges, which conftitute the limitations of the monarch's pre- 


rogatives ; for the,powers entrufted for the purpofes of fuch limi- 
tations, are a part of the government under the con iU anion, or 


^-234 ^f ^ Cpfffiiaam of E^gbSkd. 

abdicate wheiiefver he feds the'leeptn beeomet<»i» 
heavy; or when evet his fub^fts fAoAiUr the^MM^ 

fundamental law of the ilate. No crime of the moiiaKli ^caa for* 
^ictheright^ of^hf&ai^ilp^r;^ic^ pr«^m()!C|atical bQdie»»."7M^ ^6 
placed ip.the goverivwent ajtch^^^jupoa^m. ..They canpnly 
fiJrfeit their rights by their own crimes ; not the crimes of indivi- 
doais among them^ but of their re(pe£ve political bodies iA their 
pnblife capacities*.- • ^ *. j*i.- ^ . •.>. i ■ ,.- . < 

. ' nrfaegotcBTiim'^nr Jdj^^iv^&Ud 4s, ^ by. ^ conftittUbn, or faack- 
f^^SMla}rI.^ lof (ht flat^ :yefted in kinr, lords^ and coiaiiion«« 
J[ame;^,IL bjr cQB|rQ verting this fqndame^tal law-rdoing ^fls by lus 
own ufurped authority, which he could not leeally do without the 
the conlent of parliament ; by impnioning Ipiritual lords* wno 
iiand^ to advife'accbrding to dieir undoubted ifrivifcgy ; openly 
kminff ttt: tlM fabveifiocif tif th^ leftiblifh^ diut^^ ; - t^tiJlg die 
freedom^.cledionsi/a^di^QiTiQpttng the adnuiiiftratioii of the 
law ;•— juftly fprfeitcd his cw^n. . . Bat ^did he by thcfe jtfts for- 
feit the poliiical ;'igb,ts of. thti, lords fpiritual and temporal f Was 
it ever pretended that the people re-entered into their privileges , m 
the fenfe in which Mr. deH Croix underilands: the word people, (o 
as to do what pleafed a majority of the in ultitode told by tkshead? 
The convention, that conferred) the crowm on William. andi. Mary, 
;did not affed to have any powers fromfuch ama^iity ofitheinut- 
titude. Quite the reverfe. They were- declared by ft^eiuccced- 
ing legiflature, to have lawfully, freely, and fully repre/ented-'f**-^ 
WHAT ? — " the majority of the individuals comfofingthe peiffle i^^'-^^'-^t 
*« till fhe people of ih realmy^* in the new ienfef— No; but diatthere 
might bo no ambiguity, it is conftitutionally 'e)q)rcfled— ^^a t l the 
i%T At f.i of the, people of this realtn. . > ■ \<"-\ . 

It is not true, therefore, that in mxid gOfvirnnunts {^^xh/tt- ac^ 
cording to theory, oi the found pradice of obr own f evolution) 

«¥e5pft»fKf lWift«i^ii«»JS,l*to5;>flatkm. ought alfp<^ 
ilW95t$hfti|igteo5pf cb^^g aaother ike king, when 
^s$p. whom they had acknowledged as fuch, renders 
himfelf unwoFChy of that favour, and deceives their 
confidence. * 

- Whileleft&biiih-riiisastt prineiple, I muft not 
conceal one very important truth. Whenever a 
king abdicates, his will is evident; i| is very clear 
that he is no longer difpofed to reign^ but when 
aQinTurre&ion arifes in a ilate ugainft the^ prinK:e, 
th^re is not fo great a certainty that it jn'oc^eds 
from tie free arid general will of the nation : it 
.maybe jhe dFeft of fedudfabn ; of fonic train- 
^t pppujf^r cowmoUQa;, OJ^Jbie,^ by 

^$undlef$ fearg, orithfiwnbition of fom« powerful 
en^my. The monarch therefore^ who defends his 
cVown e&nhot, for this reafon, be always juftly ac- 
jciifed of wifliing 'id' ^ftablifli himfelf on the 

if dieitfbf ;derogiat« frtm his engagement* the people re-enter 
iittt<tJiefr Jfrfi.fri'oiiegui.tksLt is» the privileges of To many indivi- 
dualarifl a flatc brnatarr> ' or under ike^rjt, or {imply fodal pad, 
b^whiclx all agree to fubmit to the will of the majority ; for the 
feccmd or political pad (lands in the way, which was only in part 
with the kmg^ and in part with other moral perfons, or political 
bodies^ who may not havi^ broken their engagements. 

Thedofhine of the two pa6ls is familiar to thofe who are ac- 
quainted with the beft writers on the law of nature and of nations. 
Koufieau has built every thing on the fr/i or mtreficicd paft, and, 
as 1 remember, unaccountably omitted all notice of the fecond 
OT political paSi, Hence fcem to have fprung many of his errors> 
And the enormities of his p'^a<ftical difciples in Fiance. 

• throne. 

236 Of the Ctm/Hiuiim 0/ EngldHii. 

throne, in fpite of the will of the nation : and hik 
rcfiftance may be leg^, becaufc l^e ^^cij^ by 
the will of one city, or one prciyinceV^^bi^^^^ 
wjill of all the cities, of all thepro\w6es'bf t^ 

It was declared under William Itl» that, to cfta- 
blifh taxes without the confcw of the people^ or to • 
maintain an army in time of peacc^ was contrary to 
lajy. The powet hitherto, always claimed bjy thfc 
crowix of dilpenfing with the executioji of the law 
was aboliftied. An adt was patfed. wluch ackAow- 


^ufe . the^ wom^' pFM^^ 

"""'keyttorie In tlie arch of freedom, by eftabUOung 

^/ glif^ when intoxicated with thd" joy o(C|i(ioncd 
.*V by their revolution, ought rather to hj}^e trcm- 
J^ bleid, oh feeing it was not their work. Who can 

*^ afllire them (fays he) that under the fame cir- 

*;*-^ciw(^Aces, they fliaUfijwiafecond:Wi.UiiW}V ^lat 
* ^. their king as timid as James^ will r^tir^ without 
•^ '' darihg td'try his fortune, and .the fortuntf'^f hrs 
^^^ Vihgdbm in a '^firigle battle: or that, if ht'^ries 
V^ jt^ he ihall be.vanquifhed?'*^ ^^This .^eypjuiiion 
wa§ certainly the work oii'the Eiigliib : and accord- 
ing to the author of The 'Age of < Louis XIV. 

♦ ' " the- 

^ ^ - ^ "^ 

Cf tbi ConfiitutiM of EttglansL 237 

V" _*..- e 

^^ the principal perfons of England ini^ignant at 
^' the conquft of the King^ united in fecret againft 
^^ hid^efis|ns, and fent a deputation to tbeDrince 
^^ of Oraiige, Their league was i;onduded with fo 
^^ inuch produce and fecrecy as to lull the fufpi^- 
** cioui of the court. 

^* The Pifince of Orange equipped a fleet capa* 

- - . ■ - , ^ • . . , 

^* ble of conduding forty or fifty thoufand men*: 
^^ it was given out that tiiis fleet was intended 
^^ againft FratKre^ and the fecret wis, kifpt. by more 
*^ thaatwo hundred perfons. "^ 
^ Sufipofihg a circutnCtatke^ fimilar to that I have 
been (peaking of, ihould happen in England, it 
would De of little confequence whether the king 
wjw'CMr was hot as timid as James. A king, h'ow- 
cver^courageous, could not ftruggle alone againft 
his people : he muft have an army, and an army <4 
(ulficient ftrchgth, arid fiifficientty devoted to the; 
monarch, for making head againft the whole na^* 
tion. Would foldiers levied in England, and 
paid 'by the people, rifk the deftruftion erf their 

* TMs Mcotm, is very grtady cjp8ggcrate4. The fleet of Aft 
PriQPBQfOc4na«CODfiftedoCfifty-fevenfbips of war* five hundred 
f!y^bo;it3» iixty pinks, and ten firc-(hips. The nvinnber offerees they 
actually did conda£(, were fourteen regiments of horfe and dragoons, 
inaking together three thoctfand fix htmdred andfixty men ; and fif-« 
teen regiments of foot, containitig tendiodfand £x h\indr^ add fix- 
ty-two men : fo that hu whole fofce amounted tofbttrteen thoufand 
three hundred and fifty- two men. . . 


238 QfibtjSQnJlkmim^fMgkt^^ 

cotmtiy, for ar prince wlk) could oiAftewUxA^^ttt 
zeal in proportioi^ 4i(; he* c^murned tU 'few^f- 
Would officers^^ would coii^maaderft, ^o^:bM' ti'^ 
ties and fortunes^ expo^e^ tbcmfelve$i fey^cmiMiiiid^^ 
ing merteHaries; to i(^ both their Jionour isind' 
their property, for^iaving endeavoured to defliir^y 
axonftitution^ ofi^^the Qxiftence of which both 

The icars^iwkh^hi(4vthef Abbe de Mably i^t\» 
to iv^pire^e'^BiM^^ ithiniedicai- 

. than thpfe whi)ch fooie pufillanlaious or . defignkigv 
meni iire>'endeavouiu}ig^to fpreod through («F|wioe^ 
by sifiJiacidg the nmiori. with a counter -ravolu* 
tion. - '** ■■■• ^^^''' • i'""- •''. ^ ■^■^•* 

I haveirehtced rapidty, and with all tbecteamefs 
I could, '^ho&events^hich, preceded' and led on to: 
the prefent conftitutionx^f England. '^ I ihati now: 
proceed to jexamitie:^thatvicaiUlimtiol;i, and afvef- 
wards letitbe.judged.wJvither i{ is fuperiorMtO'tbat 
<^ France* J will not attc3i^t toxonc^^its^impQC- 
leftions.^- :.^j' ::> •:■■. ^;^j -.:. ..: . -.^.\:t L'^iliiiy , 

The bafis of the Englifli conftitution, the grand 
principle ot> which all authors fix their atr&nricm is; 

^^M-^^m^ 4^fiFiag,aad explamin£;th;:^^ ;, 
3^e^.6onfi«Ciu4at ^pasi^. ^i (hi?, parliament are^.the • 
heufe-^McotlimoTis^^the^'bbafe ofioxds^ and-the 


0/ tht.G^Ji/uim sf EngUnd^ 239. 

TMHs. >th0. iLtng HOC ooly makes a part of the iia« 
tton^ but alfo>4 pare o£ the parliameatf and confe«: 
qucnd^ pare^f the legiikum-c^. Hts condition itJ- 
therefore notproperly defcribedi whenhe is diftin* . 
guiihed uxider the title of tbnyfxecutive .power. 

The houfe of comtoons> xyr affembly of the re- 
prefentatives of the nation^ is compofed of deputies: 
firom the different counties in England^ <)ach of* 
iKJitch fends two: of chc deputies of the cities^ jof 
whioh London^ inchiding Wt&iwiAer and S^uth* ^ 
w»^» nominates eight e the other cities, and parlia^ 
n^eotary boroughs fend two and cbedepu**, 
ties iof the unxTerfities of Oxford and Cfambridge^ 
which fend two each. 

;^&K:e€he aid:of union^ the Scotch fend 45;;ddpil- 
ties ; who, joined with thofe I ^^have beoa ^p^aking ; 
of^ fbim an affcmbly of 558 members^^ > : w-»;- ; : 

-According to M« de Lolme> iftthtfe deputies, 
^^tkougk chofen feparacely, atcflDisxonfidensdas 
M xoprcfentingjonly /the town; or couhty^ .which . 
y eledbed them^ as is the cafe we are told with the: 

«' I 

* :'The ipng ia chief of the pariiame9(> af hr ur qfs^s^t^M^ 
He.i&tluut part which gives motion to the other paxti ; aud.j^^ 
t icrefare;ft>Ied, in (ome of our ancient writers, the leiinning^ tht 
head, an'dthe end. He may be compared to the' grand wheel in a ' 
machSe; ^frhich, while it is the firft morer, x^k Tp^hSlpli^df k^ittl ^ 
to th^kxH^rwbeirky^ tiah produce Ao effe^ Indof^onMitly arklieltt. 
In «/tde()xnic gdtertimeni^ ihe Jcing con^nKonthe^wkolejoikf tt 

r./.i:: ** United 

6- A 

^ 240 Of the Confiimi$n ofRngtand. 

*• United Provinces ; but when once tdmitteA into 
••parliament, they rcprefcnt -the whole nitton/' 
•The French have not therefore the honour of in- 
vention, in transforming the deputies elefted by 
one province it>to general reprdentatives of all 
France; and thus effacing that diftinfbion wbich 
might have fubjefted each deputy to ftipulate only 
for partial intereds; to regard only local demands ^ 
and, by confining himfelf to the fenfe and letter 
of his inftruftions, eftabli(h a rivaUhip of optniohs 
foreign to each other. It mull be extreme igno« 
' ranee that could refufe adopting an idea fo natural^ 
and *a plan fo truly wife and uniform. 

** In fo large a ftate, as ours (fays Blackftonc) it 
•• is very wifely contrived, that the people (hould do 
•• that by their reprefentatives, which it is imprac* 
•^ ticable to perform in pcrfon; reprefentatives 
** chofen by a number of minute and fcparate dif- 
•* trifts, wherein all the voters are, or eafily may 
'*• be diftinguiftied. The counties arc therefore 
^ reprefented by fchights, eleded by the propric- 
** tors of lands : the cities and boroughs are rcpre- 
•^ fented by citizens add burgeffes, chofen by the 
*^ mercantile part or fuppofed trading intcrcft of 
^* the nation/' 

Notwithftanding thefe obfervations, many of the 
Englifh find the rcprefentation unjuftly divided. 
They fay, that fome counties, thinly Inhabited, 
have as many reprefentatives as thofe which are the 

. .; * 

Of the CimJIitntioH if England. 24! 

ttioAtpopulous : and that a decayed borough fends 
w deputy or two^ while fome opulent towps do not 
enjoy the fame privilege^ But this inequality is in 
imSi flf no coafequence^ fince^ as it has been ju(t now 
remarked^ thefe deputies reprefent neither particu- 
lar counties or boroughs, but the nation altogether. 

Though there may be fome danger in depriving 
certain counties of the right of eled:ing the fame 
number, of reprefentatives with others which are 
more populous; or of taking the privilege from de- 
cayed boroughs, and conferring it on flouriOiing 
towns; yet the aflembled parliament can, when 
it judges fuch a meafurc expedient, change, by a 
new ftatute the plan of elections ; for nothing is 
above its authority. 

The qualifications required in a member of the 
houfe-of commons are, to be a fubje6fc of Great 
Britain; to have a landed property, producing a 
yearly income of fix hundred pounds flerling, if the 
perfon reprefents a county : and of three hundred 
pounds a year, if he reprefents a city or a borough* 

To be an eleftor in a county, the voter muft 
pojQTefs a freehold of forty fhillings a year, frifing 
eitl^ej^ from land or houfes ; he muft have attained 
the age of twenty^one years, and have been in pof- 
feffion of his property one year, unlefs it has de- 
icended to him within that time by inheritance : 
and, in fine, he muft prove his having paid the taxes* 

Much has been written againft the decree pafT- 
'fd in France, by which proof is required of a man 

YOJ..IL R having 

^4» 'Qftke ^o^ftiiutisn -^-Ungk^ 

having paid a (SQmribution df -a miriCitf ^\*i*^ W 
enable hini tpbe ele&ed. Without thfepofieffipn^ol 

atvy prdpercy- whatever being deemed neeefFapf^ 
and the proof of having paid a contributiM^<tf 
tenJivres to entitle a man to be an elcftor. ^ ■ ***^ 
-TheErtgU(hw€wdefiroirs4ifn order to have botH- 
the elected and the eledor above being corrtipted by* 
inwicyy. tiiat'tii^ depiny ftiould be fufficiently ^p- 
pulent to* fectrfe- hiift from being feduced bjrvthc? 
favours of thi- court ; '■ arid - that : the voter fhoiikl^ 
peiiifefudi a property as would render hiinitftie- 
p^^dent -of every pef Ion. ' ■ ' '. '■''"' "^'-^ 

'' This freehold muft be of forty (hillings- art*--^ 
•f.^^ nuaf tfilue- (fays Blackftdne) becaufe that fum 
^^' would then, with proper induftry,- fiirnith'aH- 
*^the necefiaries of life, and-render the freehdlfler,^ 
*^ if hiEJ-pleafed, an independent man/' - .n.^i .J^ 

Hence it appears, that fo far from requiring -Ifeft- 
pftojpicrty, or lefs contfibiition, to entitle a'man to 
be^n ele<3;or,' thei-Eng4i(h would, if thefy were ti6^^ 
to make a ftatute on the occalion, require a'larget*' 
portion of both * . * - • ,' - . ^ 

* This is nota juft conclufion, Tae Engliih may perhaps. cpar.- 
lider it as a circumftance advantageous to the caufe of liberty, that 
by the great ittcreafe of national wealth, fince the reign of Henrj^ VI. 
when this iUtute was made, the number of cledlors kas been pc0pbt«n 
tionally increaied ; and th^y might not, if a new ftatute were to bp ^ 
made, judge it either equitable or politic to reduce€fisnt nuM'^ 
ber of voters, by requiring a larger qualification* * > o> 

■ w; * 9 

^.iUX(^iimm\i!f,Mi^iid^ ^4$ 

4r^y Fd^ being an ^ledtor of a b^rpugh, nothing more 
k.. r«qmTC)d.than:priOof.of having enjoy ed> for oxto 
y^rj all, the rights of a burgefs. Many citizenj^ 
lA^iMOh. pofieiTed of large property, cannot b« 
members of the houfe of comnjons; of this num»- 
l^are the tv^lve judges^ becauTe they have feats 
in the houfe of lord s^ . . 

Ecglefiaftics.are Ukewife e^xclvdijd ; .ir^ajuTe the 
cicrgy fit in the hpufe of coipvx^q^ti^^^ ;^nd arebe- 
%le$ reprefented. by the fpirittjal lord^^ ; . ^ * 

. Neither (hcrifFs of counties, mayors, or baiUfis^ 
can be eleded in their refpeftive jarifdi(5tions>:b^ 
caitfeitjs they who prefide at dcftions. 

In this, clafs of excluded perfoos. are, ranked all 
tbpfe;who are employed in receiving the revenue 
in the ?xcife or.thie land-tax 'dqpar^a;^9nt?^ , The 
commiflioners of the.treafury are .alon<f. exempted 
i^pjn this excliifion^^ .. 

,,J^o.peffonenjoying;|5:;a, p^J>fion, from the king 
cjL^, be; elected. And in fine, any member of j.he; 
hpufe. of commons who accepts of an employment 
vacates his feat by doing fo* 
. Thefe details, which I have abridged, demonftrate 
what attention has been employed to keep the re- 

'r. . • ' ■ 

. • By: die bill, commonly called Mr* Crew's bill, the pruacipli 
bis hem carried down to di{^aallify> a» ele^ors, all revenue-olH^ 
ceff#."r This was one of the meafures of th^ RKfcking^hamf iidmhii. ' 
ftraiion/ttyieGure^e freedom of elcdtionst and, at the fame time^' 
tadkninifh the influence of the crown. ' 

-jt'i^rhat- i», » peniion during fUafurti a penfion/l^r Ufi does not 

* •■ * 




«44 9f^i>P ConfiUutioH:Qf 4n$faf^ 

prefentatltcs impartial and incoriuptibile. ;^ m4 ycC 
the parliament of England are cpntixiuaUy .afi^uTi^ 
of partiality and corruption. 

The upper houfe is compofed of the lords jG;^ixit^ 
ual and temporal* 

The firft arc the two and twenty 
four bilhops of the kingdom, who are confidcrcd as 
kolding ancient baronies dependent on the king* . , 

The temporal lofds arc all the peers of the king? 
dom by whatever title of nobility they may be difr 
tfnguiflied. The old peers have feats in the houfc 
pf lords, by right of binh ; the new ones by at^ 

ation ; andji fince th6 union with Scotland, otheir^ 

' . • ■ ■ "■ 

by eledion: thefe laft are fixteen in number* . 

The number of the peers is not limitcdi . aud 
may be augmented at the king^s pleafurc. . . 

According to, the laws, no perfon can fit in 
cither houfe until he is twenty-one years of ^gc» 
Each member muft take the oaths pf fidelity,, :fi4r 
premacy, and abjuration ; and repeat the declarar 
tion againft tranfubftantiation, the invocation of 
faints, and the facrifice of the mafs. 

No ftranger, however naturalized, can become a 
member of either houfes of parliament. 

Whoever has been ele(9:«d a member of the houfe 


of commons by the people, or created a member pf 
the houfe of lords by the king, can, notwithftand^ 
ing fuch ele£tion, or creation, on complaint made 
againft him, be declared incapable of fitting as a 
member in either the one or the otW iioufe. But 


ttfils Mftcnce cfaii only be pronounced by that hcrtifc 
tty'^ftilch^he belonged. 

The inviolability of the perfons and property of re-^ 
prdbntatives is not explained very clearly by Black- 
ftone. In fpeaking of privilege of fpeech, that wri* 
tcr fiysj " It is declat-ed by the ftatute of i W. and 
** M.ft. 1. c. 2, as one of the liberties of the people, 
^* that the freedom of fpeecb and debates ^ and proceed- 
'• ings in parliament f oagbt not to he itnpeached or quef- 
•*' tioHed in any court or place oui of parltdrdent. Arid 
*• this freedom of fpeech is particularly demanded 
*'of the king, in perfon, by the fpeaker of the 
** houfe of commons, at the opening of every neV(r 
** parliartient. So likewife are the other privileges^ 
** of ^peifon, fervants, lands, and good^/* 

•* But (fays Blackftone in aiiotheif paffage) ill 
** other privileges, which derogate from the com- 
*^ thdft law, are now at an end, fave only as to the 
** freedom of the memberVperfon: which,inapeefr 
** (by the privilege of peerage) is ever facred arid 
••^ inviolable ; and in a commoner (by the privilege 
*^ of parliament) for forty days after every proroga- 
^^ "tion, and fony days before the next appointed 

meeting; which' is now in efFeft as long as th6 

parliament fubfifts, it feldom being prorogued 
^^ ifor niore than fourfcore days at a time *." 

'-'■ '^The 

•■■■ .»-■ A^ ■.■■•*•-• > ' . . . ■ - - - - ■ .. • 

^ • Af the fhprt paflagc, which intervenes bejtween. tbiar and tKc 
next quot^tioxvipeaks. more clearly on this fubje^« I ikall ipfert it. 


t/^^ Of the ^onjittuiim of Eigla 

■ ■ " ' ■ 't 

' The king, however, in virtucof his prefbg^ivt 

can profecute a member who is indebted to hiiii^ 

even during a fefEon of parliament : but with this 

provifo, that his perfonal liberty be not injured. 

'^ Likewife (fays Blackftone) for the benefit of 

*^ commerce, it is provided, by ftatutc 4 Geo. 111. 

*^ c. 33. that any trader, having privilege of p'ar^ 

*^ liament, may be ferved with legal procefe for any 

*^ juft debt, (to' the amount of ;^.ioo) and unleft 

*^ he makes' fatisfaftionwitliin two months, it fhall 

** be deemed an a6t of bankruptcy; arid that'COm'*.' 

*^ miflions of bankruptcy may be iflued againft' 

*' fuch privileged traders, in like manner as 

"againft others, 

. ^* The claim of privilege (fays Blackftone,' in 

■ - ■ • ^ ' 

^^ another paflage) hath b^en ufiially guarded Vnth 
^* an exception, as to the cafe of iridiftable crimes ; 

*^ or, as it hath been frequently cxprefled, of trea- 


^^ fon, felony, and breach (or furety) of the 

** A§ to all other privileges (continues Blackftone) whick ob- 
f'ftruft the ordinary courfe of jullice, they were retrained by the 
** ftatutes 12 W. III., c. 3. 2 and 3 Ann. c. 18. and 11 Geo. II. 
" C. 24. and are now totally abolifhed by (latute 10 Geo. III. c. 56. 
ff which enadf, that any fait may> at any time, be brought agai^ 
'*' ^ny peer or member of parliament, their fervants, ot any otbpr 
*' perfqn ^ntitle4 to privilege of parliamant; which fhall no<^ 
" iqipsached or delayed by pretence of any fuch privilege ; except 
•* that the perfbn of a member of the houfe of commons Ihall not 
*» thefcbj; )t)c fubjefted to any arr^ftor imprifonment. pwlft^t 

- ■! 

^v ■ 11 ^ » 1 » 

•l,peai;c.^.. Whereby i.t fcems to have been under- 
*^.^9pd that. DO privilege/was allowable to themem- 
V, bers,, their fatnilies, or fervants, in zxvf cYime^ 
^^ whatfoever; for all crimes are treated by the law 
S^.as being contra pacem domini regis. . And inftances 
**-. have not b^en wanting, wherein privileged per^ 
*^fons have been convided of mifdemeanors, and^ 
^f. committed, or profcQuted to outlawry, even ii\ 
V the midft of a feflioxi ;, whjch pfpc^ding.has af;^, 
^r terwards received the fanftion and approbation, 
^Vof^parliament. To which m^y be added, that a^ 
^ few years ago (in the year 1763) the cafe of wri- 
Voting and publiihing feditious libels was refolved 
^* by both houfes not to be entitled to privilege ; 
*^ff and that the reafon^ upon which that cafe pro- 
*f.cec4ed, extended equally to every indidtablc oU, 
'/.feiice. - So that the chief, if not the only, privi- 
*f -lege of parliament, in fuch cafes, feems to b© 
fl; the right of receiving immedia^te information of 
" the imprifonment, or detention of any member^ 
^ with the reafon for which he is detained/' 
;JIt is aftonifhing that, in a country where no per- 
fon can do any thing but with the law * in his hand, 
•there has not been a ftatute made to declare ex? 

. : . Pf elsjy, 

^ * Mr. dela Croix exprefles himfelf like many foreigners, as if wc 
iad icarcely any other law than the written law. It is unncccflary 
.10 ^ItJ^iod the EngliQi reader, how much of our law, our parlia- 
mentary law, cannon law, ecclefiaftical, civil, and iiiaritinie law 
dgj>^^ opon unwritten culloms, ufages, and eftabliftied intdrprle- 

R 4 rations. 

»48 Cf the Coi0ituflm rf' England. 

prefsly, that after being accufed,^ or rather i:xai^ 
v-ifted of a crime, the privilege of a meniber of par-, 
liament (hall be fufpcndedt 

Happy is the nation which tcfpcfts itfelf fuffi- 
ciently, which is fufficiently cautious whom i^ 
eleftsjito prevent its. repjceCwt^ives, ever having 
occafion for their title to inviolability in either civil 
or criimiul ca(es,' afid; who aU £n4 a ihelter &on| 
the lnws ill their <Qwn;.pH3pJbity* . But are thofc wor- 
thy of making a part of the legillative body, who 
violate the firft law; that of fulfilling their engaap- 
iSfefeis'f Or-doies thttn^n dcferve to concur in «ic 
lifi^eiStidn of ptiblic tirder, who fets out with dif- 
TOTbihg focii^ty by his , rtvcnge,c or his nmbitioius 
pfdjfeaiisf -^HecaHsiimrfeifa legilk and ihfc 
fa^P^prcrfmbes him. Ht calls hirhfelf a reprefent- 
ative xif ifke pebple, and he diftioiiours the pcopW, 
whom h^ reprefents ; and he talks of viitue and 
jilftfce, while he is accufed of crimes and inlideli* 
tles!^ Such depqties, in wha?e\rer country they 
exift:, muft, without doubt, find it necefiary to bo 
ihviokble : but tt is ftill teiore nectary to the 
people, not to have fiich men for the intcrpiretors 
W^their will ; Uqid not to bcdifgraced by foch re-. 
' j>refeiitativcsi 

• tatipQ^ And. wkh: regard to the privileges of parliament* Mr. 
^ HatCell, the learned clerk of the houfe of commons, has publKked 

a quarto Volume filled with cafes of privilege, in that houfe, and 

containing the whole doctrine on the fubjeft, 

-^ CHAP, 

■"••^H'''*<v itif$ 'y' 

^ ••■:•.'. "■•"i 


*^.i:.' J :ji'. n:i •: . "/.■\ • ■ ■■. . * . ' • . 

"^.'» :'jHrf.'f -■■■- 

w.>. ■ • ,■ ■■*..' I. . . . 


? Continnafim of tbi ConJUmfion df England^ 

©^ THE Formation of iti PAULiAWEHr, of 

THE ItbYAl, pREROGAtlTE, ANt) OF JvUlfiS. 


HE^ conftituenc parts of the EnglUh parlU/^jot 

are coaipoTed of the king, the eccleiiaftical pcerp^ 

1^ peers of EngUnd, together with the iixteca 

peens ^eded by the Scotch, peers, . asf their x:epre- 

featatiyes, and five hundred and ftfty-^ht JXi/e^- 

>)Pf^of the houfe of x:on>mons, who reprefcnt jhc 

HC0tuatie^9 cities, and boroughs* 

: T^fe three parts are ^11 fo effential to the fovjc* 

-j^ign^y^.that nothing >yhich is pjfopofed can be* 

Mcpsne a la>y.if ^ny one o^tbem oppole it; nor un« 

pi it has been confidered in both the houfes, each 

of which mud judge for itfelf* 

- It is on this principle that the lords will not per* 

init the commons to oppofc the admilfion . of a 

Scotch peer into the upper houfe : and that the 

commons, in their turn, will not fufferthe lords to 

. judge of the validity of an eledioij of one of the 

members of the lower houfe* 
v': The 

< ' •.**.*•■ ■ * 

' ^-^ The power and jurifdidtfoiV^^ariian^cttt-'X^^ 
** Bkckftonc) is, according to Sir EtJwkrd^bkc, 
*^ fo tranfcendent and abfolute, that it cannot be 
^* confined, either for trauJcs or perfons, within any 
** bounds. And of this high court (he adds) it 
^< may be truly faid,' ^^ fi aniiquilatm fpeStes; efi 
*• vetufiijjima \ fi dignitatem^ eji honor atijftma ; Jiju^ 
** rijdiclimm^ eft capacijjima* It harh fovereign and 
*^ uhcontrtmlable authority in making, confirming,' 
**■ enlarging,' reftraiaing, abrogating, repelling, 
•* reviving, and expounding Of laws, concerning 
••^rftt'erS'df all^pfcltebl^ denoiriinations, eccJefiaf- 
^■rftalV^r temporal, civil, military, maritihite'^ ' or 
•*• criminal : this. being the place where rfiat*abfo- 
**lirte,'-drfpotic* power;' whith niuft ih'iall gOYcrn- 
♦* mehts i^efide fomc^.vhere, is enti-trfted by'thecon- 
*^ ftitiitidn^ of thefe klhgdortis; AlfmiTchiefs and 
** grievances, operations; and remedies, th^t tranf^ 
** cend the 'drdmarfcodrfe' of theiatvs, dre'withih 
*' the reach of this extraordinar5''tribiThal. -It'dlti 
•^ T€fgn^a^e or new model th6- fucciiffibn td" -flic 
*^ crown; as was done in the reign of Henry VIIL 
** and of William III. It can alter the 'cftalDlifhed 
*^ relfgion of the land ; as was done in a variety of 
*.^ instances, in the reigns of Henry VIIL and hit 
*f- three children* It can change and create afrelh 
"even the 'conftittition of the kingdom, arid of 
**'pirliani€nts themfelves; as was done by the al(5i 

n of uni9% afld th^ . Csvfiral ftatutes for tmnnial 

*f and fcptjuanial eleftions," ./H ' 

..., ** U was (continues Blackftone) a known apon 

V. thegm, of the great lord treafurer Burleigh, ibat 

y England could never be ruined but by a parliament z. 

V and, as Sir Matthew Hale ohferves, this being 

*^ the higheft and greatefl qourt, over which none 

*^ other can havf jurifdidjon iji the kipgdomj. if 

^* by any means st nxifgoyerA9?!etit (hoqlcj f^U wpon 

** it, the fubjeds of this kingdom arc left withputx 

♦^ all manner of remedy/* . , . ^ . .. 

"It muft be owned (adds Blackftone) that Mr* 

f^ Locke *, and other theoretical writers, .have held 

^\ that there remains Jiill inherent in the peopkx.^^fa* 

** prem^, power ta remove or alter the kgi/ktivey vjpen 

*^ they Jind the legijlative aS contrary to th^ trtf/i. r$* 

f * pofed in them : fory whenfuch truji is abufea^uit is 

*/ thereby forfeited y and devolves to thofe who gave it.** 

Xhi? is the ic^ea of a very noble mind ; but it is 

fi^erely theoretical. . . 

., .Certainly.,,if a legiilative body were to make a do* 

; * ,Bot)i. theTe oplnioni are right. Under the conftitution thero 
{s and can be no refource. The conftitution makes, and can make 
no provifion for extreme cafes aiifing on the fubverfion of the con- 
Hihttton itfelfi The grave and over-rolin? necefliry that demands 
the remedf. in thofe cafes> muil dired die nature and Hmh the «i:- 
test Qf the remedy ; the objedl; of which ought to be^ the frefirnjU'^ 
ti»H. or rejbration of the violated ponflit;utipa> not the opportunitx 
of introducing new fpeculations, 


crce. lb abfurd, fo contrary to ttoti»e!^ ^is^d^be^lfirp- 
pofed by the general opinion, thtt^c^lr^fctfbld 
foon overturn this coloffus of power ^Mrhfclf tliey 
lud raifed. But as we cannot fbppoTe that titree 
aurfioririiefi would combine, and aft in contert, for 
giving the jforce of law to an inftitution evid^tly 
abfurd, there is reafoa to believe that there never 
viil be fuch an oppofition of Opinion bistween the 
parliament and the people, as to excite an infurrcc-^ 
tion All .tut once, and make the palfive power sthnU 
biisLtt the legiflative, and eftablifh itfelF tfpoft^ its 
fuiQS^ Thus the reafonin'g of Locke fe fltat tff a 
grett imetaphy fician, who takes his cdreeP throttgli 
the field of imagination. I (hall hOt^lbll*vr his 
courfe, but attach myfelf entirely to^tfelH?^^ and 
begin by examining the? law^ andpfitift^isof the 
houfe of peers. - .^^ ' ■:-. ■ ■ :■ ' "M 'io(':^. '' 

Tlie firfk I fhalltouch upon dods liotftiitf tO 
merit much regards, only' a& it prwtt thaf the itrtrti- 
bers of this houfe have beep wilUng to fhew» 'thett¥»^ 
felves the rivals of die^onarch; aAd <to iftafk- tSiei? 

" Oiic very ancient privilege (^fays iSUclcftonei 
*^ is that declared by the charter of the foreft, X09* 
'Viirmed in. parliament, 9, Hen. IIL viz« that eve^. 
f^xy; iord, fpiritual or temporal, fummoned' W 
f^ parliament, and paffing through the ting's '^fiS- 
•• fefts, rtiay, both in going and returning/ ^iiff 
^^ one or two of tlielcing^s deer, without warrant ;, 

^/r{ip-^^iew7«f tb« fofcftcr, if he be preient, ^brjioiti 
Cf lowing a hom, if he be al^ent : than httn^ba^ 
f %ij^m %o take the king's venfion by fteahh« 
^c^'jA'-fecond privilege^ lefs vsun, aod more ufeful is^ 
fl^at ^^ they have a right ^coottimes BUickftone) to 
fj\'hc atteoded, and conftantly are, by the judgei 
55 of the court of king's, bench, and tommoA 
t,^^. pleas,. aod fuch^f the barons^ che^extheqlier 
^l^are of the degree; of the xoifj or ha^e beeii 
ff ioade fergeaocs at law; as ; likewife by the kingf 
^Mearoed couafel, being fergeanis^ and by ift^ 
1^ iliaftcirs of the court of chancery^ for th^ir adurice 
ff in point of law, and for the greater idigni^f-' of 
^f/j|thiAr-iKPQeddiflg9«''' '' r-i-^- ^^^-i* 

orjV A^Qthtr-priyilege is, that every peer,.b;^<li^ 
^^r|€taca.obf»iai«d frooi the king, ma^ tnakemti* 
*^ other lord of parliament to vote for hiniiv>ia \m 
^^^ 9M^^^>' 7his privilege, which is denied to the 
C9{a9^9W^^:Oij|gheikott^ to the pee^sji 

l;!^^^^^ il'Uiiite^t^li^ Q^^ and 

|[M9^M^^AI.lbeking's^Qnfentis neceflary, h is td 

' . ■ .\ ■ 

^ * Proxies 49 not vote ip a committee. There is cQQ&quei)t}3F 
s^Kage in tnepaffing of every bill, where it may be throvvn out^ 
if' -eeititrtry to the opinions of the aflual majority pre/ent.' The 
pmf , 1 Mieve, is »ken cit once in every paillatnertt'iiAi lafts 
f^immj^m^ The king^s leave is now fo much si'hiattev oV 
qpynon right, and not of iavqur, that a ^nmfter wookt; 1 fappofb; 
||^ Ij^ble to impeachment, foradvliing the king taf^fafebisJtavt 
to any pirttcular peer, on themouves fogeefted by Mr. U Croix. 


-~r » > 

^54 Of the GonfiiMion of E^nii 

be feared that he will only grant it' wftett^hcfef-" • 
frage> fp communicated^ is to confirm i^is "^tt. ' ■ 

** Each peer (fays Blackftone) hasalfo a r^ight,' 
•* by leave of the houfe, when a vote paffes tontftiiy 
^^to his fentiments, to enter his dilTent on the 
*.' journals of the houfe, with the reafons of fucK 
" diffent, which is ufually ftyled his proteft," 

,f* All bills likewife that may in their cohfc* 
*^ quences any way afFe<9: the rights of the peerage^ 
•f are by the cuftom of parliament to have theirrrfc 
**.and beginning in the houfe of peers, and to fof-' 
*? rf^rno changes or amendments m the howfe'or 
** commons/' : ^^- ' *' 

Thefe are fome of the privileges peculiar td the 
houfe of pters; but the houfe of commons hi^ one 
much more imporunt: it is^ (to ufe thewbtdS-'of' 
Blackftone) ^^ that all grants of fubfidies^ or parKa- 

* mentary aids do begin:in their houfc, arid'irefiWf 
' bellowed by them; although their grahftf afettbr 

* efFedlual to all intents and vput^ofes^' Ufa Al iMtf 
^ hayetbe alTent of the other two bmnclft* of-tfte 

* legiflature. The general reafon, given for this" 

* exclufive privilege of the houfe of comnions, is^'^ 

* that the fupplies are raifed upon the body of the 
^ peoplei. and. therefore it is proper that they alone 

* fhould have the right of taxing themfelves, 

* This reafon would be unanfwerable, if the coin-' 

* mdn^' taxed none but themfelves : but it 15 notg-,.: 
*"rious,that a very large ftiare of property .iSiUn,- 


*:?^j:^^e^^ffi^onTo£th«'houfe of IdrdsJ that tiiispi-ai= 
*^ pcjiiyis ^leillytaxable; and tax«d, as thepfbpdf ty^ 
**-t9|£jthejCoa!MnoM; and therefore, the commons not 
*f; ifQingfhtfok perfons taxed, this cannot be tft'erea- 
^i fon of their having the /y/d right of raifing ami mo- 
'^•delling the fupply, Thetme-rcafony^rifingfrom 
*^ the fpirit of our conftitution, leems to be this. The 
'Vlords being apcrmamenc hereditarj^body, creat- 
*J-€dat'pleafure by the king, are fappofedmorc 
*5; liable to be influenced by cbe crown, 4nd when* 
*l,9Hce influenced, to continue fo, than the com- 
^jnomj who are a temporary, elective body, free- 
'^ ly elefted by the people/' 
.ak?i^t%> reiafpnably jealous (continues Blackftone) 
"^fij;^..|;he <;on>mons of this valuable privilege, that 
**^4iGPcin. they 'Will not fufter the other hoiife to- elx*^ 
**er)t.^y. .powder- but that of rejeding; >ehcy w41l' 
"fin^t,. j)iQrniit * the kaft alteration or amendnaent' 
**^^9 43ft made by;the Iprds to the mode of taxing 
'vt}n9 E^Pple lJ>y a money bill/' 
«j]be<.u$. now. peine trate die bofom of this fenate, 
fo?»viguft from its power, and obfervc how it per- 
foims its afts of fovereignty. 

, -/;^- 1 mqft premife, (fays Blackftone) that> for 
'^^diipatcb of bulinefs, each houfe /of parliament 

• In cafe of any alteration by the lorJ^j thp c?omn;ioas: always 
throw out tbe bill when it is returned to them. But ^the alterations - 
be ^60d, a new bill is immediately brought ir> ^dfp:*ng the fub- 
ftafi^^fthofe alterations. < 

^i- ■ «« has 

tjfi Of the Ctmftituium of tngtanJL 

has its fpeaker. The fpeaker of the houft df 
lords, whofe office it is to prefide there, and ma'^ 
nage the formality of bufinefs, is the lord chan- 
cellor, or keeper of the king's great feal, or any 
other, appointed by the king's commiffion: and, 
if none be fo appointed, the houfe of lords (it is 
feid) may eleft. The fpeaker of the houfe of 
commons is chofen by the houfe; but muft be 
approved by the king. And herein the ufage of 
the two houfes differs, that the fpeaker of the 
houfe of commons cannot give his opinion, or 
argue any queftion in the houfe; but the 
fpeaker of the houfe of lords, if a lord of parlia^ 
ment may*. In each houfe the ad of the major-^ 
ity binds the whole; and this majority is declar- 
ed by votes, openly and publicly given.*' 
^ In public matters, the bill isbrought in upon mo- 
tion made tothe houfe, without any petition at all." 
-f- ** After the fecond reading it is committed, 
^ that is referred to a committe; which is either 

*^ felc6ked 

* Bnt he may in a committce> where there is another chairmm 

appointed^ the fpeaker being then a fimpie member; and lie may 

in the houfe, when the votes ar-' equal. 

f By the omiffion of a whole paragraph in this place^ the ac-* 

count of ths mode of carrying a bill through parliament is left in- 

complete^ I fliall therefore fabjoin it. 

'< The perfons direded to brinv in the bitl, prefenc it iri a coffin 
petent time to the houfe, drawn out on paper, with a maltitade 
df blanks or void fpaces^ where any thing oc'curs that is dabtoosj 


fBf the ConJHtuthn of England. . a^; 

" fticfted bjr the houfe in matters of fmall impor- 
*' tancCy or elfe upon a bill of confequence, the 
^^ hoofe refolves itfelf into a comtnitte of the whole 
" houfe» A commitce of the whole houfe is com'^ 
*' pofed of every member; and, to form it^ the 
^' fpe&ker quits the chair (another member being 
^^ appointed chairman) and may fit and debate 
" a* a private member 'f'* 

^ ** When the houfe hath agreed or difagreed to 
^ theamendments of the committeei and fomctimes 

'^or D Cce flary to be fettled by the parliament itfelf; (Cbeb» efpeci- 
** ally» as th^ precife date of timesy the nature and quantity of 
^ penalties, and of any funis of money toberaifed) being indeed 
** ot&f the flceleton of die bill. In the houfe of lords, if the bill 
" Ifegiiis diere, it is (when of a private nature) referred to two 
** of die jadget» who examine and report the date of the &As al-* 
*' ledg«d» to fee that all necef&ry parties confent, and to fetde ail 
*' points of technical propriety. This is read a firft time, and at 
** a convenient diftance, a fecond time $ and after each feading 
^ die fpeaker opens to the houfe the fobftante of the bill, and puts 
^fS^ qoeflion, whether it (hall proceed any further. The \n* 
** tpodndion of the bill may be originally oppofed, as the bill it- 
** fislf may at either of die readings ; and, if the oppofitiOn fuc« 
ff €feda« die bill muft be dropped for thu feffion : as it mofl alfo^ 
^ if oppofed with fuecefs in any of the fubfeqoeat flages.^' Black- 
fi§^t C^m* b« i. page iSa. 

'f The following is the concluding r<5ntence of this paragraph, 
whick^ as it condnues the detail of proceedings, I ihall infert. 

" lu thcie committees the bill is debated claufe by claufe^ 
*' tOHRidments made, the blanks filled up, and fometiixies the bill 
** endrely new mqdcUcd.'' Black. Com, b. i. p. ^dz, 

y S 'Udded 


458 ^f^kf ConJlUutiGn cf England. 

*' added new amendments of its own« the bill is 

. •'^ then ordei^ed" t6 Be engroffedV <Jf wrltteh in a 

'^^ lirong^ grofs hand, on one or more Ipihg idRi (or 

^' pieflfes) of parchment fcvycd togcthe^' '* When 

;♦' thi$ is finiftied, it is read' a' third time, and 

•* amendments arc fometimcs theft made to it: gnd 

*^ if a new claiife be* added, it' is done by tacking a 

feparace piece of parchment on the bill, which is 

called a'rider* The fpcaker then again opens tK'c 

^* contents! and holding: ft up in his hands, piits 

^* the queftfoii wh'eth'er the bill (hall pafs. 

^ ** After thiS^, one of the members is difcfted t<J 

•^'carrjr it'tothcrlords, and defire their concurrence; 

** who, attended by feverd more, carries it to the 

** bat of the houfe of peers, and there deliVeri it 

^' to their fpcaker, who comes down from his 

*^ woolfack to receive it. 

** It there pafles through the fame forms as in 
*^ the other hoiifb C^xcept engrdfling, v/hich ?s al- 
^* ready done) and, if rejected, no mcie notice, is 
** taken, but it 'pa-flcs /x^T?/^;///^, ' to prevent unbe- 
*' coming akercations. But if it is as;reed to' the 
^'^ -lords fend a meifage by two mafters in chancei-y 
*^ (or fometiiti^s twt) of rhc judges) that they have 
<< agreed to the fanie: and the bill remains wuh 
*• the lords, rf they have made no amendment 'to 
*^ it. Hut- if any amendments are tiiade, fo'Ch 
<• amendments are fent down with the bill ^6 re- 
'' ceivc the concurrence of the eommons/ If the 

*^ commons 

0/ the Conftitutim of England. 259 

« , ^, . ■ V ■ ' ■ . ■ J " ■ ■ ' * ' ' » 

**,t6miWQns cjifagw to the amendincnts> a confcr- 
^^^eoccufijsilly follows, between members deputed 
f *" fron;i eJich.houfe ; . who for the tnoft pare fcttl^ 
'* and adjuft the diffgrence.; but> if borh hovifes 
** ren^iin inflexible, the.biHis 4rppped*" 

The bill thus approVeq by. the twoHouCes, after 
fo much trouble and jFo^rbalitV, is {^i.U.biit ^ projedfe 
which cafl only be feiliifd by itne royal apgroba- 
fioii. ^* The royal alTerlt ((ays- Plackffdj;ie) may 
*^ be given two ways. In. perfon, when the king 
** comes to the houfe of peers in his crown and 
** rpyal robes, and lending for the cpmmons to the 
**.bar, the titles of all the bills, which have pafled 
** both houfes, are read, and the king's anfweir is 
*^ declared by the clerk of parliament in Ndririan 
** French : if the king cohfents to. a public bill,^ 
** the clerk ufiially declares, *^ U roy le veut^ the 
** king wills it {o to. be i*'. if to a private bill, 
^^ foitfait comnie il e/i d^ire^. be it as it is defired.'* 
** If the king refiifes his atlent^ it is in the gentle 
** language of, " k roy s'avifera, the king will 
** advife iipon it."' When a bill of fupply is pafled, 
^f it is carried up» and prefented to the king by the 
*^ fpeakcr of the houfe of comihons, and the royal 
** aifent is thus exprefled, " le roy remercisfes loyal 
*• fabjeSiSf aaepte lour benevolence y et dxijfi le vetity the 
^* king thanks his loyatl fubjefts, accepts their be- 
'^ ncvoltnce, and wills it to be fo/" 

S ^ I, 


2^9 Of £&< . C&nfii^tim .of Engf^f^ 

h muft undo\ibtc41y occafipn f\vrprifc, thj|(i:|a tbc 
p^luiment of flngland the monarch (h(Hi||id f^refi 
jxjs will in a language foreign to the natipiji^ J^lfK^kt 
(tone fpeaks of this mode of giving tl>e kiQg^^ ^iv-^ 
fwer in Norman French as " a badge, it muft bft 
*/ owned (now the only one remaining) pf oon* 
V queft ; and which one could wilh to fee /aU in- 
^* to total obliyiop ; ui\lefs it be referred ^ a fa* 
',* lemn memento, to reipind us that our libertiei 
!* fre n^qrtal,. iiaving beei\ once deftrpyed by a foh 
*^ lei^a force/'r . ; 

^* The k:ii^g.(cpntinue$ Blackilon,e) may give hk 
*^ aflfeat; by letters patent, under his gre^ feal^ 
^^ figned with his hand, and notified ia.his abfence 
^^ to both houf^s, affembled tpge.ther in the- bjgk 
" houfe. And. wheq the bil| has received th^ roy^ 
** al aflent in either of thefe ways, it is the»^,. ^p4 
*' not before, a ftatufe or ad of parlianient. \. - 

" This ftatute or aft is placed among xhcjc^ 
*' cords of the kingdom ; ther^ needing no formal. 
*^ promulgation to give it the force of law, as was 
^* neeeffary by the civil law, with regard to ti^^eai* 
** peror's edifts : becaufe every man in Englaiklis^ 
" in judgment of law, party to the makings aft 
«* of parliament, being prefent thereat by his ire- 
*^^ prefentatives. However, a, copy thereof is ufij^lr 
•^ ly printed at the king^s prefs, ^ for thje, iafcwgjgfi* 
*: tion of the whole land/^ . ^ ...^..\ > . 

«* A* 

bfiBe €(m/Hhiion tf tnglhnd. i5i 

*''**7tfi aft *6^r parliament thus made * cannot be 
**-4ftfe?etl, amended, difpenfed with, fufpehded, 
**o^r?eptaIed, but in the fame fonris and by the 
•*fatiie -authority of parliament/' 

■■* ^ Parliaments may be adjourned, prorogued, or 
^'^diflblvcd (fays Blackftone). 

~^^ An adjournment is no more than a continuance 
^ of the feflions from one day to another, as thd 
*^ word itfelf lignifies : this is doncf'by the autho- 
** rity of each houfe feparatcly every day ; and 
** fometimes for a fortnight or a month together, 
^ as at Chriftmas or Eafter, or lipbn other particu- 
^' lar dccafions. But an adjournment of one Houfe 
*^ is no adjournment of the other/* 

• Thelcing fignfffes his pleafure, whenhethinks pro- 
per, to one or both houfes that they are to adjourn 
flfemfelVes, and they pay the more regard to it, be- 
caule thecflenc6 of the king's authority lies in pro- 
rojgufngthcl p'arl&merit, which is in faft diiSblving it 
fbx^ttHirhe* The differehcc between an adjournment 

r 'i 

' ^ ^epait omitted of tliis fentence is ifsportant, as it ihews the 
pkraJDiokttit fiijkreiriaty of parliament : I fhall therefore ^ve the 
jMagraf^ M it ftands in Blackflone. 

J^ Aq aft of parliament* thus made, is theexerciie of theUghelib 
«« andioritjr that this kingdom acknpwledges on earth. It hath 
'*' power to bind every fabjedl on the land, and the dominions there- 
'^ttnto bekmging; nay, even the king bimfelf, if , piuticolarly 
<< named therein. And it cannot be altftfdi: Irv.** £la€kftm*s 
Cfi^'^b, i. p. 185, 

S3 and 

6t P/^^^ Qonjlitutioii of EngJand. 

and a prorogation is, that the firfl: only intcfrri^ts 1*2. 

and delays the proceedings in any bufinefs already I'iJi 

commenced; while a prorogarion, which is * for 1** 

near three months, puts an end to the feffion, and -- "C^ 

then the bills before the houfc cannot be carried r. 

over to another feffion ; at leaft not witliqut b^ing - i 

taken anew into confideration, which feldom hap- 
* '* A prorogation (fays Blackilone) is the contir 
^ nuatibn of the parliament from one fcffioa to 
' another : as an adjournment is the continuation 
^ of the fcliion from day to day* This is done bv 
^ the royal authority, expreffed either by the chan*. "" 

^ cetlor," in his majefty^s prcfence ; or by a coax* 
' miffion from the crown, or frequently by pro- • 
' claination/'* 
^^ if at the time of an adual rebellion, 01*. im*. 

* miheht danger 'of invafion, the parliament (ball 1 
' be Separated by adjournment or prorogation, tl^c | 
^ king is empowered to caU then^ together -j* by 

* proclamaubn, with fourteen days notice of th<$ 
' time appointed for their aflembling. " .^ 

** A diffdlution' (continues Blacl^ftqne) is t^i€ 
^ civil death of the p^^rlianient j and this niay be 

* cfFefted three ways: i. By the king's will, cZt 
' prefled either in perfon or by reprefetitation/* ' 

• A pror ga ion may be for any fhorier tim^, Charles 11. ccnte 
prorogued the parlianjieiii for twa dayj^ ' . . - . 

t He ca.i always rcalFcmble them by a prodamatioA wkh forty 
dayi notice. 

" 2. A 

/ - 


' Co 

t^th* C<m]iiiutidn 6f England. 263 ' 

-"^'ii -iii'pirliameht hiaf be diflolved by the di- 

-'*'* La-ftly, a paYtiament may be diffolved, or ex- 
** prrc'by length of time." " As our conftitution 
**"nx)wftands (fays Blackftbnein a fubfequent pafT- 
*< age) the parliament muft expire, or die a natural 
** death, at the end of every feveiith year; if not 
** fooner diffolved by the royal prerogative." 

it is neceffary however to obferve,' with refpedt 
t:o the iecond means of diflbliitiort, tiiat the deceafe 
of the king does not diflblve "the parliament, fud-^ 
cJcttly : for " it was enacted (fays Blackftone) by 
** the flatut-<j5 of 7: and S. W. III. c. 15. and 6. 
*^ Unvi. c. 7. thaf the parliament in ^ Heinjg (h^tH. . 
"Crotttimie fair fi]t months after the death of any . 
" king or queen, unlefs foojier prorogued or dif- 

**;jfolved bythefocCenor :' that, if the parliament 

'^'by, ar the time of the king's death, feparated by 
" OTJournment or prorogation, it fliall,' notwith- 
^^'ftandiilg, alTemble immediately : and that if no 
'^'-^rhament is then in being, the members of the 
** laft parliament fliall affemble, and be again a par- 

f hcfe ftatutes were very wifely macfe, to prevent . 
that "anarcliy into which a ftate mufl: neceflarily fall, ^ 
on findiiig itfelf all at once without either a legifla- 
liyp. pr executive power^ . - 

The king having, in virtue of His prerogative, ' 
dift>fv«di:he laft patliacnent before the'leven years 
w^e. expired, our modern politicians bewildered 

S 4 them- 

ilit$^. Qf^ih^^ilfiiMimdf Bi^atii}, 

*^^r diffuadihg him> lie forfeits }{*.rcidy'^ahd'isidil^'^ 
** ^bl^d to hold any-office;" • . : : .v : .- ^ - 

'■♦* If any money, gift, ofHcc, employment^ or re- 
*? Ward be given to any voter, at any time, in order 
*<^t:a influence him to giv« or withhold his vote, as 
^^'welL'he that takes as he that offers fuch bribe 
•' -forfeits £. 500, and is forever difabled from vo- 
*Vtit>gand holding any office in any corporation; 
'^ unlefs, before conviction, he will difcover fomc 
*^ other -offender of the fame kind, and then he is 
^^-indeinnificd for his own offence/' 

. -^U thcfc regulations, which have the force of 
law*| cannot prevcrtt feduftion or flop cabals, which 
z\p abufes inherent to popular eledions. There 
jnuft be in a nation a great fund of virtue, and a 
triily public fpirit, to make each eledor remain 
unftvaken in the midfl: of folicitations : and to di- « 


reft J>iii> to •fearch'^ among the inhabitants of his 
borobgh, or bis county, to find out the men truly 
capable of ferVjng the public, and likely to carry 
into the affemblics or tribunals none but good 
views and wife ideas; an4 who, to thefe excellent 
qiiiftUtias, (hould unite the art of leading back to a 
juft way of thinking, thofe who run wildly into - 
party extremes, or fuffer themfelves to be- hurried 
away by their paffions. 

The people are of themfelves too frequently in a 
ft^jUfe of habitH^l fluggiibnefs with refpedt to all the .^ 
great interelU of ^heir country, to think of difca- 


yeri^g.that, mpd^ft merits, which patiently wait!( v^p-* ^ 
til it is called forth to thofe ^ippointments whic^H^s ' 
formed to 6U iq.a diftinguiihed rx\;^vm^rn It cannot 
therefore be denied that, Jp England, as yfe)l^% 
^x^rrj where, eifc, intrigue, riches, and the dedre gf 
being confpicuQi})^ tpuft always have coQii4€pible ' 
influence in elecScions*. .Gopd Uws will not dpftfoy : 
corruption, they only reader it more circumfpc^Il ^ 
and adroit, 

Jn London women of r^nk, as well as the mo* ^ 
dern Afpafias, have been feen humbling themfblvtas ^ 
before mechanics; difperfing their gold to (eduq^ 
eledtors; and collcdting votes for th^ cv*4idatcj:,£ 
whom they patronized and honoured with theiy.. 
frieudfhip. .:;^;. 

Where is the law that can deprive womeqi-^£:^ 
their feducing power? They who have fo fifftt. 
quently fubdued the aufterity of the moft rigi4. 
magiftrat^s: who by a finglc glance have fp oftc^.- 
turned the ballance of juftice, how can they be ptj^TL ^ 
yeftte4 frotn triumphipg over the furlinefs of a citi* 
zet), or the fimplicity of a cpuatry clown ? Wo^, • 
men^^gowrned Athena; 5parja; Rome itfelf, Thty^ - 
give reprcientatiyes to the Engli(h houfe of com<^; 
mons; and they >vill name deputies to the natiqa^c ^ 
al aflembly gf France, In a word, while. womcR. :. 
are fuppofed to be excluded from any Ihar^.in tte 
govcrxunent of ftateS| it i§ tbfy wh9 govern. £hf|ii. : 
cycr3r;whc!rp. : • . .:..... ^ .;.. ■■ .■ . ■^ 7 

^ It 

%4i Of I be Cdtt/f-iiiifiM bf Eh^laHs^. 

• * 

It iiiay fee concluded that th* kitf^, aft^ hiving 
diffoitird the p^Hi'ament, would be nble tb riifc 
hihifelf to the fovereigtity; and that by no( con- 
voting a nevc^on^^ be wbtild remain without cbri- 
tradiftioni, and his tfiihifters without cenfors. Thfs 
tnight be effefted, if the impofts were perpetuajf; 
and if the army bad a permanent eftablifhment. 
But the conftiiution of Englahd, forefeeing tfiat 
the monarch would endeavour to free himfelf frotn 
tfie curb in which the parliament hold^ him, has, 
itifely directed (!nrigs in fuch a manner, that he 
cannot do witlK)ut it. 

■ Led away by falfe ideas of the aftribufes of regal 
power, the French for aC lohg time regarded the king 
€)f England as the illuftrious flave of his nation. Iiito 
tRhat an error had they fallen! He- Has all tihe 
|k)wer which a wife monarch can covet ! the power 
ofdoingniucih good, a'Ad the happy impoffibility of 
doling evit for any co^itfiderable time; If injufticfe is" 
forbidden hiitt, (hoiitdhe Coni^lain of tha^? If he 
is denied the poWef of oppri^fflrig his fubjefts," is 
that a caufe to make him" figh ? ' ' 

r will now refume the fubjed" of his preroga- 
tives, and obferve his exiftence as a king, * Wis? 
Ihali foon difcover whether he defetves that ' con- 
cern mixed with pity, which fonie of our flkvifli' 
courtiers appeared to feel for him. ' ' ' . 

^r"* The firftr prerogative of the king (fays M;^ de 

1 ' "^5 Ijolmey 

V I^UnO in his capacity gf fupreme isi^^rare, 
V:Ms for iw objeft tb^ adwiniftration <rfjufticci. ;> 

^^ H^ i$ the Cource of all judicial power in thb 
^* Q^t^; be 1$ the chief of all the tribunak^ -aod 
^ the judges are only his fubftitutes; every thing 
^^ is tranfaded in his name; the judgments njufib 
" be yfixh his feal, and are executed by his officers^ 
. «^ By a fidion of the law he i^ looked uponas tfad 

V univerfal proprietor of the kii?gdom; hetf^is; 
•* confequence, deemed diredly concerned in alk 
<f o^psnces: hencQ profecutions are to be c^rdi^' 
^' on in his name in the courts qf law* ;. > j 

^^ He can pardon offeace^i that is^ reoait.iiie 
^' punijQ^ment that has been awarded- in Mff/fon 
'f quenceof bi5 profecu^iocu .: : * *> 

*.* The fecoirf prerogative of th^ king> i& te^ bi>^ 
y^ t\y& fountain of honour^ that is,., the diftijbutor 06 
It t;itles. and dig^ties : he creates the Peers of the. 
^^ ceaka, and dJipofei^ of . th^ different o&ces^ ei**) 
V. ther in the. courts oC l^w or ejfewhere. ' ' > 
. ^^ The king is tbc^ fMperintendant of commerce ;» 
•* he has the prerogative of regulating weights and» 
•f n^^fijxes J he aloae can give currency to foreign 
^i coin. J 

f ^ He; is the fupreme head of the church,. In t\^\s^ 
•* capacity, hie appoints, the bifliops. and. the twc^ 
*^ arch-bifliops; and he alo^e can convene the af- 
•|. fex|xbly of the clergy. This affembly, is formed, 
•*ri(i jpngland, on the model uf the parliament : 


4^6 dftie €of^ttuiMlf ^h^tai^. 

'* rfit biftraps fi-om the upper houfoj (fcputics front 
^^ the dioccfes, and frorfi the feveral chapters, forra 
" the lower holifc: the affdnt, 6f the king' is 
*^likewife neceflary to the Validity of their a6ts, 
"^ or canons; and the king can pf drogue, or dif^ 
*' folve, the convocation;" 

* ^^ He is in right of his crofwn, the Generaliffimo 
** of all fea or land forces whatever ; he alone can 
** levy troops, equip fleets, build fortrefles, anrf 
'• fill all the pofts in them. ^^ 

^^ He is with regard to foreign natioias the re- 
** prcfentativc, and the depofitory, of all the 
** power and colledive majefty of the nation : he 
*^ fends and receives ambafladors; he contrafts al- 
*' liances; and has the prerogative of declaring 
^* war, and of making peace on whatever condf- 
** tions he thinks prcrper, 

^* In fine, what feemfe to carry fo rtia'ny powers' 
*• to the heighc'is its bting a fundamental ntaxhn, 
** that THE KING CAN bo NO WRONG?: which does 
'* not fignify, however, that the king has not the 
*' power of doing il!, or as it was pretended by 
" certain perfons iri more ancrent times, that every 
*' thing he did was lawful; but that he is above 
*^ the reach of all courts of law whatever, aird ' 
*^ that his perfon is facred and inviolable/' 

The civil lift infures him a revenue of above otic 
million fterling, exclufive of what he draws from 
his^ hereditary elccftorate, and fome right's which 


life, atuched t(^ the cco.>vn,>hidtfnake in ailt aa 
income of atypvA thirty miUioos j^f Mvrjes/or his dcM> 
mcftic expcnce$. c • i 

Such is the iituation of a monarch whom thif 
French have fo long commiferated as an unfortu* 
nace prince ! Thefe pretended politicians feemed 
to think that the ftate of one of their inferior 
princes was more auguft and more defijrable. . If 
they attach fo much importance to ext€frnal marks 
of fervitude, they ought not to liave forgot, that 
the king of England is fervcd by his officers on the 
kvitc : that the firft noblemen think themfelves ho- 
noured by holding offices in his houfeholdi. that 
when he goes to the houfe of peers, lie is placed 
under a canopy: that the twelve judges of the 
realm remain (landing until he permits them to &t 
down: that the officers of the crown form his fuit^ 
and add to the pomp of the royal prefence : that 
when he fends for the houfe of commons, to attend 
him in the houfe of peers, they place themfelves at 
a refpeftful diftance; and give the idea of people 
fubmiffivcly attending to receive ihe will of a mo- 
Mrch^ who could diifolve them by a fingle word. 

If we compare this pidure of majefty with that 
Qf a king whofe authority appeared unb6undedj • 
whofe generofity feemed to have no limits; who 
could raife to the height of honour^ and dignities 
thdfe fubjefts to whom he extended his favour ; . , 
bu^ who is at this day deprived of the privilege of 


•7» Ofibe Qm/HtaisM cfEn^lamL 

nominating one finglc officer amoog thofe wfao 
render juflice in fixs niune; of beftowing one fingk 
bilhoprick ; of dignifying one family with the tkle 
cf a peer, of a duke; and who can neither declare 
war nor make a treaty of alliance, we mud perceive 
that the king of England would not probably 
change conditions with the heir of Louis XIV. • 

I fhall now enter more deeply into the Englifli 
conftitution, and (hew with what admirable art it 
prevents thofe abufes which the nK>narcb might 
ocherwife make of his authority. 

* On a king's acceffion to the throne, and befoore 
any bill is pofled, the parliament examines all the 
tifurpations which have been made by his prede* 
ceflbr on the fovereignty. of the nation : and they 
demand the reformation of every thing which is 
contrary to public liberty. 

^< The king (fays M. de Lolme) is head of the 
*^ church, but he can neither alter the eflabliihed 

* As the paflage in M, de L^lme. from which this is evideatly 
extraAed^ gives a more exa£l account^ I iluU Aibjoin it. 

'' At the end of each reign> the civil lift, and confequently tliaC 
*' kind of independence which it procured, are at an end. TVf 
" fucceiTor finds a throne, a fceptre, and a crown ; bat he doei not 
'' find power, nof dignity ; and before a real po(reiiion of all theft 
<' is given him, the parliament have it in their power to take a 
''thorough review of the flate> as well as corre^ the feveral abufisa 
** that ma/ have crept in during the preceding reign ; and thus tb0 
'« conditutioh may be brought back to its firft principles. De LJm 
enthi Conjiitntion of England, p. 8l. , ■ * ' 


Of -the Conftitutkn of. England. 273. 

^^ religion, nor call individuals to an account for 
^^ their religious opinions. He cannot even pro- 
'^ fe(s the religion which the legiilature has parti- 
" cularly forbidden • 

'" The king is the firft magiftrate; but he can 
^' make no change in the .nuxims and forms con- 
" fecrated by law or cuftom. 

*' The king has the privilege of coining money; 
^' but he cannot alter the ftandard. 

'^ The king has the power of pardoning offenders 
^^ but he cannot exempt them from making a com^^ 
" penfation to the parties injured. It is even efta- 
" bli(hed'by law, that, in a cafe of murder, the wi- 
'' dow^ or next heir, (hall have a right to prolecute 
*• the murderer; and the king's pardon, whether it 
'* preceded the fentence paiTed m confequenre of 
'* fuch profecution, or whether it be graatcu after 
" it, cannot have any efSeft, 

" The king has the military power; bur rhe 
'^ king cannot raile them (the military forces) 
'^ without the confent of parliament. This army 
*^ is only eftablifhed for one year: at the end of 
'^ that term, it is, unlefs re-eftabliftied^. to be ij>fQ 
'^JaRo difbanded.'' 

** Befidcs, the funds for the payment of this do- 
'^ dy of troops, are to be raifed by taxes that never 
** are eftablifhed for more than one year: and it 
'* becomes likewife neceffary, at the end of tiiis 
** term, again to eftabli0i them." 

Vol. IL T '' U 

474 Of ih^.Confiimm . V £^^^ 

. ^^ If the public moMy has been cmptoyied in a 
^^ manner contrary to the ! declared intentioo : of 
^' thofe.wbo granted it,* an impeaChmecft may^be 
^^ brought. againft thofe who had the managemejiC 
'^ of k. If anyabi^e-of power is committed^. or 
^* in general any* thii^' done contrary to the pub- 
^* lie weal, they profec.ttte thofe who have been the 
1' inftrumentsv or the. advifeirj, of themeafure*/* . 

*' It is before the houfe of peers (continues MV 
*' de Lolnie)- that the law has direded the com- 
*^ mpns to carry .their accufation; that is before 
^^ the judges whofe dignity,, on the one han^^ c^n- 
** der&them.independont, aod wjio, on th&.€>tber, 
^^ have a great-hpnour to fupport in that aw/ul 
*/ funftion wherethey have all the nation for ipcc« 
^' tators of their conduA/' -> •»- > - > — 

If the conftitutioA gives ,a }great latit^e to the 
authority of the king^.it inclofe^ him with a^ circle 
of forms which hinders the :abufe he might others- 
wife make of that authority : they keep him ietn-*-^ 
tirely . alone, as it ^x^re, in the midft of .all his 
power, by rendering his agents refponfible for - 
their obedience to the intentions of the monarch. 

^ <' Itwa»on thefe principles (fay$ M. deLolme, in 
*< the above paiTage^ which note M. de la Croix has by fome JGful'^ . 
** lake mifplaced in the text, at the end of the next paragxapb^^ 
'' chactheoommons* in the beginning of thid centur^r^ imp«achK»^ 
*« .the Earl of Oxford, who had advifed the Treaty of P^^titiopy;. . 
*^ and the Lord Chancellor Somers, who had affixed the great ical^ 
" iQ it-? Set de holme on the Englijb Conjfitutkn, page 94. 


Of the ConftitnSiim 9f Enghnd. 475 

Wht>, koovrs whether Mr • Pitt, the miniftfcr who 
18 now fo bufy in die adminiftration, and endeav- 
ours CO throw-Europe into a (late of commotron, is 
not himfclf" terrified at the idea of being one day 
obliged to fly from England, if the million fterting, 
which he has received from the treafary ♦ , iind of 
which he has hitherto concealed the application, 
(hall not be found to have been implied ufefully for 
tie nation ? . . * 

" When the impeachment 1^ brbught to thdlords, 
*^ they (fays M. de Lolme) cofnttidiUy Order <he 
" perfon accufed to be imprifori<ed. On the day 
*^ appointed, the deputies of the houfe of commons, 
*^ Mrith the perfon impeachody make their appeal*- 
" ance: the impeachment isread in hisprefence; 
^* counfel are allowed him, as well as time, topre- 
** parts for his defence; and; at the jexpiratiori ^ of 
*> this term the trial goes on from day today> with 
'^ opaen 4oors, and every thing is communicated 
*^ in print to the public, 
''•^* But whatever advantage the law grants, to the 

peifon impeached for his juftification, it is fvotxk 


* Readers of all parties muft fmile at this proof of the inaccura- 
^sywIih'Vhkh even well-informed foreigners underf^and our exift- 
i^f' {toUdcs. This is a perfe^ly new ftatement of the h,€ivx i/Toe 
KaeWeeift the oppofite fides of the two houfes, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Kok, 
^istA Mr. Sheridan iir the Houfe ofComnion9, and Lord OrenviHe 
^fiid Lchfd Rkwdon in theHoofe of Lord»« on tht fttbjoft of oar fi- 
^^tnlees tn4 th« milUon fofplus. - - 

T 2 ' "the 

ij^ . Of the Conjliiufion of England.' 

*^ the intrinfic merits of his condu6k that he traril 
^^ draw his arguments and proofs. It would be :C^ 
*^ no fervice to hfitn, in order to juftify a criminal 
^* condudt, to alledge the commands of the fove-* 
^^ reign ; or, pleading guilty with refpefl: to the* 
^* meafurcs imputed to him, to produce the royal 
" pardon. It is againft the adminiftration itfel£ 
'^ that the impeachment is carried oil; it fhoulxf 
** therefore by no means interfere* The king can, 
^* neither ftop nor fufpend its cotrfe*, but,, is 
'* forced to behold, as an inadiTC fpeftator the dif-' 
^^ CO very of the fhare which he may himfelf have 
** had in the illegal proceedings of his fervants, 
"and to hear his own fentence in the condemna- 
*^ ti(m of his minifters." 

It refults from this conftitufional point, that thftr 
peerage being hereditary is fo far from being a 
vice in the conftitution that it is one of its moSt ■ 
cffential pillars : becaufe it raifes the judges above 
the refentment of the king ; fince he cannot de- 
prive either them or their ddcendants of their dig- 

* Ualefs by a prorogation or diflblution. It was much 99ii 
warmly agitated laft year> whether the diilblatioii of a parliament*, 
pending an impeachment, did or did not difcontinue all proceedinga* 
After great debates in the Hoafe of Commons, and a long, fall, an^ 
accurate fearch after precedents in the Houfe of Lords, die dodrine 
was fettled probably forever, in a manner agreea^e to reaibn, the. 
conditution, and the law and ufage pf parUas^nt ^^thai impeacb«> 
ments da not abate on a diiSrfntion. 

Cf the Cohftitutm of England. 277 

If the peerage were not hereditary, if peers were 
4nily nominated by the king, the houfc of lords 
would ibon be entirely filled with fuch members as 
ycre devoted t6 the intereft of the chief of the na-» 
lion : the popular power, and the royal authority 
would no longer have a counterpoife ; and the con- 
(titution would then prefent only two rival powers, 
the democracy in the houfe of commons, and the 
royal authority in the upper houfe. Were this the 
cafe, the government would be fometimes wholly 
democratical, and fometimes a tyranny * : the 
grcateft art has therefore been (hewn, in placing 
between thefe two powers, an ariltocratical autho- 
rity, which cannot encroach on the rights of either 
one or the other ; and which^ in order to maintain 
itfelf, reftrains both within their refpeftive limits. 

The houfe of lords is precious to the nation, be- 
caufe it affords a rampart for the proteftion of li« 
berty. Individual members of this houfe may be 
(^uced by honours or lucrative employments ; but 
thefe honours and employments cannot be diftribut- 
cd to all ; there muft confequently always be a great 
number who remain attached to the conftitution, 
fOUA -to whom a more certain door to the offices of 
adminiftration is opened by their 2:eal and affeftion 
for their country. 

• Where then (it may be afkcd) is the perfeftlon of the French 
"conftitution, in being, what they juftly call it, a Royal Democracy, 
without the interrentlon of any thing like an ariflocracy. 

Tz I have 

27S o/iMCv0iiiim.^'?^^ 

Englifli conilitunon ; vthq fot^iiatipn of th^- p^^v^^ 
ment:;..tbe privilegas.of tl^c i:.wp7laqufts;vilwid the- 
auxbority and acqiibmes of . die . nionafcbu . J £bMl, 
now .cpnfidcc. the rights of jndiyidual&rfr . 

*f Pfivate liberty J (fays, M. 4^ IjQl^Hti) according' 
*^ id the diyifioD.g^nthe, EpgUfti. l^iwyers^ confifts," 
* *. ^rijt of th e, 1 righ^ of prop^rjj^ th^t ^ i s, of the right: 
^^^f ftiyoyiftg explji\iweljth^ gifts pf fortune, and 
^^ all the various fruits of ones induftry, SecQnd* 
^ * Jiy , ojF the i;igj^t Sff ,P>^[fiftu»f ^curity. . Thirdly, of 
^ ^ xbe jl^qcp-pjouve fiaqu.lty, taking the; wordi. Ubfir- 
^'..t5^^ini^^noft,cpnfiIJiedfwfe, / • .; : ' 

r^f' £acl^ of , theft >rigl^ts, fay ag^in the Eogjitlh 
^* lawyei:s, is inherent in the perfonoficveryfiog* 
^^ }ilhma;n; th^yrare to him as an inheritance, and 
** he cannot be deprived of them, • but in virtue of 
*^ a fent^pce paffed according to the,la.wa of the 
^^ land. And indeed this i right .of inbcritancis^ is 
<* expreffed in Engli(h; by one word,,: jf-fr/V/i*r*f>i^// 
'^ the f^me as that which expreffe5:ihe>king*s title 
^/ to the crown/* ., . i: 

Xhe right of property is pbferved here in. all its 
extent,* *' The king (fays M^de Loloae) can take' 
^' from his fubje<5ts no part of what they poffefe : he 
^' muft wait till tfiey themfelves grant it ; to hiai 
** by their reprefentatives." 

I will now date what Blackftone fays oa this fub- 




Of lie €onJHmUn of England. 279 

jdft- : • but! #c muft *• remembtr it is a judge who 
h-%eaking; ' *^ To ^indicate thefc rights, when 
^^ aftually violated 6r attacked, the 'fubjefts of 
'^ England arc entitled, in the firft place, to the 
regular adminift ration, and free coiirfe of juftice 
ill the courts of law ; next, to the right of pe- 
'*^ dtioning the king and |>aflianatent for redreft of 
" grievances ; and laftljr, ' to the right of having 
'* and ufing arms for felf "prelet^tion and de- 
*^-"fcnccJ»^' •■.■■' '-■1'.'. '--■••■: 

^^ When a perfon is charged With ^ a crime (fays 
*^ M* dc Lolme) the magifttute,' who is called in 
*^ England 3, jujlice of the pe^ty iffues a warrant to 
*.^: apprdhend him: bilt tliis watrrant can be no 
^^:niore than an order for bringing the pacrty be- 
*'fore him; he muft then; bear him, and take down 
^f in writing his anfwers, together "with' the different 
*.< irfformanons. If it appears x)n this^ examination, 
*^ either that the crime laid- to the charge of the 
•^.perfon, who is btXHight before the juftice, was 
**hot i:ommictcdi or that there is no juft ground 
*^ to fufped him of it,. he muft be fet abfolutely at 
liberty: if the contrary refults from the exami- 
nation, the party accufed muft give bail for his 
*^ appearance, to anfwer to the charge; unlefs in^ 
** capital cafes; for then he muft, forfiifer cuftody, 
" be really committed to prifon, in order to take 
^^ his trial at the next feffion^." 

• Hdwas not a judee when he wrote this. 

T 4 Thefe 



2 So 'pf'tbe.Cimftittttion of Eh^Umd. 

* Thefe feffioos arc held once every three mionths 
in the counties; and once evenr'fix week^in Lkon*** 
don. At each* feffion the^iheriff, a magiftratc 
who has the ancient carl as the 
guardian of the king's peace, in fine the exe- 
cutive officer of thefupcrior courts of juftice, names ' 
what is called the graad affetnbly of jurors^, or the 
grand jury^ ^^ This afiembly (feys Mr. de Lolme) 
^^ muft be compofed of more than twelve men, and 
" lefs than twenty-four ; and is alwajrs formed out 
*^ of the moft cohfiderable perfons in the county. 
^^ Itsitmdiion is ;to^examine the evidence that has 
*^ been given, in fuppoiit of .every charge •f: if 
" twelve of thefe perfons do not concur in the opi- 
*^ nion that an accu(ation'*is weH- grounded,^ the 
*^ party is immediately difcharged ; if, on the con- 
*^ trary, the jiiry find the proofs fufficient, the pri- 
'^ foner is faid to be indifted, and is. detained in 
^^ order to go through the remaining proceedings. 

V On the day appointed for histrial^ the prifoner 

^^ is brought to the bar of the court, .where the 

** judge, after caufing the bill of indidtment to be 

^* read in his prefence, muft alk hirti hdsw he will 

' ^* be tried-: to which the prifoner anfwersy hy God 

*^ and my country i by which he is underftood to 

,'..■-.•■• ' 

* M. de la Croix has here palpably confounded our quarter fef- 
iions» and our aifizes. Perhaps the term of Sejfions at tin Old Bailey 
mifled'Iiim/'' * ' '" ' 
f But withottCreceiving any defence on the paifrof^he- prifoner. 

^^ claim 


<y the Conftimion tf Epgfani. g^i 

* ■ ■ - • 

*^ claim to be tried by a jury, and to have ifll tlie 
^* judicial means of^cfencc to which the law enti- 
^^ ties him. The (herifFthen appoints whtt is call- 
** cd the petty jury : this muft be compofed of 
*^ twelve men chofen out of the county where the 
^^ crime was committed, and each polTeffed of a 
*^ landed income of ten pounds by the year : their 
*^ declaration finally decides on the truth or falfc- 
*^ hood of the accufation/^ 

Before this declaration is regularly given, the 
law, willing to purify itfelf from thfe influence of any 
pafEon, gives to the accufcd party a right of objeft- 
ing againil what is called the pannel, which is 
the firft affcmbly from whence the twelve petty 
jurors are drawn : this objeftion takes place when 
the ftieriff is fuppofed to be intereftcd, or connedt- 
ed with the promoter of the profecution. 

This objeftion may be made, firft on account of 
difference of condition : that is, a plebeian may 
objeft to a lord, &c. fecondly, on account of an 
ill charafter, if the juror has been condemned by 
juftice. Thirdly, on account of the perfon being an 
alien, or not poffefling a fufficient property. And 
fourthly, if the juror is fuppofed to be conneded 
with the ^ccufer. 

The law being willing to fatisfy even the ima* 
gination of the unfortunate culprit, who is under 
its fword, grants to him a power of objefting to 
m^enty juroi^, without ai£gning any reafon : this is 


!iSe Cf the (kr^imtim if^Eng^ 

thf caufe wky xhe'pannel, wbicb b:a&it>were^;tlie 
rough draught of the petty jury, \% .cotn£)or9d of 
forty^eight members* .' v .; ./,. 

It was inipoffible to carry forecaiil:, and refpedt 
for the life. and honour of tlie accufed perfoa fur- 
ther than they have been carried in this infltance. 

** When at length the jury is. formed, (faysM* 
^* do Lc^me)> atod they have tafcen their oath, the 
. *^ indidmcnt is opened, andthe.profecutor pro- 
*^ duces the propfs;.of his accufation. But, unlike 
^* to the rules of iSthe civil law, the witnefTes deli-- 
^ ver their evidence ip tlie prcfence of the priibncr: 
•^ the latter may put queftions to them ; he. may aU 
•* fo* produce witaeffes in his bchalf> ajid have 
^^ them examined upon oath* . JLafUy, he is allow* 
•* ed to have counfel to aflift him, not oniy in the 
*^ difcuflion of any point of law which may be 

complicated with the faft, but alfo in die invcf- 

tigationof the fa(5t itfelf,-and who points out to 
*• him the queftions he qught to aik, or. even afks 
" them for him/* 

** When, either in cafesof high treafon, or of iofe- 
** rior crimes, the profecutor and the prifoncr have 
*^ clofed their evidence, and the witneffcs have an- 
** fwercd to the refpeftive queftions both of the 
^* bench, and of the jurors, oneof the judges makes 
*' a fpeech, in which he fums up the fads which have 
** been advanced on both fides. He points out to 
** the jury what more precifely conftituyjs the hinge 

^^ ot 




*<'dfcthe'^aeflion befopc thcm> ^dheigiyesthew 
^?' li^^iopinion, = both with regard- to ;ihp ^Jvidenqes. 
^^ which have been given, and to the poii:it of Jf^Wr 
^^ which is to . guide thcna in their dcciiion. This 
*^ done^ the jurors withdraw into an adjoining 
*^ room, where they muft remain: without i eating 
^^ and drinking, and without fire, till they have 
*^ agreed unanimoully among themfelves, utxjefs the- 
*♦ court give a permiffion to the contrary. Their 
*• declaration or yerdid (veredi£lum) muft, (unlefs 
they chufc to give a fpecial verdid) pronounce 
expr€if$ly, either that the prifoner is guilty, or 
^^ that he is not jguilty, of the £id laid to his charge* 
^^ L^ftly, the fundamental maxim of this mpde of 
^^'proceeding is, that th6 jury muft be unanimops/' 
"^ '^ If the vcrdift pronounces not guilty, xhcpri* 
** fonicr is fet at liberty, and cannot, on any pre- 
^^ rence, be tried again for the fame, offence. If 
*^ the verdi<9:, declares him guilty 3^ then^ and not till 
^/^iben^ chejiidge enters upon his fun<9:ioji as judge, 
^^ and pronounces the punifliraent which th^ law 
^* appoints. But even in this cafe, he is not to judge 
^^ according to his own difcretion only ; he muft 
^^'ftriftty adhere to the letter of the law ; no con- 
^f.ftrtiftive cxtenffon can be admitted : arid how* 
^' ever criminal a fadt might in itfelf be> it wQuld 
^♦-pafs.unpuniflied^ if it were found not to .bepofi^- 
^•* tivcly comprehended in fomc one of the cafes 
^ ^provided for by the lawv' 


^84 Of the Confiitution of England. 

In fine, the judge can neither change the placft 
or the form of the execution of judgment : and thd 
« fheriff who was to caufe a man undet fentence of 
death to be deprived of life in any other manner 
than that prefcribed by the law, would be guilty of 
muraer, and profecuted as a murderer *. 

If we compare thefe wife forms, circamfpeft attd 
humane in every inftance, to thofe which Wer6 
adopted in the French criminal jurifprudence^ and 
in which they fo long perfifted, in fpite of the ctn- 
fure of fo many philofophical writers, in fpite of 
the cries of innocence which has made itfelf heard 
in the midft of fulFerings, and which has been re- 
cognized, when its judges could only mix th*ir 
ufelefs tears with its bloody how humiliating muft it 
be to the French, to have remained fo long deaf to 
the voice of reafon, and infenfible to fuch an ex- 
ample of juftice ! . " 

After fo fhameful a perfeverance in barbarous 
cuftoms, there is all pofEble reafon to think, that 
their magiftrates, that their legiflators, would never 

^ M. de la Croix has not noticed one circomilaricc very ad^ 
vanugeous to perfoas oa trial. — WitneflTes may be compelled by 
fvibpcena to appear for, as well as againft them : and in cafe of non- 
appearance after being fo fummonod, the penalty was i oo pounds 
forfeited to the king : to which a ftatute of the 5 Elizabeth has 
added an additional fine of xo pounds to be paid to the. party ag- 
grkrved, and alfo damages equivalent to the lofs fuilained by tho 
want of his evidence. 


Of the Qonftitutim of Eftglnni. tS^ 

have adopted the form of juries in criminal caufes i 
aidd that they woidd always hare rejeded the public 
hearing of caufes, the communication of the proceed^ 
Uigs, and the aid of counfcl to perfons accufcd. Who 
can have indeed more right to be convinced of this 
truth than I; fince I faw fo much hatred accumulated 
on my head from the tribunals, becaufe I had fought 
to introduce fome falutary reforms into the legifla- 
tion of France ; to excite the feelings of the mo- 
naith by the horrible image of her dungeons and 
frightful prifons ; and to obtain the aid of counfel 
for perfons accufed *. 

This is therefore another of the benefits of 
the French cbnftituition : of that 0nftitution which 
increafes and 1 extends .itfelf amidfl: the. benedic- 
tions of ioxxity and the execrations of others : and 
which would be cherifhed by all, if men could at 
once detach themfelves from all thofe vain ideas 
on which they Tiave placed its good fortune, and 
its fuperiority ! 

But I will refpeft the wounds which are ftill bleed- 
ing. I will not infult fallen pride, by prejudg- 
ing thofe that are down. Truth is not lefs beau« 
ciful for appearing in the garb of nature : and cou- 
rage, equity, patriotifm, and public virtue will ever 

* What I Have faid on this fubje£l, fays M. de la Croix in a 
note, may be fe«ii in k Repertoire de J urif prudence and in the New 
EnejcUpedie, under the wo^ds pri/onr, publicite de P audience, queftiom'^ 

ijfc. '1 ......... 

. . • I have 

. i 

iSd 0/the Confiituiim'^ Sn^aH^i 

hare the fame chara6berifing^;nmnne]S : .they:rcy«reiadi 
their graces^ all their fiacccfs toi liiiaiiiclvesojthef . 
draw honours around them^*nGn^;frmn theitr ddceftn 
ovsj not from the bIa2uoners«o£arm3yvbUt:frbaA.t!Heir 
own deeds. Thofe who ta die. glory of a prog6« 
flitor's name, addi.the ^txj. of ^their owaiaSiAtti^ 
will always lutyb^ncient nobtihy^1lo <boaft : wiiUct 
thofe Avhofe only met^ft /d:onfifls in ajkioble deicent^ 
are like burnt out ^fims wbkii khraw fortlino oiore. 
light; but fori.whofcf'exJtinftion* ipifc are coa£bled. 
by feeing others kindle around to Ihine with greater 
brighrnefs. From the a(hes of fuch as were 
truly noble will fpring up a new race of nobility, 
while the reft will remain buried in oblivion. Let 
the defcendant of a Turenne gather laurels for hi& 
own brow, and every eye will behold ihofe of his 
anceftor intermixed and waving in the wreath. 

In this moment of the regeneration of France^ 
all the branches of that venerable tree, her ancient 
honour, will renew their bloffoms and receive 
frefli fap : had they been fufFered to remain as they 
were, the trunk would have been foon exhaufted ; 
while its ufelefs foliage, throwing a fatal (hade oyer 
the infant fruit, would have checked and prevented 
its growing to perfeftion. 

Let thofe therefore, who bear within them the 


germs of virtue and talents, by which they may ac- 
quire true nobility, confole themfelves for not 
tcing 'allowed to traufp^it their honours to their 


Of the Qoy^itiaintL^. England. 


pofterityi'^ ^>y the refledion, that thejr may'coraJ^ 
municate, hy tfadr example^ the means of acqtaiiv 
ingtfae lame diftinftions; ^ .> 

Thofe only will deem the iofs of titles irrepar* 
able^ who have no means of rertdering thcmfelvw: 
illnftrious but their gold : >)ch^j(^ will have the 
misfortune of being ^*la morB:;Tcfpe£led except, 
among the wealthy. Blitivhat ever may be the fate: 
of thofe unfortunate beings, irfe not for them that 
the tear of enlightened fcnftbilityiivill flbvr. '\ . : 

.^ *)r 

: : f' 

f'l -i ' ^ ■ '■ I . ■•; :; ;.J 

1 " 

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w. CH 

r v*^n:\':-» ^ 


% t 

Continuatiim of the Omfiilutioti 9f England. 
Of the civil Laws, the penal Code, and 


• ■ ■ 

^TVFTER having obferved in the conftitution of 

England the three effential parts of the fovereign- 
ty, W8 have examined in what the liberty of the in- 
dividual confifts, and we have feen that the citizen 
can difpofe of his fortune, his induftry, and his 
perfon : and that he cannot be arrcfted^ but under^ 
the authority of the law, 

I believe I have fully explained the progrefs of 
criminal proceffes, and defcribed the forms obferv- 
ed in them ; I have not however exhaufted the^ 
fubjeft : the famous law, known under the title of 
the Habeiis Corpus a£t, ftill remains to be confidered. 
This adt, which is regarded in England as a fccond 
Magna Chartay becaufe it leaves not, either to the 
king or to any individual, the means of attacking 
unjuftly, and with impunity, the liberty of the ci- 
tizen, was granted to the Englifli in the reign of 
Charles II. It derives its common appellation itovd 
the firft*^ords of the' writ enforced by this adt/ 

'- ^fch 

' I 

Of ibe CcSl/HtuHm rf Englandi 289 

MbUcli are, haheas corpus ad fubjiciendum ; but tht 
jpropcr title is. An aSfor the bettn fecw'ing the liberty 
y tbtfabjeB^ and for the prevention of impriftmmenti 
beywd the feds. 

* *^ The principal articles of this aft (fays M. dc' 
** Lolme) direft the different periods of time al- 
•* lowed for making a return to the writ, or brings* 
^^ ing a prifoner : thofe periods are proportioned 
'* to the diftance of the place of commitment ; and 
** the return cannot in ahy cafe exceed twenty 
** days. 

** That any officer, keeper, or tihder-keepef/ 
^^ negkfting to make a dbe return^ or to produce 
^* the prifoner at the time appointed, or not de-« 
{' Uvering to the prifoner^ or his agent, within fix 
K* hourr after demand, a copy of the warrant of 
*^ commitment, or Ihifting the cuftodyof the pri^ 

V foner from one to another, without fniKcient rea-^ 
^* fon or authority (fpecified in the ad) (hall for 
** the firft offence fdrfeic one hundred pounds ; and 
*^ for the fecond, two hundred, to the party grieved ^ 
^* and is made incapable to hold or execute his 
«' t)fficei 

■ 1 » 

** No perfojrt, once delivered by habeas corpus; 
*« (hall be recommitted for the fame offencCji . art 

V penalty of five hundred pounds. 

. ^^ Every perfon committed for trdafoh or felon t 
f^jQiaU, if he require it in the firft week of the next 
5* teho^ .or the fixft 4ay of the next firffions Qfoyer 

^^ in that term^ fefiions^ or goal-deliverjTy orIti6i 
^';admittccd'itoi.jbaili uti^tA tiiailciid^(wlt6^e» 
iicuinot be pox^dutrcdiat^^at dnke n atol.) j£)itl^> 
^.iqi^ktitf v-^^^^'^cttindiftKd and= aried i&thcifcotad 
ifiKt;flXiWiidlEicmi, doeiiaEalljboidsfolntrgcd itf faia^iitf^ 

M^f^ftUo^ irhe'AttllcdeBJt a/writ oHmbioi tvtpn^ oott 
1^ £gbt;4ifitfa0iiiyu*taitvaf |c<knniitin^ oronr^Mtil 
f^otha)DiAiefamC'ikr^&l£ed^ iksll forfeit ierenUifica 

f {!^&^^itthaibhrkatiiDyQHfi|^aiid i ^(excBptiipfrfbiM 
^' contmfttng, or convids p^a;f!ihg;tajbctinKiQiart^ 
^4{04) ^ftiiQi birfeisopitfinnibaeiSodUaiid^ IndtoBd, 
<^|erfty$iG«6t&fitf5 br ^^]^aim^ejaind.tliiKif<£as9 

<^ib»t2Cbe^i^ «sitti;gih»ng^:^14s ailnfei»^^kidan^ 

it 4fiimihaodc6ndianifinrfe Jui9dsddiipoi^99^^ 
ffif Moored ^^viMv «Kil^ iooftsipfiudl.bci .iuidtt^ 
ttcftpablcwVe»r\ac^officgi^ i^iSoed^ 

litincur the penalties of premunire (the being put 
"put fcff'diekiwgVprbiJBftioftVthc faifeicuB««if all 
**^t^!^'^«i^i|ietits, godds, and chattlcV^klid^iiri^ 
^tip§|j^&C ^^M . tU<s plealure) ahd .tta^BJ; 
f;^QWIl^Wo-J9^rflefWYingrtMe If^ 3b 

u^^JStiob lis tk0>^m ^.^^(li^»i lari^ii.yi0i(Bj9fl!lf»^ 

k > » » . 1 1 • 

4 V . r 

^4xcaijfil taf inn3)iric0matitmettt» iboifedilwai, jdd^ 

fMt fiibrio np Le&itbai^'lhtt vtolGt4icdukaVc<Httttiit]<^ 

tfic&Tjr {an4 turbulent i^fai; of thisiioutii^^ 
<§itojrec«re1ts.eflfedhi&^-^ .-^^.'/rioj-io e^n^ft^i^noD ** 

J^LriC OL^inaii, prefjaimiirgMiky ^fiipfi^isi^ed 
M^kvrimi : has ^ found onte^ter fof , ^|)iifiii|p xht 
eii<tiencragaiqft.iiialii>jul ( is 
iWJpolfiWp to cobdkiQQ faim ^iWy i^^ k% htf»^%\it 
ilpiihftidm what i^ called ^a^iiil tjf^^itaiud^i^itikit 

.^^^^}l of attiindcrare not brought only 9f ^^WH^^f •ilf 
Ai Wiyr> That was indeed the gcbttnd of tke biif or attainder 
tmflftlfgmft Sir Joliii ']fen#kk; fiiui wttiek'fciiit^^ii^lf^n 

4AiiMt^^Akf^m^diil^ikii LtgillatttleJttQOiidub an IttiHtldiuyi 
fjji^fealt^ivi will notjutempt to ftatt idl tht odicr groondt oa 

V 3k which 

is, a particular law is made on the occafion^ td 
affeft only hifn. The proceedings in regard to thi* 
bill, are the ikoic as in all other bilh ; it miift, like 
tfaein, pafs through both houfes of parliament^ after 
which the king mud give it the royal afient, with* 
out which judgment cannot be executed.^ The 
party accufed may caufe hi^ advocates to fpeafc;, 
againll the ^iU ; : and the lioufe cannot debate iA 
inlvs prefeiicfi.. . - 

But let us obfervp lyhaj: Montefquieu fays upon 
this .fubjed ; foi; no, refledions which I can offet 
wiU.have either Uxat majefty of genius^ thofe bean* 

* ■ •, ■ ■ . ■ 

which fach a Inll might proceed. This power 4s (he ddjpodftt 
of the Engiifh cotiflitdtioo ; btt like all defpotifm it ooglxt to &c 
JTubjeft to the eternal Iftws of eqmty and morality. Wi^at it 
I think 'fmr conllitution would be ls& peirfed ; but {t (houI4 ^ 
ufed feldom, and ro ip^n can or ought previoufly to define all ki 
Dbjefts and cafes of applicadjon. ; . = -, *- 

The great, founds cojiftitationtd check on this de(p0tifol ii^ 
that every bill of attainddr is necelTlrily a private bill; and 'there- 
fore, according to the fixed rules of parliament'; the jpreambV 
w'hich cbhtainsthe h&i cWged as the grounds (jf dia^jpiroceeding^k 
mud be proved by legal evidence at the ibari , •" • ' 

^ There is anpther check- A bill of attainder expires, if incom- 
plete, with the felTion. The king therefore can give an indi^ejfl 
relative to it. 

Bills of pains send penalties, of which Mn de la Croix has tikeil 
•nM^6tice,.are -Bfsdi»icafeaof high xnifdemeanori^ They ii% U^^ 
^amd in. tjiofe inferior crime s^ which bills of attainder are:in'«Qiiiiip 
^f deeper malignity. They inflid only fincs> .ixBpirifoiv]a(nU,,di^ 
*ftlpJiMtio.s and fucb other puni(hjnent3i . . . ., , .* 

(^ the CoHftimtlm ofBghUd. ^95 

rifulinia^cs, or that profound poIiticaV jadgrriGnt; 
i»^fiich charafterifc the author of the Spirit of Laiosl 
' ^* There arc (fays he) in the ftates where mofl: acr 
^' count Is riiadb of the liberty of the laws, inftahce^ 
^* " vc^herein th ey are violated witWefpeft to individual s 
•♦ ibr the general good. - Siich arc i*n Ehglar d the bills 
^^•^//j/i/^sferAvhfdicdrrefpond wit^ 
** edat Athens agaihft lorric'^inflividual, knd whidi 
^* could not pafs without having the fiiffra^fc* *^!.fi* 
^thotifind rit iieny/ Tlicy c6r^IJ)on3 wit K th e laws 

^ttiaflein Rome'againllp*^^^^^ Whicif 

f *'Vi6re callctl privileges y ^nd' cbnldC^aHly bfe' madt? 
^^ in the aflonblies of die people;, but 10 whatever 
f ^ inaiuicr thcy^.may be .prodjiiccgu^ . Cicerais for 
<;^^ their abo]itioh> becauifii ibe energyiof iaw omA 
^ fifts in it$ bemg eoa^ted ibr all.^ *)!' muft own^! 
■■ fe)#evcf, (confinties Mohtcftjuieu,) that • thtf 
*f praftice of the freed people <vho' ever exifted orf 
*t the tarth, induces me to believe, that thierc are 
$^r'€aie3 in wbi<:h wc mufl for.a.moment caft a vcih 
^f^ilnrcriihcrty, as wccSvcr tbefl:atiie.3 of the gods/*' 
I leave my readers tdjudge of the two opinions of 
Cicfero and Montefquieu ; and fhall only obferve that 
the opinion of the latter, would have its danger, if not 
ii^gcftcd tq all the legal. forms preJTcribed for fuch 
fwoceedings in England ; and might authorii^ thofe 
popular ^x^cutionswlifieh are fohorrrbJe. Whettdf 
j&e i ttiuUitude of <!ries had doomed to death, and 
jniperioufly pronounced tl^p fatalfentence on three 

U 3 of 

-s ' 

*9 V Of the ConJKMWi) 

df their late mihiftcrs in France, Vcnild^ It tidtlia^e 
bech aftoni(h{hg to hear one of thofe^wlitjfiiclftiSfeff 
lipoii thefe viAims crying out to the -rfifettM^* 
pcjWer : '^ Wfc havfe thfe authoKty of M&ritefijtiWY 
" the ciamplfe of Athens 6n bur fide; Warieliertr 
^'ibore than fik thoufahd dtlzens ; we judge that 
'^ thefe accvifed ptrf^ns a^inft <ehdni'thcr^ arfe irtf 
•*^ witnefles, no prccifc depofition«, are crit&ttAl 
'* and defei^irig of death. We arfe goin^ tiiy/i6^ 
''tatc the law. whrch requires c6injflainta,"'iilJf 
•* fontiatioh^, arid confronting of the acTOieu 'y itf t 
^* t*fe arccufcraid will annihilate fholir 'iWl^fitt 
•« a^ittft WGom thfe public Voice is i^ailgd;*' ^'^ ' ^'\^ 

Kbt bne^f ihefe fedkiods lcgiflaw*5 kte^ 
hipi the'name df M6ntiifquie\i/n^^^ Ids'U^^n^i 
bbr th|5 (dari^er 'Which 'frequently att*«diii?4tfflg 
cxeejitirftis to genfefil laWs, is ffill Wridetiiabl'fc^* Shtf 
Cicero deferWipraifeVor having had the cidftt^ 
to combat the particular pbwer which tfie'^LdHiia^^if 
attributed to themfelves bf fti^kibg/frdm'S!?^^ 
thoi-ity but their ftrigfe will, thdfe tvhottf *JOTfi(^ 
dared not touch, for want of legal proof by^xrtifdi 
to ' condemn thcnJt ' •- -.^rii 

I liiall endeavour, m niy eianiinatidnxiF'iiiite 
EJngKfli'conftitution, to keep up a ire^laf tfairfy 
a connexion, which I have been fur prized it iidt 
firtdrng in any "of thofe authors who haVt wHtttti 
te" the fbbjitiaV not even in the worjt 6f^r&i 
Lolme- which is'fojuflly efteetned; ' ^•*'*''^. ' 
.i:M-.-../ .- •■ ■ ■-»;-^ ■■"■■ :^ ;■. *•■ Civil 

, Civit libeity is not confined ay the e;Lifte;ice oC 
Quit 4^5 4 jsieaiber gi the public power : he^has i^ 
pnvftte .cXiitencc into the fphere of .which the layirs 
/oi, Btig)aod«actend him : it is therefore neceiSaify^ 
to know to what limits his private liberty extends. ' 
* Xhfc three grand relations . ia private life^ are 
tbofe of mafter and fervant^ of hufband and wife, 
Hul of parent and child. . . ^ -, 

1rh« Engliih law diftingui02.e&, t wo^ kinds of fei^ 
ffjUB ; thofe who ferine ip ttie^oufc of thpir ina& 
tipe^jand thofe who ierve, hiw.QUt jof his ,houfe, ^ , , 

:ti ther« esifts any contra^ between the mafltec 
AAd'thccfenwit^ the latter is obliged to remain« 
jj^jc^ of ttbc fonner during t)ie tfimx i^nped uppn : 
i^i^c ;90gyigtpient is not limited - the )^w fixes tht 
^l|[f«^tQ bea year. . This forcing of feryicude penauu 
^f Uw of police, which a.utborifes ^bf; jufticeaotf 
^ peace. to compel all bachelors from twelve ycarf 
9Jbd.t(».jftxty; all marrif^d men tiji thiftgr ; An^^ aU 
irpnwu.fiwi twelve years, if they arcdcftitu^c.pif 
i^hfi)9;<ace, to cntpr into fomc feryioide or nwWr 

jJBiftQry.. . , .-'.. .;i 

The mafterwho hires a fervant * cannot; difipiif 
him before the term of the engagement is ei^pir^ed^ 
ivkhQut having given three months warning jtf f\;ch 
fervent ; who, on his part, cannot, quit bi^,fef|ri<;e 
ijujring that term, unleis authorized by two jiiftices, fl^ 
the p«accj or with permiffipp from hie( ixmiler. TJh js 
regulation whicij at., jirft view fccnw contr^y ib 

.' ^) * TJ&k relates to fervtnts in huOmndry. 

U 4 liberty 

i9^ i^MlH'J^^^^M 

'y^ui^g Aan or w<mv^ wtkQfe parents caAQO); fi^^ 

^njjOii tli^{n>j¥itb tbc.mcjkns of fupport, oqgbtrt^^- 

^fj^mpelled to labour q^ a means of fa.vipg;:thcili.> 

&om vipe. Unfortunately, the watchfulnefe ir^rns^T 

rftiArfvte^ in this particular: is Jcendpred very difficuic 

\n great cities : how; m,uc]^ d^bauchery^ how manjF 

j(;rimes^ would- it not. prevent if in fuch plucs a^ 

, 2,(.9fidon and FarU^ there urere,4n. ex^&ji^ 

;nM4e sof.vaU ihe iBhabiunt3 in :the difterefit; di^j« 

jp<>2^4/Qr initidog f the jn»ca(i9 qf .fubfiftence to .e%f^ 

/fifiitiMm, : and Jfowing all .thx>fc wUq ye %Wc tc^ |;|- 

i>our, tft^f»t?r into, the fervice pf,3^ n»ftM, pr i^MlQ 

Ah»9 'W>rkrftiQp until; thcv^gc . of fi»ty, , a Jp^ia4 

ftCi.ii^bU^,thet;hoQ>itaU (howld rw^ive thpiejiiRhiB 

,4>^,not lud fufficicnt^rond^iind/Qre-thoiight^^toi 

;(fiv;€^ up,a fi^nd to fuppl)f xh^ cneanjs^^of fubfiftqnf^, : 

vc^ yberty dojes not, cpofift in the right of »4.oiflg 

g^od o^ f yil as 'vve pJrttfe,. 9^ of £»llQVWQg, ,as .^q 

piay be inclined,., the :pafhs pf.vice or of probwyji 

,% fuch. liberty would be injurioMS to every gqqd 

fociety : it confifts in the power of exen;Migp\n^ 

;in4P.^y by rail legal means for gaining a fubfifi:^ 

;.p{i^(Bj oif being abl^ to fatisfy by our money, ;^U€li«Jatic);cis which are not jnconfifteat with 

.-iliprfility/and. good manners; and, in fine, in being 

oi*b»k. W> do ^yery thing; which does not injure, in- 

^ifi^i^l'^^l&.inr'Pa^itkular, ^ fociety in general: 

..Thefe truths, hQweyel^ ttjte, cannot bctoa o^cri 

A fa. 

^^th)ift &iiA hegptrfy and ^ho'^voQld depend oh 
^i^^^[t)dttlerit 'bddrefs^ and' eh chtir imponwiStf, 
'ft^'^bcainihg Chat riilaim(>hbRe<d'«hkh tft'ef did fiae 
Tihtife^ cam by tjfeftil febdttr. '' ' ' '• ' 

^^ /The fecond kind of ferVantif in* England dre^p. 
^'^^ticesj engaged = for a- c«h«h'4iiiiiit9A-'bfj^ 
'by^a'^ntraft'^hich {H^f^iihiBi Tiftit^^tAth'-asSix 

iddtd^^ the %DvefH«i^'6f-th« ipd«)ri (Mitftl^initeft 
'^1*' sifith«»^!«6d by two JaftietJi ctf'theipwfee;! r i-f i 

'^^' Tie eif ^^tiknili* berflredA' 4ppt!entit«s-AI'A(»J|lftJir 

°^i&ft^i% 'ftiaiy-b^diflblv^ ftir!r^f6n»blei9Mlft<»,:«n 

^anV^rit^tkMi lnade> i^f ekk«r-|}9ii)r,-t«^th«4^t^ 

jaiRge>held i(V(A^tliee«ttic>iitH9^t&« ^att#t«rq[tffloiii) 

§iU-each'(:6ui%. ' All iippvemic^ tftay, dt^-iy ex- 

•'^]^ifittk)A'^ hi^ appmiuitt^t^y^ietetcittiik trade iq 

»'«rtfy-j)art"of Ett^arAi. ^ • Tlliyj hlWjt jfltended t<> ex- 

^eitei yotith to dp{>ly cftirly ' to> femeindaftrfoui pr6<- 

^•ftteeihihas been thought to ^ftabtifli an unjuft 

- ^^bn of; thofc -who, though they have not ^ 

^n^pf>fehtice(hip, might be able from th^h* naruml 

'i^ttnius tb feifercife a trade without theitogulati cobiile 

^;&f inftmdtion purfued under -maftersj and^here- 

fore; iccordingto Blackftone^ the eourtfir of juifl!ic9 

'■endeavour rathfcr to reftrain than to extend -ttiJtiMi| 

i^|b«*lftW« relative to appr«imccs, .''■-■' - -• I' 

\> I < 

U«r -which proteds the i»tsift«rr' ptotetEb aUb^thift 
fet^cfit- dftd thc(.«agf»pt6Btice;' /the tiotMaSt ^ich 
tid)iii4 th«Elv i8'trtoiIdeaif>-t']keiiMiftM>Qorfe6ks t^6ai 

'.'^h&, rk^ kittd''4f-:4iii(9«wtiMft«f )(tbi(»ur«rs/ > Whd 
puflt by. et)gftg^ihei^'<$ut <»f tte'houife «€ ^ thdto «»' 

^'tf^4«fcioft4^4>^%kbS^tieir'h(»iri4f lai^e^^ 

ftod'pecuniary puntflitnbnt ordained fof4h<<fit»«>*» 
il^^<iirid^ jbum^eii%Hid-pay <<N^r44v(a»yaw}recKsti 
Ae eftaW»h*drttc^*«iagik. ^ t -^ - -'^ ' - -^'' 
' ' All' theft i»t«iW*j-elaii^ **.fer<m«de, *i«o «^kkk 
i ttK^ughva^i^ dtitfrtoeifta:^ ihiy a|>f>«kr-ted»oua&^ 
bill tli«^ afe.<*foldtely-«iefeff«<t^ cdiw^mg^h 
idea'<0! the BngtiOi'i^rcs ; AHd pfo^ing- thkt tk» 
fe^ls^'iik'» #&{} -others hate hitherto ^thehif^* 
€ft^i«M^ iiixMi libei!t|Fj h^e ftill pl«ped Acurbon 
iAi^^<e(#i «fidi«F<!^ die mdigenc tOi labouiv Tius 
i^ j^'fti^jie^ Vii^lich in the prefenccriits <)jFafiitire^fili 
fi^'df mwih'(4oBrft<}«ience for the people rfvFrance 
^^^ftdef} thaHhey 'tiiay fotta a trae ideavof the 
^eiieAc^be«w«en •l|liMtidufor& ted ^lib0«r^^lM« 

b)ifl«efi;9 harxn^uiiM its part»i Md prqgiptt )^ 
gfipcrMgopdpfthcwIiQle- :; . . [w v/^J 

r : :5!:Buc whereS^ioe;, <fQme may fay^ ) arc ailtbcfcUwpi 
f<:ta fix the price oif labow ; to Uitoit thcj,bow» ^ 
f ^ workmgi toot>ligcaaiaD npt tQabaf^4i)A^i» wo^clf^ 
f^ftnd to preveiH^thft aug^3iei||:ado(i^C.hU w^i0e») 
'-^"Oi^lit notintereil tobe the^w^^bf jj^MFAfyia^ft 
•Sand the employer ? and if, ftiinaa.« difBqfedjjipt 
^.tP do:aoy thing, why (houlij}^:\>^,hrc^^t^^ 
5? ^himrclf ^ Will not his w^s compel hi^i ,|j>) ^^ 
f^lflbr ^Mfork ? Aad will not a aeo^ty jfpplii&^iificyicfj^ 
^Obfigcihc m^<;aU,fctr^Hin? Lc^e-thii^ 
</>ID iponim^ )a the maan^a? I9oj0b-a4fan^g^^s f^ 

do in pradice* In the fifft ]^4C^ ^ t^^WfiF:?^ ^?( 
always .a«^uatftted; with hif: U'Uff ^9t$i^». ?W)^ea 
^iay».t«y<H^, ^VJ. gain: pkm:^ by b^i^iog th4#r ]( 
^^=cwld-i>y CMtei¥atipg lii^ grqwpdi'* hp^iys w^U. 
yMi fionviiice him that :itwpi4d::iK for h|s advj^tn 
lagpio prefer ^he affiduitygf -labour t$^*h4?^,^j^ 
atml-wanderiflg life of a mendipqt ? If ygBife^fR 
fiwte employer the liberty of ,fedag ^^ ^m>^ 
labour and of reft, how can ,31011 ..tfdi tlff^jj^igiwitt 
oot take it bat^ A4vaiitag^ oi ^thf s^^f^^^/^f ^fj^ 
JDuriicymto, andexhauft him ja» W>wn9g>)^llj^ 

Wf flwngtb ? r: If yW;CflW^ nojtfixfc/ft^ftflf 

^ -'}•)• -J wages 


^^. ^tl^e^. of iJiom cemn f o the tg/^wSxehStui ^ibt^ 
^r^dj thfiy nuqr difkgrM mnd dcclaref^i»U£amtlgllt 
^^ yoid^ without any divorce or fcAtcaw ia^ndlj^ 

<^, ntwl court/'. . ,.;: ■ ■ii.ri'iouji'fi 

</^ Angtber incapacttj; arifisa frem wane of «M^tP 
^f of parents or guardians* < ; By a ftatute x)f Oisor^ 
<rtht^ II, «« gj. itis 'enaftfid^thatjaU ammijg;^ 
^f -Qf kbrated by licence (rfor haAns fiip{iofe aodtttjp^ 
'< where either of the pacticr is under turentyiiltv 
^^.(Aot being. a ividiMr. xirwidower, who uc'j&ip^ 
H.poM eniaiicipatjed)^ !itirbout the CGofent iof dfi> 
^^.MhfXp pr, if hfc bb not tiving^^oif theirioiherwx 
'f gufifdiaosy fliatt bft aM^rdy . void/' I v^c^Bti-y 
. . r^ Jklotwithfiandmgthe precifioA yef : Aklami^Al^ 
parliament. oS Parb ivfao nmft bave i»e& audoultu 
cdly ignorant of it, were fo far 1^ awafy l9y^fiilfi» 
fflpor(6 j^ to condiOmA Mifs^ .Hami}ton^:wfaor%ad 
been ran away with by a chaplain from her fatted 
hpMfd^ x» Mksowlec^i for kt^' • law&I faoi^iuxd a 
vilit: f aviflier who had betrayed her: y«i3thy vfail^ 
v^^P^ «ghtieen y4Dars of age.( Tbi* young womnV* 
wlKo.h^i^koowiedgedber hvik^ tock refogo^iift^ 
th^ arsns of her mother, with whom ihe weiKrtd^ 
£fj|nic%, to avoid the jiurfuit of thrcdpncf ) jqid^ 
ther^jinvokcid the lawa of bofpitaiitjp, uatil^^tfai^ 

• ftdri i 'Ae ttacUM in "wAAsk Mr. Beiislbtd iaf hiefe t^iHSiit 
liament of P^rw -^ tto(tf being lodaMir»]r by &^m^ ,, 

, ii I odious 

itMrti '- *'* 



<4iiiiibcmilftrcteklbc fardkcn bjr the la\ 
l|||d»iicXbfi!par&iittm>of Pans ftruek d 
th^lMiftQii a£ tbcMnotKer and>the dai 
audumzing the ravifher to feize upon h 
iMtcattociihia bwfisl wifb^ t»tit happil^r* 
J^^^r|k. Vccgcnoes eitteoded the vofalpffsttB^a 
tgtiijdcfc ftrangers ; the arret of : the purlinnaietar^s^ 
%l:aMexntfae council ; ahdttkecnarrtbg^tr^^aber*' 

mndtamittlled m Eiigtaful.t '^^' - '^'■' " '^ 

-cjNk) writceii promife, no^ewnxobabitiirioft, mi**^ 
4tti ^Gimrriage indid^m\Sm^iisA4^ tti(^ 
vmiikmipcxf^mkcd in a pariflt* churcfh or a ^iibli^* 
cliapdL The.«rchbifliQp>cif Caaiciiibttiy eaUi iki- 
4HBdLfBiiifi a diQ)tfiiaci9ii; for ()i0 piakro d?- i^ehsbra* 
tMHOcimc al^tnarriagea inuft be fifececkd'b^p^rlUt^ 

b.M«nagc !cah: be dfficA^ed*otily bf dk^^^^i 

^ !^1^CM«m/(la]i«'Blackaoib)*t^^ c^ dti^ 
^I»bfc^d» oae '^ iriHenlo ^Mkr^mnUyyikiiit'^Yitic^ 

%innfi:4)cforfcttM af^the ^aA<mi€a(t«a\^^ -lA^' 
^/^BsdiaiBVi before metttioft«i^)^ ^fltndtkoA eaEOtiAg^ 
^diefoninamage^ at is; $Xv^^ thie- cAffe4<i^4JtaAi!^ 

%>gWWW^JtK>t fijpwreniflotr «/«rt^*#Sfi^^ 
^-sfil^qDnmcf 4jMafei ^/ Vihraiarwkani^ahAriBiafiifekg«r 

• " Or' fy iicience^fi^' the fpinnuu jaagc,^ fays blackftoncr 

jp4 ^ tbeCtmfiitaHa*^ Uiif^bim^ 

*^ is tehder of difiblvmg it, biit for fotne fv^tii^^^ 
*' fiient caufe it becomes improper or impgffiblC 
^* for the panics to live together ; ^s in the cafi' 
*< of intolerable ill temper, or adultery^ in either • 
^^ of the parties. Howercr, divorces a vmaik 
'^ matrimonii for adultery, have of late years bee^ 
^^. frequently granted by ad of patliament.*' , 

lA cafes of divorce the law grants a yearly 
income to the woman, that (he may fupport hef 
rank after her feparation. 

The difference between the total divorce, and' 
that 'Which only feparates the parties is, that in the 
firft they may both form new matrimonial engagei^ 
ments, while the other only removes the hirfbaad 
and wife from the fame dwellings for whieh rcafeii 
it is called a men/a et tboro. i : 

Blackftone does not infonh us what is tho fate 
of the children of fuch marriages ; but ho fays/ 
that if the wife, baniihed from her hu(band'8«houfe, 
for adultery^ continues in a eourie of infidelity^ 
ihe loies her dowen But fhe is no longer aiviolv 
jedt of public concern, it is her unfortunate ohiK' 
ditn which merit all the attention of the legiiUtot'. 
Xhey :feem like beings fet. adrift on the:(ea of liftf 
in a frail bark, the planks of which, thov^i app2<«^ 
tentlyibound fait together, have by feparatiogaf 
«ncp, exppfed thefc i timid paflengcrs t^ bekrome' 
the prey of the waves^ aild befwallowed.upjQ^tlief^ 
4byfs. . . . . . ,v .,. . _ w" 

/ If 

r- S • *~^ 

Qflhg Caiifiimkn iff Engiaid. 305 

oh the part of the woman^ ii the caufe 
■bfAitOftee, as (he alone is culpable^ it is jiillto 
Itduce her to aa annuity^ and that the furpliis of 
li^ fprtune fliould belong to her children ; but if 
*lt is occafioned by intolerable ill temper, the fault 
JDlay be equal in the hufband and wife^ gf exift in 
the hufband only, why then ihould the wife loff 
bcr fortune ; wherefcH^e fhould the mother be fe- 
parated from her children; and why muft the 
fweetefl: duty of life devolve exclufively on o&e 
parent f 

In cafe of madnefs or diforder of mind, it is be- 
yond a doubt that the management of the fonunc 
Wnd the education of the children, (hould belong 
to that party which pofleiTcd their moral £iicalties^ 
but in other cafes it is not eafy to determine. 

I have dwelt on this fubjeA becaufe the French 
-are now confidering the means of introducing a law 
.for the admiffion of divorces. 

*« The hufband alfo, by the old law, might (fays 
^ Blackftone) give his wife moderate correAion. 
*• For, as he is to anfwcr for her mifbchaviour, 
*' the law thought it reafonable to intruft him with 
^ this power of reftraining her by domeltic cha* 
^* ftifement.'* 

This unfortunate power was undoubtedly derived 
from the Roman law^ which permitted chailife* 
tntoc to be inili£bed on the wife by the huiband^ 
vho, according to the author of the Perfiao Lec^ 

Voi.»II. X ters> 

tcrs, 'V began by alarming berv modeflyi *nd Ifii. 
^f her back in a manner to a flate of childhood ^^ 
^^JUgellis IS fufiibus waiter verAeratr. uxormJ* . Bwl. 
th^ dignity of marriage has been exalted in the 
eyes , of legiflators in proportion as time-.hai^ 
c}if(;ovef ed tp them the relpefibive rights of two 
beings equally yj-^^, who a.^*piOnited for their mu*: 
tujil benefit ;;; who, in forming the fweetcft and 
firil of all natural Xocieties^ could never intend thati 
one ihould become Lhe.ilave of the other, but th^t^ 
^tl> ^Quld eq.pally.^4cpend, on each other forJK^ 
mutual interchange of duties and afFeftion. 
"' From the diitiies of a married ftate, I flfiall pro-, 
ceed to thofe of parents. , « - 

Fathers and HYOchers are obliged by the lantn t>f 
England to 'maintain their children in a foitibfe?^ 
fnantfet ; dtidtHat Tuttablenefs is to be regulated Ijj^" 
the jufti'ces oif ' p^eace *. If parents abandon . tTieir^ 

. . I * V • I _ ^ • ' ■ ' * ■ LJ ft 

* This i§ not perFedly accurate. By the Hatute of 43d Eiisa- • 
beth« c* 2. the father, mother j grandfather^ and grandmother, of 
p§er impotint childrerty arc obliged to mamtaifl them at Jtheir4)w]|; 
charts, if of fulHcient abih'ty, according as the c[uarter ie&xm 
dudl aire^. And by. Ae Ilatute of the 5th George the.Ift. chun^h?, 
wardens and bVerfeers of the pariiK, are empowered to f^Usc^he 
rents, goods, and chattels, of any parent who (bail run away 9/dA 
leave his children ; and apply the produce towards the reliei^ rf^ 
iucli children. But Blackflone informs us diat, ** l^o perioaju 
*' bduha to provide a maintenance for his iffue, unlpfs wl^re & 
*^ cnildren kre impotent and unable to work, either , wpoeh isk,. 

Cftbi Conjlitutm if Rnglani. ^of 

dhiidreh and quit the kingdom, the churchwardens 
or ovcrfeers caufe their property to be feized and 
dUpofed of for the maintenance of their childffch. 

According to the cuftom of the city of London, 
a cuftom which formerly prevailed through Eng- 
land iti general, difinherited children . can daim 
their thirds of their father's property. - » • 

Intolerance, which never regards the laws of jof- 
titcor of nature, has in England placed its fetters 
on parental authority, refpeftihgthc edUcatidn'br 
children : there is a law by which any perfon wHo^ 


*' fkncyt difeafe, or accident ; and then is o;ity ohli^d to find tbem 
" in neccflkries, the penalty on refufal being only nventy Jhillingi 

-With refpcfk however to thr Roman Catholitf fubjef>« bfOteat 
BcluuD, the kgiflature has wifely guarded againf^ the tSzS^ of a 
father'fll, bigotry upon his olFspring ; for by a ftatate of the iith 
and ijth of William the lild: c. 4. it is cnadcd that if a popijb 
fmtemi Ihall refufe to allow a proper maintenance to his protcflant 
chiUt^^Uk a defign to make fuch child change his religion, the 
lord chancellor ihall» by order of court, condrain him to do what 
is jaU' ind reafonable. This ftatute does not extend to parents 
oP'any 'other religion. But by a flatute of the i Anne, c. 30. it 
if ordained that if Jewi/h parent f refufe to allow their protcflant 
thiUrin' a maintenance fuitable to the fortune of the parent, the 
lotd chancellor upon complaint may make fnch order therein 4s 
life fhall fee proper. 

'■'Any man marrying a widow (whether (he be a mother Or grand - 
lB6ther} who was before her fecond marriage charged with, ^nd 
pMeffing fufficient fubftance for, the fupport of a. child or childrenji 
renders himfelf fubjefl to this obligation, as well as to iW other 
defits'jebih'trsi&ed by the wife before her marriage : but if Ihe dies 
fo^H'ifhilidren have no further claim upon him. 

X z Ihall 

...■.■■•■ ■- ^ •V'O 
308 Of the Conjlitutitm of EnglanJl. 

ftiall fend his fon beyond fe4 to b« crduCiSftd iti*. 
Roman Catholic college, ffyall pay a fine of one ImtiA 
dred fmifids fterli'^gj tjOhich fine fball go to fbe inforfHeri 
' There IS artother law on the fame ftibjeftftiH 
morefevere, by which '* he ^hci ftiall be convift^d 
' *^ of this offence, is declared incapable of giving 
** evidcnc^e in any court of juftice ; of being cxe- 
^*'Ciit6f to any will ; of enjoying any legacy ; of 
" Holding any ofRce ; and all his property is to be 
•^ ^onftfcated/* Thus the Eftglifli, fofrde in thci^T 
perfons and the excfcife of their faculties/ hliV^ 
fHrttthatred'to the Catholic religion, rcftrswndd^the 
firft right of nature, that of a father, by not alte^i. 
ing him to bring up his children where hij pleafej 
atid in the religion which he deems the beft- - 
I have fl:iewn the extent of a father's authority 
over his children with refpeft to their* niarriaige : 
1 have (hewn that the law rifes abovd- jSktcriiat 
power in regard to the children of the IkSor^'^by 
axuhorizing the ovcrfeers to tak^ away thofc^wbo 
cannot find a certain fubfiftencc with their Jjiirent^, 
and place them out as apprentices in empldyitieU!^ 
ufeful to fociety. That melancholy fpe(9:acte doA 
not of courfe exift in England which is fo* frequeik 
in France, where an indigent father or mother 
areTeen followed by a train of infants who e::l:cil£k- 
compaffion by their rags and mifery. 

According to the Englifli laws, a baftard can- 
not be legitimated and rendered capable of inhe- 
riting, but by an ad: of parliament. 

I be. 

Of the Ccnjiitution of England. 3 09 

■ ■ ^ I 

I believe that I have now fufficiently (liewn the 
priMilfg^j^ of an EngIKh citizen^ .whetlier in his 
pwWic 01: private charader. Would I could dra>y: 
11 v^jioiver that frightful fcene of puniQiments 
l^iuch fully their criminal code; that code which 
the politicians of England pretend to be the moit 
hy^UiSLUt, the mod equitable, of any existing ip Eur 
rope. A Frenchman had^ it is true, no right to 
^d &ult with its barbarity '<^ while that pf his pwn 
fountry was (till more icruel ; hut in reforming the 
.tfitmim\ laws of France, her . legiilators Ihou^ld not 
fjm^ the EngUih fyftem for a mod^l. 
:>ijThe laws of England comprehend all capijal 
criflM^^iadeir'tb^ names olLMgb ttef^ftm^ petty 4'Uaf(m\ 
aad /a^, i^e firit rcoj^fifts in cipnfpiring .^gain^ 
the 'K«pg> taking mrnii^ againil (he pauop, or mal^- 
i«g/£aUfe money. 

.Xha^puaifimieat of this crin>e i^^ to be draw;i 
<M i^r •Ae^ge to the place of ejsequtLQn, fuipendcd 
^me. xime .'frooi a g^UoWs, taken 4owa while yet 
^$l)iyeyhave |>isf hei^rt torn oat .{U)d thrown in his 
^^€^,a{idhis bowel3,into thQ lire ; and to have his 
^94^xpofed to view'in.fpmeconfpi^uous AtuatiQi), 
^j^ propeFty confifcated^ his widow deprivejiof 
4Mr (dk>wer, and his children of their rank. . 

>Oi*'vTbe very Jiumanity of the Englifti law is.the. uecclftry caufe 
jpf-tbe coflfufion which Mr. 'la Croix obje^ds to., oijr cna.v:*al 
code. It will not allow the infliction of the inferior punilhniJiits 
to a vtolent and excefiive degree> or of death with.circumiiances 
dTaggravatioxu / •. 

■ :3iiLL. ■/. ^'.^ ' :• . ■ ■•..-. X 3 • •^<i'.iij:.-p'J V'cWdiat 

3 1 b . Of /fe th/imioH^ ff Engldni. 

What n 'e<!Vmi^lk:&tio!i of * barbarity and iojufticc 
« there in tiiis law! to fey nothing of the moil- 
ttroiis cruelty pradifed on the criminal, how ii>- 
hitman 'fe it to deprive the wife of her dower if {be 
\i libt tainted with her hufband^s crime ! Was not 
hetniisfbrtufte great enough in being united with 
i-traitoriT-that the. r^misiiiider of her days nxuftbc 
y tagged -oh- in pov«^ty ? Mafk the children of a 
criminal be hcceffartly the heits of hisviccisK May 
they not thi^ow k veil ov^r tiier^meaxbranceofithBir 
^arent^s guilt by thcirbwn virtues, and- iDecoticile 
their cduntry to* th* name they bear by TC&defiio^ 

^ti'illuftrloiis?- •- '- ■■. ,1 'u. ::; = d[ 

^ It is tO0^ abfutd to rank in 4he fame >cUds tof 
criminals, ihd't<^ condemn to the fame pmiifhmettly 
the regictd^' <«^hd4ifu his. hand againit the jfhidf 
of the nation ; the traitor who feeks to deftroyshis 
country by a- civil war; and the man whtticbins 
falfe money. This horridanconfiftency is^ hsvh- 
ever, removed, and he whoiixconvided afxnoiniicig 
•is now fec-f* hanged. .:-^V7 

The puniftiment of thofc^whoare privytoiaay 
confpiracy againfl the king or the ft:ate,.and tlovjuit 
reveal ir, is forfeiture of goods, and lofs of wconofe 
of landed property, and imprifonment, bothforiiiis. 

* The policy of this law has been very ably vindicated by the 
h.e TVir. Charles Yorke. 

t ^Ve know that in faft hanging is the real puniihment'Ar- 
high trcafon j the reft V)f the l^ntcnce, beheading, quatrteiing^'&c. 
bciag ney^r put in ^xecudon till the criminal is dead. 


- > Tfaifi hiMii^Js mQre equitabteMtb^u^i tJbi^rhy j^ch 
4hei unfortunate .deXhpu loft bis kfitd^ txut (UU 
^ffigbt not A proTifion to be made out of , the l^os^r 
:fifcated revenue, for furniihing the wife 4Q4:5f^ilf' 
dncn. witli'(ubfift©Ace.?:L Ought; iwt.the .rigpw of 
4he la>yto be iDolificd;towiir^ n wif^wJiio w<4S aqC 

iibfficiently patriotic for acaM&Pg lKirih4iban4.';; an^ 
lowards the fon wJbiOi Was u^^o^ ftioFt^uij;]^ x}^ f 

4iys of his father, unlcfscbepard^t^pf^^^^.pfffi^^^ obtained. as dae. reward/ of diff;ovf;r}r. .,..» 

.»/.^ petty treafon.i* Uttderftopd/^fthg, crirne-vp^.^ 
.tjbtt wko JcHls his father ^./of . aijyifei yhp. Hill^ |^fi: 
hufband ; of an eccleiiaftic who occafion$ fhc,f!f^^ 
lof luAbiikop; : or of a^ dpaiefti(/iwh<^ dellroys, [the 
.lifo.of'kis^ or. heci matter. Thefq.^e aU ,grpajt 
^Crimea, .but (there is. undoubtedly: a diSv^^c bff 

tnrcea itheai« ■; ^j ..: • i.-.i.-i =j ^^ i, .■,♦., 

r;n 3Chc.. puniflinient inflifted on t:rinain^is >of th*? 
€ia£i is ta be diaaxrjii ' on a hurdlci to tha gal^pwis 
.yihereAey aretofuffejr^.iw- ';; ;.; . ;. .. . ,, . .,, 

Wonien eonvifttd x)f any of thdfe' laft-mentione^ 
xrimcsy arc condemned iby the ; law to be burnt 

aOivc f ; but they arc fpared the horror of fuch^ a 
fcteyi^ being ftranglcd at thepoft before the flames 

I ' • 

• It is extraordinary that the law by which the fcjntcpcc of 

•.-:}• -^4 Murder, 

MOrfler, theft, and forgery, feg*nertil*«Cdirk 
jptfeTiended under the name Of y^/*«y^ and this is 
Another of thofe barbarous confirfioins which maiit 
i'bad pehd code* 

■ ^Thfe (chtehee pronounced Agdinft thefc crimes 
k to bt haiigtd, arid the punilhment of the tntrr-» 
flif er is only aggravated by' haftehiiig cxecutiori,' 
iiid ddivering the body of the criminal to the 
flifgedtls fcfr dtflftrftion. This is nfilkitig a Wtf 
flight difference between the villain who in tdtd 
hlood deprives his fdljOw creatiiffe of exiftenice, 
tM thcyiflidncftftiin who contents hiftifelf \/hli 
thieving; th6 litter offenders have, indttd; thij 
hoj[)es of being tratif]yoited, o» fent t6 hat\J Uboflf 
tft'hdm6? btt thfc lawlhovBd never ftattd in n«ftd 
6f bfeifig rtioddra^ed fey teen : to reform the k^s 
^nd then to execute them fliould be th^fir firfl 
few." ''■»•■■ 

• Mtfrdet, uilpitmeditfcted, :a!hd happening from 
a rencontre, is for the firfl time puriifhed only by 
burning in the llahd with i hbt irdh. 

Pilfering, and theft of lirtle importance, is ptk- 
ftiftiW by whipping, or hard labour, 

Th« authors of libels are condemned to flaiid 
in ^ the pillory; as are thofe convidtcd of ufing 


* This 18 Dot anecei&ry part of the fentence; and in truth has«Ot 

. of late y^«r» l^eif tdnally infli&d. Libels are a fpecics of miO^- 

meanors^ all of whidi.M'e jKnuilitiaccordiiig as-thecmufflibmces 

. '•: are 

f3^ti€:Cc^itmim ^Efiikfiik $1 s 

tude bet:wccn chefe two offences, that theyihcmkl 
bfe fubjed: to the fame puniibaient* 

Whoever ftrikes another in the palace of , the 
kiagy fo OS to draw bloody mvtfty according to the 
la^y lofe his ri^t hand; and .whoever comsniti 
1^ lame offence in Weftounfter-Hall^ While the 
courts of j\)ftice are fitting therei U condmnnod 
lii^ imprifiMunent for Ufe^ and .i^Qflfiicatioa oC pxof^ 

pmy* ' ; 

^ . To demonftrate completely tbe^ vice of thn cm 
punal <p4e< on which it has been fo. painful to mf 
foi dwells 1 4haU flnifii by mei^ianingthat^aocQidt 
tug 1^ e^e of its articles^ aU druakardsi wgRhnft^ 
#fri^ijdieest an4 idlers^ may beriet; ift the A»ak% 
or obliged to pay a fine of (enpeoce. Sbomld f&fh 
f^ixw be p^t ill, f^Droe, u^mhu airbiu^ry: cotnientia- 
tion would it expofe citizens ; and is tc not ^vt«- 
^ with boaoHrfta pucd^^grai^e upon a level with 
1^ fine of teft pe^nce* . > 

I deem k im}ifpi?tifit}le tp ?fpeak <»f « |)rmlc^ 
wMch to fine ^PP^ft^^ a gi^ deforniity io the 
Englifli l^giflatipn ; J me^i that which is called 
i;hc benefit 4tf der^. 

This privilege had its beginning m aii ems^oacb* 
' yient of the pope on the temporal power^ in be- 

ase oiore or Icfs aggravated^ cither hj fint^ impritemeai^ ^lup- 
fCl^> Or t>tllory, or alldf thefe,atthedifcrttkmof tlMOOSft^'aU 

iitiUtoltiai» ai»Bo< ibeigfiMBg ymlftia iSlii*-^ ' 


SH pfilktSi^RNifiH of Ei^dHi. 

lialf of the defgy } and k imports ihit Aejr HA^ 
Alk^aScs of felony, decline fccufar jorifdiftioti. 
Originally this privilege was to be derhainded be- 
fore' conviftion ; an irtquifition was then taken 
"whether the party was guilty 6r not ; if acquitted 
he was difchargcd ; but if found guilty, he wa& 
then delivered to his ordinary. ' The privilege fo 
reftmiried, was confirtned by various ftatutes frorii 
die 3d year of Edward I* But at common laW^ 
if the party had not dctnarided his clergy before 
conviiftion, he loft if. ' This however was altered 
^out the time of Henry VI. The party indidcfl 
'«E8s ta^nfwer to the felony, and if he "was found 
guilty^ tipon demanding his clergy after tronvifticM^, 
^aitp be allowed it by the judge ; ind thi^ courjfc 
jias - been ^ever fince obferved. » » . -*/ 

In order to enjoy this privilege, it was nefcelfirV 
to be diftinguifhed by (bme means as a ^etribet 
of the clergy ; and in the end it' was i^eiedVed xhik 
the culprit fhould prove his right to that title by 
Ihewing that he could read. In thefe times of ig- 
norance, whoever knew how to read and write wi^ 
called a clerk, and from thence, without being lA 
holy orders, he participated in the privileges of 
the clergy. 

. It appears from the books that laymen who couM 
radi have been^allowed the benefit of clergy from 
the 43d year' of Edward the Illd. but, in affer 
timer/'^hek theu& of printing had 'iuxeleiatra 


.j^us ^rft part o£. ftudy^^ all the ckizep» m^^ liKMPt 

Cound in. a fiiuation to^njpy the be^efk^of^-iit^lity^i; 

^ad ibdr.avoidinig an abufe whicb promifod iq;ipt»- 

4Uty to guilt, uwasrena(9:ed iathe rcigaof }A^tf 

^yU* that perjims mtinj^fyordixs^ Ihquld.'vijggit 

.Qtily once ; and fhould further be marked cr jbtcaiyl- 

^.wich a hot iron in, th&left band. This 4avfricifc 

^ diitinAioniniavour^^f tbo&ia holy orderly ^hiitii 

Vas aboliflied by .Henry yill^and .ii\ effc5(St;jr<>- 

jcftablilhed by Edward VJk .XhUyUft (WiKt»otw 

(dered that the peers. of the ncalni, thougj^/fhfy 

^ojald not read^ fhotild enjoy the be^efii; .of 

li^lergy once, without aay barnir>g in the hMd> >kits 

(^ i^herkanccji or corruption c^ blood ; iiK\d ; tbey 

^lire^^o taye this privilege in all cafes crf^ felonji^ 

where others were entitled to tbei^cler^^.^id: for 

,tlxfrv«imcs of burglary^ high w^y-robbegr^hoHe- 

Ite^J^^ ^^d facrilege j in whicb ca(e3 «li fither 

^jof^jas, were oiafted ottjieir clergy by the fitmftikwv 

^,^This ftatute inftead of doing Jbpnour to the bodf 

of peers, feems to difgrai;e thefn, fince it iuppofiA 

^)^ m^hers of that body capable of fUiniogvtbcir 

0«nc§ with the crime of' thefts . , . . v.'i^o 

•^. . Jame^.t^e L .e:xtendedthis indulgence tawonkcil 

conviftcd of ftealing property under the yMtjer. lof 

tenihillings, even when they could. 40^ jr$a44 . but 

)chey were to be branded in Uie, hw^^ ^^ toixr 

iijirdier puniihed < with imprifonnii^t^-whjlf^pingi 

l^^iflqg, .^nd iendi^^ (|)eJ;llQ^^^af,««^ro£tiao 

. . ,'. for 

p^' Vftbe Conftitution of England. 

for any fpacc hot more than a year, at difcretion 
cfthi judge. 

By the ftatutcs of William and Mary, male and^ 
lemale culprits where put on the fame footing, 
i^berever men had a right to claim the benefit 
cf clergy. 

After having imdcrgone various modifications^ 
the benefit of clergy is at laft thus eftablilhcd. * 
All )p^^n have a right to claim it once in all 
tafek i^vhere othenr may elaim it, and alfo in cafe^' 
<tf burglftty, higjlwayrbbbcry, horfe-ftealing, antf 
fafcritegej and they are to be immediately dil^ 
dmrgjcd, without fuffering any puniftiment. - 

All perfons in holy orders have a right to clalof 

k inepiaMfy in a31 cafes^ nrhere a lay-perfon (not 

being a jpeer) may cUdm it once ; and they htvt 

dMb a right to be immediately difcbargcd irithc^ 

fuffering any puniftiment. ^^ 

AH thoffe who make part of that eftatc which 

is called the Commons, enjoy this right omre iti all 

• <afes <^ felony, unlets where it is particularly taken 

away by Hatute ; but they are to be marked in th^ 

hand with a hot iron, which however by it laib 

ftatute may be altered, if the court think "fit, to i 

nicrtierate fine in all cafes, or to public or private 

whippitig, except in cafes of man-flaughtcr 2 *and 

"braDfiding is, I believe, now wholly difufed in con- 

4equ|tpj;e« ,They may be further imprifosuad for 

Aayftimcfno^iexceedixig a year^ jiad £m: ffuiiA ftuh 

--'--'■i''--'"^- ■ '"■ - . . . --;. . '. '■ '^^'-^ -^ticular 


(y ihi ConftUufim af htflanL {\^ 

■; ":• h: ■: ■ • ■■ •. ■. ' ■■ :■;.: 

ticukr offences under particular ftatutcs may be 
U^9afportcd for feren or fourt^n years. 

. .This benefit was not allowed by common law 
either in cafes of hightre^fon or facrilcge; and 
various flatutes have refufed it to thdfe who are 
guilty of petty treafon, murder^ larceny, thati^ a 
felonious fecret taking from the pcrfon ; a fbe^ing 
from a (hop, or dwelling houfe ; . ft?g!ing woollen 
Outiu&£tures from thq tenters; dealing the kiAg'Sr 
aaval ftores", and horfe-ftealing ;. of robbii^g in or 
near the highway, in a dwelling-houfe, booth, 
or tent, and indeed robbery in general ; of bur? 
glary, arfon, and fome other crinnes. 

. By the benefit of clergy the property of an of- 
fender is faved from confifcation to the king ; ot 
oaQjre correflJy he is reftored to his property, and 
alfo to his credit in law. 

^ .Firpn^^the. foregoing. explanation it will be un- 
^rftood why the dutchefs of Kingfton, accufed 
fi;d convifted of adultery and bigamy, efcaped 
the punUhment denounced by the law againft thofe 
Q^ence^, by claiming her privilege as the. wife of a 
peer of , the realm. * 

, .This privilege is one of the greatefl hlemifhes 
«1 the laws of England. What indeed can be more 

' '• Tht'iudidf "fuppofes too in t pafTage which I have taken the K- 
Utff t»-«l^nge^ that Lord George Gord^oaTiad pJrivIU^eof |>dcr- 
IJg<^.^4cr 1 Edw. VI. cap. 12 ; and was therefore only imprifoned 
for one year for the riots of 1780. Lord George Gordon is no 


abfbrd'^ than that the tmfortiin^t^ cdtpiric- \^iio 

'. *«* 7 

kiioi^s not how to read; and Who is fbr that fieafoli ' 
nioM ^^xcofeablc for* hi? ignorance of the lavif^ 
0i0uld belmttg for theft, whHe he whofe ediicatiok - 
render - him ^ m6rc'x:riminal has liis life faved f , 
But* thiis is noti ns-I harc ftiewii; the only ihdon-^ " 
fiftencf tdbefburtdin tlie'EngliAiegiflatioii; ■ "^ 

I-fliall ho\r proceed tor ex^ine the liberty of: 
thcptefrj' which is one- of th6 principal points of ' 
the^Ertglifii eoii^itMon':-^^^ *' •-- '^i 

The-Rberty' of .the prefs is feciared by this ;— ^ ' 
court* -dfjuftice hare nb power to take cognii&aiici^^ 
of any thing which has been printed, unlefs' ^^ .1^d» 
beeii alfo ptiblUhed'; nor to -punifh an adthot* blic 
after fee has been found gmlty bjT a j^rif' ''''•' "'^'^ 

■V % ■- 

• • ** 

peer> and but a plain efqoire ia contesiplatipfi Of ;^e jki(^« : . 5%^ 
acauiual of his lordihip was fo notprious^ au4 thp ^hoAOus gainedv^ 
on tbe occadbn by his very Ijearned ai^d eloquent adyocatc (9 
mudi the fiibje^k of convtrfetion at^the^tiinei tliaVIt *is. truly tar-' 

t This cenfure is no longer founded in truth ; as the ilatute of 
5 Ann. cap. 6. puts thofe who cannot read> and thofe who can, oil 
the fame footing. In fa^ the ,benefit,of.clcrgy ^ now i»ecoixss^- 
tle more, than ^ name fervin^ to diftinguiihihedaircf of leloftkN^I^) 
thofe which are not» from thofe which are^ fubjeft tio 'tapkal pii-*" ^ 
nifhmenjt byjaw,. , > *. ' j : . 

** The benefit of clergy (fays Mr. JuiUce BlackAotie, in hfo^? 
" argument on the cafe. of Pf?jrrins and Blake) took* its origin ffom 
" principles of popcsry > bu^ is there a maa-breathkg;i«h« Woidd'^ • 
'' thcrefoifCL cow. w,fti to aboliih il?" Hargta^s lHw^r^O^^ 


J.' •--.•••<»'•« * • '. f ^ * ■* 


• V 

ftil( whonae ^er tM«jf ple^^P ; . tb«> fame:,|AWjt'>vbklii 
proteft the pei;fijng,aa4 pfopwEy of; (;Uisew,:-pnwi 
ted alfo their bpnQ^r.:,.^ii^^awd9esfip[)evea.:Jtt'i.: 
loij; a, writer, acs:ufed.,qf ^yfi^g.pu|^Uhcd ^Jibc^^ 
tks rig^ .of prpyAn§^t}ic„^|i;jKhK^ *^*if4(»d*i 
v»ijced, to.te.truci, .tief^i^fe tiif.^ili-of jp^j^fiieiit 
njjjft.^wajp.qont^p the iy,ot44.,^,fflf<<«<ft^*ii 
fo that if the acciifed perf9p,b9:,decj«rqdj;3Wethei 
Ter4i<3; ^f ^^e jyjy^ ^'l^y.^f.^ri^^ '^ mt^ipfis H^U 
hg^p^jr J)e copderan^d.ip fj^^yy-^ivj,,* ifwjhjSi 

lAhrJ^^^fPP. Off aperfon lu^mtsL-ti.AnneJtywP,; 
notwithftaodiflg thi$ libcttywh\i;^.iibdipvfd (9^. 
cxtenfive, burnt by the hand of the hangman, and 
tb«lautb^ nude id ftwsd Jh the pillory and ictlbVJfon- ^ 
«&""Df:'Sh'ebbeare Waj alfo fct'in the pillo^^apaJ ■ 

people oC^^giwi:.Buc-,wher«.J tte libentSr-of' : 

"loaiL'iU: .^' .--. ■■■-.-.i.-' ■ ■!■-.•■■ . ■ ■ ■ "■ ■ the 

no ,i!t,'o.i'- •!'■■■■ '"'■" '■■■■I'-' ■' ■■ -: 

ri0nttii«l>ipfdii2,iaiprUbiMm^'tMltlM^piIlDi7. Ilid aiittibr ^ 

ta»^«fj«>«i •' .;.': .1.' -!-..; 

f Ido sotfenow who it here meant; but tber^fcre'bJb££di 
CWMS^pf-pnfcna lb puniSieii for Hbeb. '' ^'^ 

,'{cA Mining that th* k\iAoT ftouU liare Idd' thi^ a<i0b^ 
intfiNtk, IwCW'i^M'Wr aftcrtlieal* whidl ke Ua j.^ be^ H^ ' 
ihwt4^cf:,JQlw .^hcb^tait. The ((Miaticft tttifelf SuiiudlftbJj^' 
AUmm. Ml>t hare hclpad bim to a f ropei- qaaUficauon and diT* 

die prr& is without bounds is when dnK ' liboitf 
is employed againft government. It is a princitd^ 
gf nemlly acknowledged in England $ and which 
was ftrongly laid dowft to the jury in a cdebrated 
caufe, that ^< although fpeaking ill of individualsr 
'^ may be blameable, the public ad:% of government* 
^* ought to be fubthitted to public e»Mninatioo'i( 
*' and that a man renders a ferviie to his fellow 
** citizens who freely (peaks his opinion on fucfit- 
M fubjefts/' ■ b 

It was in eonfequence of thefe principles thatj^ 
fome years ago, when the attorney-general peoS6^ 
cuted the author and printer of a libel againft tte 
king, the juryinftead of confining themfetvet^iO^ 
fvy^uittyj added (f printing and paifi/bing ikfy^ ind 
as there is no law which ordains any punifliaaew 
a^nft him who prints and pnbHJhei anfy, the judgtf 
could not infiid any upon die criminal. Had the 
jury pronounced the fingle word gtd/tyf the judge 
could have condemned the perfon to the puniflu 

tin£doii. Perhapt the grette^ ftrido made in the doQriiie of 
libels, is a late cafe, in which a man was piuiiflied for pqMifhiyy 
hjji fpeculations on the probable deHi nation of oor amuunent do- 
ring the late difpute with Spain. It muft however be obferreJC 
Aat Judgment there went by default; confcquentlf Aercwat A 
qaeftion before the Court on the doMne; the »f/M^«, Aat iltHl 
tUlouf intiHtioK being, in fuch cafes* ttAem t9 he mttmbttd^^f^T^ 
profecution it is generally underflood, was inftitotod on^tbt riypj^ 
iSmtatloa ^thf J?xcoch |ovenHticni angler ;he new ConjlHtiirtayc 

J. .:. •• ■ /^meiK 

iliattiiriaiaed f<ir tht authors and priocen a§ 

I'Slfee Englifh fiappofe themfelves to take pact ifi^ 
thvitdminifkration, and to influence the decifionai of 
their teprtfematives^ by; means of the muhiiudt of ^ 
mmrB^papiers which ate profufely ciicuiatedanidHig 
tjMBiy and which ccmmunkate^ the debates Andr. 
opinions of both houf^s of pariiacnent*, , Ferhapt 
tlliS'idca may not ba ill founded):, for who can 
doubt of the French legiflators harkig boeiv 
influence by thefe little publications^ diiperiksd 
MWfig the people with •& m&^ to : prepare theic 
attda £ir receiving the decrees ifTue^l frboi^tlH^le^ 
gMktiTe body ? 

iil^he habi( Off ieeing thi& liberty of the pre&.exi 
QM4iBd::evca to licentioufnefs, has rendered tho. 
£Qgii(b . mLnifters moreinTenfible even than thoCc 
ofiFtanoe taxke (haft3'of calurnqy, and it may be 
tixily faid of them j :that . ^^^f^^^ i^^^ 7»^ tbem in* 

5 I. ■ 

It is much to be wilhed, that the authors of the 
French periodical publications may not abufe this 
Kbfefty^of the prefs, with which their conftitutiofi 
is now enriched : the confequence of fuch abufc 
woiuld bc^ that, in a little time, thofe truths which 
i» might be of the greateft importance to make 
poblic^ n^ottld loie their effed, and pafs unnoticed 
MHftDf ate^titudeof falfehoods. > -' 

WkiatlUk^e atrtady faid might- b« ftfflteiwf for 
-^r«*VoL. IL Y enabling 

j2% C^tbt^CpHfiifuiioii ^,Mfis^n4f 

enabling tny readers to^ judge of thee>ECfHeQ^» 
a^nd imperfections- of the Englifti conftituaqa^.^, 
propofe however to examine thofe points whschyx 
now that we have an idea of a more perfe(3:'gpv6r«4| 
menC) , appear to deferye repreheniion. Batbe^foir^i 
I, proceed to that exa^iinatton^ I muft beg leave t^ 
nemark,. that the; prQGc;fs of: bringing in a bill, ao^l 
cfirirrying it, through. the:. Englifti pariiamentin tb^ 
manner I have, d^fcicLbed in the preceding chapu^,^ 
isprefen^ble totbe.mode obferved in the Fcifi^clij 
l^iilatiire for. pj[9^ucjng -a. decree; and Ic^pf^b 
fQfbf ar pWcFvii^g, at, the,; fame time, thiat .if-Wlft^ 
the greateft. importance for a legiilative aiTemliibrf^ 
tp< guard againft tha^o fird.glow of ehtl;g(>af{|:^ t^X 
q^i^vk impuJfive zeal for the public good,., wjy^ 
fometimes hurries mqn beyond the pbjed .vhejf.-RnjUf* 

pofed to accomp Ih. . .j.p^ 

.It is for this reafon that! wiQx to have efta|?l[ift^tii 
ed, in the French legiilative body, ^ reguljati^gi 
power, which might for a moment fufpend.dr^orq€;Sp^ 
and bring them again under the cooler: inyeftigfiT^ 
tion of the authority by which, they were^rqat^^jjEi 
ax>d I would have no refolution acquire the tK^ 
aod force, of a decree, until it had undergone t^i^t 
reyifipjn. If this mode had been foUowed> np; f^i 
gentance^ f>o regret, would have mixt ;witjh jjwju 
works ..of wifdom and patriotifin* For in^affCfe 
if, after the reprefentatives of the people .jtwitabftTrt 
^}^ the. ecdefiatligal t;enth^ .apd^^u^ ft»j» ^pe 


ctemiWttyc bf ^cVifibtiliati At the end of eight diiy# 
i«^rte!a th<f' rtfdtuiirorf, ihd* explained at thd lat«« 
tiftVthiit It i^oSW He a ivife'meafif^e to «dtice thiS^ 
t*ifth'to a-tweiitieiR-'(he4P,- W'Ai4k(f the contribuf-i"^ 
^n' uniform thrc\lghdtlt-Hie1cJ^fTgddih ; knd], after' 
illbje<fting the produce' tb tfee- ^2^'f>^^e '6f' ctilti^fai"^ 
tteri, to convert ic into-a nktibHa^I!•e^feMye5 Ithfi^fefi' 
fcHibly JjeHiaps, iipon bef hg^K^A^?lted%'' thti <f«to-'" 
rtfttre^, if it perfifted irt it!^ r'en3lu1^}6rf, #6ltfd'hUV«i 
fM'ehrtA to the nation an iribbm*^ of dl>Wfy^tSf' 
iMIIidhs of livres, which Wa^ lG«l^»Tn-^«fc fi]rt%te^^ 

^^Wj tHieh fche decfee v^is made'by*\i^htcfe ^dhfiOri^^ 
dffeVen hundred 'wer<i g;m\iced^lto/rdig4o;trf* 
dsfendtcknts, a refoluciononly haid bfeeft^pafifed, tlhV 
committee of revifion might haVe ckpl^in'cd'to tlf6' 
ifc^ature, thai men always condefrtined'td rhfe^r^t-t 
tiite^ofthc greatell frugality, whd' had no'Tubfift^' 
erfcJd'bttt the gifts which charity bellowed, and- 
i^Rd^ffcttdered no fervice tb the nation, might wafte-^ 
awk;^-ffieir days in their afyltims' upon the fame fti-i- 
pA^di iriiowed to the zealous defenders of the lia*^ 
tteii' ^' upon this reprefentation, fuch a decifet^ 
iti?ght-havfe been made as would have left thyj'de^^ 
pbtiesofthe people lefs embarraflcd to fitid'a'mddeV 
ol^'^k^atibti, which would correfpond with the abi- 
Hfy^«r*Ae comribiitbrs; ^' 

s^lt l#iHy I 44?ubt' not, be Objetfted to' my pbrt/ 
"^ . Y i that 

V::.:/.-. ■ C^H-A P.- XXV. ■ "^-•"^'•^" ^ 

to ■: • v.- •::.-'- • . ■-. . . ■ .^ ■:'.:»:? 

. Cf^^tinuation oftH ConJIiiution ofEnghrndf. . , .^v 

Of t^e Courts of Justice ; anx> of thb M« 
LiTicAL Situation of Englanp witi? ks^ 

■•■■■■' rt ' ■ 


VV E have fccn the forms of criminal pcocecdingj 

in England : we will jiow take a view of its court% 
of'juftice, and of the biufinefs peculiar to, each 

The firft, after the Houfe of Lords, \% the ceuft 
of Common Pleas ^ which formerly made part ^ of 
the Kuiv^s *'onrt'^j and followed his perfbn':' 
but one of the articles of the great charter im^ 
ports that i^ Ihall be ftaiionary ; and it is now 
6?ced at Wellminller* .This court is compofcdcff 
a lord chief juftice of the common pleas, and thrds 
other judges. All caufes ' between individuals arij' 

•■•■<-'' . " ■ ■ * 

• This court fit conftantly in the king's hall, and was co|i^o/e4. 
of the kiiig's grca^ oiHcers of ilate^ who refidcd in U^e palace. It 
is CAlJed by Br«i^loa and other ancient wjriters, the Aida R£gi€u j|^ 
removed vvkh clic i:ing« as the imperia] chamber did with thC'CJSH 


0/tbe C^fi^itt^iok of England.' ^ij 

^•d here * by orl^^inal jurifdidion, and a wrir f 
error lies from hence -^ to tiic Cout of Ki.ig's 

. The next is X' f^ Courrof/E^peper, v/h\ch takes ' 
cognizance of all matters relative to the revenue of 
the ftaixf,' 'V- ■- • ^ ^■■—'/- - • V ->^'''-''- ;"-v.' 

The third is the Court of Kind's Bench^ ^ 

' — iThejurildidtioh of this (iourt v^laysTBtactlibnc) 
^*^ ft Very § high arid tranfcepdant. It' Keeps all 
*^ inferior jurifdidions' within" the 'feburuis 6t tfiHr 
*^ authority, and may either remove their pro^efck^ ^ 
Ifjings to be determiricdiicrqi trfpnriiibit their Jirt- 

. ♦ The French text fays, in thefirft injlance^ which dpes not ap- 
pij^ fexclativery to this court, as the other courts alfo eht6rtain ci- 
vH cauff^s in the firit inftance: but the Court of , Com moti Pl^ 
\z9.miW^ JHrifdiSum in theim ; the'mher courts \i2M Xiju^ifiiiciion 
ft^n^^ ^n /i?/6«. The court of I$Lii)g's 6ench«^ on tho^£6tio|| 
of the defendant, being in cu^ody of the, marlhal, and.thp cQurt^ 
or Exchequer, on the fiftion that the plaintiiF is ^he king'* 

■ 1 

"•'''tpThe original fays iy appeal; tiut in appeal in civil law (atii 
fl8e«$^.isjchi^y civil Uw) removes all the: pi^oc^edings conW 
f^tfli a^it of error only^^ record, and i^ ^« truth an appeal^ot . 
^ jthc whole merits, but only on the law of the cafe^ as it appears 
on the face of the record. 

X The cour^ of j^xchequer has ^n equity ii4e a& well as a common 

- - § ThcHile of the King's Bench purports itto be holdcn inpri* 

find i^the^ king ^tm/elf. The writs of this courtage mtoie r^tttrnablt*' 

cfi^^m^t (before ^s) ; the \yrit^ of the court of Commoji Piea» 

arc returnable coram jufliciariis nnjlris (before our jullices). •< 

l'oa2^, Y 4 grefi 

if... tioiu m the king4oai. Itcomnfuhdr itoagidiaitt 
f^V.aad othere to do what their duty requirei^f im - 
?^'cvcry cafe where there i^ no odier fpeciftc remt-if 
*? dy^ . It prote6ks^tha liberty of the fobjefti Wjf 
t^Xpcedy and fuuamary interpofition. It takei 
^^ cpgSLiz^aice of both criminal and civil caufesw ^ r. < 
.,,V ^c^vflvcin , this |S^ high jand honourable aouit 
^' is not th^,id^/>j^<f/it/ of »the fubjeft: fof if h© 
l^J^ tu)tj f^ififi^ , wtib .any de^^^ here, he 

H.^^Y Vj^spoy:^ ic.^^Mfm of error' into the. houfe 0f 
^* lofds or the court of Exchequer chamber.** 
/•riThc prifon of the King's Bench is more like a 
i4?ft>lfe h6te! thian the fojourn of captivity* ; eye-' 
fy thijig Is found united tKere which qan beggil<;, 
ihe wearipiefa of prifoners; fuch a$ biUjards> co£b 
fee houfes*^. and aflcmbly-rooms : and a concourftr 
of people are continually fteft going 'in* attd^out 
ttitft. Any man, who has been arrefted at the, 
fuit of another, may, if h? chufes, be ^rerpQve^ tp 
^hi^pjrifpp; but aa,the(acpanamodation^und theiT^ 
i^"npt' gjratvotoufly offered, but to be paid-ftMl'Tat: i*i^ 

■jrri ..■'' '.-"'^ .■■■■■ ' " ■■•■ '■'' '■-'■''-■" 

,; * Tk^ prifoa kfelf and the roles are here confeuuied. ■ Tte> 
l2lt(0r ^cai^QOt be <xbcaihed but by giving fccurity to die Ml ambtiai^ 
pf th^debt; 'aa4ti(h^y have of late been greatly contraded. 'Tllef^ 
IJ^t^f^-eaofff coi^lied (oa narrow circle : and all hfiRifts efea* 
|^ain|ipen^,rwii^reyer fttuated> are confidered as oik of tke>n||bi^ 
; a^dconff (juemly Ibrbidden to priTojoters exijoyiog the^beftc&t of dRT 
[ rules. .. \' .-. ■■: y- ■:'' :''•*; 


iC-.i.-ini: very 

detoft^j«^(ihfpiend'th^^ irfidme tHeffe, iAttckSoU 
ateqimting-wicli it theirertgageittbnte. This txiiyije 
Ac mart wdly eflfeftedy as itr is a mdixim ih ' tHc 
l&aglith iaV,^ that i§tb per/bn' anJ pfcipihy canndt he 
Jtiiid. *rhu5 a debcdf *^ Wh!6 h« his fbrtinie'itt W$ 
pocket-book, or he'whcfe' r^gmife ^hitertRitom 
die funds, may brave hi<3:<5ffediiorii'i!id11ve In tlic 
midftofeafeand pl«fuftitt\(hiViryfoM^ ' '^ -^ '" 
]'*Each of thefe three fcdUtts ^^4« cbMti«f<Jff '^af ^fiuf 
jbdgcs, and the one wHich'pyetde^ m feSdi is'Hit^ 

J -.■..■■ 

^ *. It is hanhupts ia the criginal. ^{Bujt- ^ "fyas not true ofi &<>& 
whom our Jaws call hankrnftu All cj^al^rf ^ pr^rfoo^ i^bo 4l\ ao¥ 
manner live by buying and felling (and the. conilru£UoH has,^e^|^ 
made pretty e:ttenfive) are compelled^ under levere penalties* ia« 
^e^no Ic^tHati death Itfelfi toihake a (At diicfofiii^e o^ theil- 
eftfia(, which ire aligned to preper truftieies, Uy^ the benefit ofaiB 
yi(^ prov^ their debu apoa ^^m. , . . . ■ .' 

As M. 4e If Crpix has, beep, in general x^zy fcv^re upoa^>tf 
lawsagainft really infolvent 4ebtor^>J ^^if)H ^t.indirpeniit>le» topoiii^ 
QQt tb' faim in this place^ diie inflance ai^ohg many which might 1^ 
]M34Nxd, to proVe how tarefd! itr ItfglAatttre has been to afibrd 
dU poffifate rdief to perfons of that defcription* By a IhIU cilldl 
the Lords A^, paiTed in the 32 George II. it was enadled, that any 
detSlbr« confined for debts within the fum of ont hundred poutub^ 
flKuild* upon giving up to his creditors all his effe^b, except btd^ 
dicagi wearing apparel> and implements of ioduftry bdoiigitig itf 
him or his £unily» within the value often pounds, obtaiin hir ^1 
largrmcnt. And by a ftatute made in the 26 George III. fii 
finie iadttlgence was egoended to all 4cblors i<»ilined for d^ijiii 
Within two bundnd pounds. '--' ! 

\r^y tinguifli 

^guiih^ gyihe titl|; of iord> adde^ tofMrUb mttds» 
of bis office and his tribunal* The magiftrac^ 66 
Bi^iand- i? ihiis cbntined to twelve judges, yftio. 
ar^ <iblig5d to divide for' making the circuit of thf^ 
ItiBgdoth twice every year, at lent and niid-fi^iimeFj^ 
ih order to hold the affizids, where they try aod^ » 
4^ieVTOine both civil aud criminal caufc«. 
^ "There is a fotirth court, called the ^Qjurt of E»i 
ihtquer GhmbeTy where all the twelve judg^es fitu 
arid finally judge caufes broughi. before thcfip. by 
writ of error from oth^r courts*, The lyord higl^ 
Gl/ahcellor fometidies ; affifts in this fuprem^o^ 

- ''f here are fevwalot^ier courts in England ; fucH 
2s the Admiralty courts where all affairs relative' 
tq the marine are determined; ^and the ^ courq 

*"*-Th^}^'^o not finally judge caufes thus brought t>efore themi 
From their detetmi'ri'atfert ti)«r^ iliil Uti;^ m the dermrrtfirt^ a wri^ 
of eri^rtb thehoufe oFlords. i ••.• . V ^ 

'/f The Archbifhop of Canterbury has other courts ; tht cmrt^i 
Pebttffah and the couviofArchtSy which w a cot^bf'apijeal from:th% 
cor^%)ri<?s of the Several diocefesl if^vcry bx&opltfh alfo hiact»i(u(i 
a^dihany'^TCWekcons, and corporate bodies, fuch aa deai»s:$#t 
ch6i['tef9.'.; Inhere is, befides, the court of Delegates^ to whith ^ 
ap;peai iii the h&. refort lies from the court of Arches, «ad from 
t^' cftart ef-Admirahy in its ordinary jurifdidlioa of^s clvj| 
.-Tiid ibftritimT. . The cpuft of Admirahy,, ha^ t^q 
otlicf j|i!ifdxfHon§r; onecrmi/fal over pirates and xevolters: ^.ff^ 
and another in matters-'of /iriVy. ~ from the latter an app^^li^ ^ 
VAZ Iprds cf appeal in priaie caufes, who confift of the privy coun- 


0£iiu Arch>.bi£b(>p>jof:Cah|erbttcyr:CallfKltijf;QQqi3l 

^ ^j^r(%g5iye,, Sphere aU:W»H^ ^^ pr«v§dr;r. -.- to. 
or/rhjs:v^.pffeku0 draws an uomenfc revana^f^feflj 
arajaaa^riwciitig^ branch <jf , the feijdal : fyftegi^^ . *^ ig^ , 
9auarw2>^ to hKiaib^r^.jprpperxy .with5iu|>^^^^ 
ifaiffion! in writingfrom. this rfkrcbr; bifl^qp^ wjio^f^npi 
indeed refufe thac. :p^fm}^Jl wii^QUjC !<^g?J, ,9iuf?$ 
buj he is nevertheldft jpaid fpf wh^t hg ijs o^jyijed 
^o grant. It is by the ^rfil^- biftpp tb^t ^^qvkip^ 
i(f^ are appointed : but thef«f0^c§s^(^ri^ ^>Pt)?R"k^t 
1^ in France, where the .pofl^iJbrs value their (ejr^ 
tices in proportion to the price. they have pai4,f4>9 
their appointments; and are by degrees 1^1/^3 
burfed by the public, th€ pr<)d.ifti9qs (ym^ wljich 
diey have had the imprudcflcc tp px|>ef^ji i#^:thg 
purchafe. .., . ^, ,. ..^:;; .; ; ^^ 


cil, with the addition of the judges fitting under a fpecial commlf- 
£ttft: and we may add, that the privy council is in itfelf acotirt 
4iliappea^ from «u r cokmie.' and oratlying' domipijQfif • ' , : . . ,? 

f This is by no means corred. Tht a«*cbbi<hop's pf i:p'u9><)!% ^h 
t^tiMce^ry r ' ad. of his courts ^oderl^i^ fea!^ js ^^q legal 


frldettce of th^fathesr's' int&ftacy, to (hew the Ton's tide to dexnand 
tfii^^ebui and c^er perfcmalft of his father in the. hands ofoxHa^vj^ 
tllfts'hsfo'iio ^ohnedion whatever with the feudal ff^tm, {mtis^ 
Wetilt(ifY dynfeqaoncr of die teftamentary law of the kingdom h^-^ 
iSgi^difllhicttd tq the adminiHration of theiecdeflailifal QO«r|^A 
i4qtha6^thearcH-bi(hop> or any other prelate* in nrhofe cAUfi tfat. 
fittliiftafcy^ is to be proved, a fingh pilling for it. Th^ifrO^cer^ 
iM^e^ have xertain nioderate fees, cHabli&ed hf- afti <Df;parIi4« 
^jftV'aiidiu i^:^ cafife exceeding 4 fe\^fhHrmgTi. ; \. [ / 

Jio ' The 

33*. Of iht (^nj^ituticn of :E^ngJMf. 

«*..*.■ .< ■ V . ^. v. 

The courts of Affizp are formed upon t, tomMir* 
C6n'frd^ the kihgrln thfeffe courts We'^Kfi«MV% 
t((t dfeclai»ations olT juries, themattefWf «& ffi<'^ 
^^^ifaares depending in the cbilrts at WfeftiiilMl^^l^ 
=-tk thfe ifccouiit bf th'i-Mj^ltlh courti of ijuftfitfti 
il^ififbVeVafcleHhe'fiM'jddifcki^ |)lart • -w^hicfr #^ 

\j[iich'Mi'b>ieh-^rfeferfai'kp|ieafs'fb Trte dcfenrhi]^ 

^In^if kJtigdditf ft'feit^n'fivfe asfVart'ce Anibulatorf 
j?fifeeii'taaia'li^(tf ^ifetl Af-iHi caiifons, and dl th^ 

B^M duAigtHdr-ttfereiifce Hi^ ifliihovtobfe c^tftttf 
' -s^odl'd be deflituttf 1 of thei?' ^ptdpef ; ftmgS^rtijJs^'i*^ 

and they ought to bie ^t'ill times readf for bufii^ 
liefs, that tlie lav<r ftmf nevet ' be ' ff6Vitt¥flt, bfut %y 

its conftant i^x^^fX!s:^,cm^Am^:iSM^^^^ Jf^^H^* 
- It would be fup«Bfluoui^:foriu^\to fpcaJ&^'of l^^ 
court of the Earl Matrfhal^ *wH€gte«eVcfjr tbiii^ lidlai^ 
tive to coats of krthkana gc totS'|feV'iS ilfefe^ 
fiiice fuch an eftabljffimeht wQufd^ 
wholly ufelefs tp the French; hxititmx^yf^^^^jc^^, 
bliflied in that nation^ which (hould jud^ <Qf j^o^ 
citic virtues, and regulate all honorary and pecu* 
hiafy rewards, it might cOnfiiie tli* ienthtifiifirt; the 
P^arnaluy,. of the pjumcipalities, ,to_more- fteaay 
principles of juftice. i^c-,., .oi* 

tv , The 

.^,a:ite:wi?;pt. pf X^ by ^ ;.p*r;icjulftf ;f%?^ 

the^afl&iijra.of'that duchy^ A^d ia fine, t^Qi.lf>|^ 
higki chiuicellQr. of E^giiicudy^^^Q: is one. of (^e 
{;u:mcip&l Qificprs o( thn i:xQv^f ,:u;xd.isv^ ' 

coniidercd as the firflL rnipiftcr of flia^tf, though fh^ . 
pcc-rcminence .is ^ttril?fit?dL Jj9^ t^ic^rft Ja^d of ^ th^u 
treafury, liolds what is^,^filf^.^.f«p^ 
was iaftituted to protect the fubjoftV,gLg^i/|ij|^ 
^ breeches oixxsfS^ w^^9j4'4e^.^ ijigpfjot 
of j the law*. Tlie, i^9w^^ <?[f ; pi^c^^^g^^r^^ji^^^ 
t^ fapie; IB t^sas in pt^^er.f9^^ts^,j(>9j^ 
d^cjfj^es thejCuiu5 fp;(:e. jT|if Pti^tfif vfha jpcfufeji t^^ 

..^<>j^e tod tJtiefh ^p^oiptin^ 

unjuft the role, which ptit 
'^than^the ^ir : y«^ a cotu-t of equity had oo powefr'taimtaqfdrtl^ 

r, i-; The lord^-lictttciwttLts of counties, or farther th^, fA^4!^<?J r?/ft; 
/bt^ (W^ich the fame noble perfons generally a^re) claini ^ fort 
dFng&t^fcconimendidg ;lo the chanceUor^ fii tli^ cai^ofjuitlcei 

I . " » '. ■ \ -» ■ -» ' 

of the peace* >i -w^ ^ ^ 

" of 

336 Cftbi C^nfiimioH §f EngiMi;^ 

fines which culprits aure fentenced to payi and dii^*. 
pofes of them according to the orders given hiqi »; 
he holds a court of juftice ; and has the firft rank . 
in the county, preceding ail nobles^ while ho i», 
afting in the difcharge of his duty. 

The juftices of the peace, eilabliihed in the coun-*. 
ties, are in fome refpedts in the nature of deputies 
to the high (heriSs. Thefe magifbrates carry into 
execution the greater part of the parliamentary 
laws relative to the highways; to the poor; to 
vagabonds; and to rifings of the people. They. 
interrogate, and commit proviiionally to priio^ 
thofe who difturb tlie public peace, until the grand '• 
jury has determined whether there is fufficieot 
grounds for trial at the affizes. 

Befides the ftieriff and juftices, there are in every . 
county two officers fpecially charged with ejtamiii-}. 
in% the true caufe of all deaths, where there is an)i 
fufpicion of violence. (Thefe are called canmers^ 
and are affifted by a jury.) 

* In every manor the lord of the place, who . 
l^as formerly called baron^ has a court for regifter*' 


• Blackftone, in fpeaking of the court -laron, fays, 
** The court- iaron is a court incident to every manor in the 
" kingdom, to be holden by the fleward within the faid manor. 
'< This coart-baron Is of two natures ; the one is a cuflomarjr 
*' court, of which we formerly fpolce, appertaining entirely to the 
<' copyholders, in which thsir eilates are transferred by furrender 
'^ and admittance^ and other matters tranfaifled - relative to their 

Ofikt CmJliMM if BiighU^ if^j 

•ug^ finftt and refignations. The kxuziediatc officea . 
.«f ifdlofi in citictt, towns, ^ad villaiges, are called, 
tmftables : thefe are fuborjinate to the juflices oi 
jxfacr in die fereral counties, and xo the mayor^ 
aldermen, town reeve, or other magtftrates of evcrjr 
citjr and town, who art alfo juftices of peace widi- 
ia their bounds ; but they have nevenhelefs a powd- 
er of confining diforderly ptrfons^ until they dan 


*' tepore9 only. The other of whdcfi we n0iv fpeak« is a coari.of 
'* conimon la^y, and it is the court of the barort«, by which name 
^ die freeholders were foihetimes anciently called : for that it is 
** held before the freeholdeirs^ who owe fait and fervicetothe ma- 
^ Mr»^ ftcfwtrd being rather the regifUr thala the }ttdg«i' Thefe 
** 4m^ipp i^ongb IB tkeir nature diiHnft, mro frequently cooAn^n^ed 
*' tc|gether. The conrt we are now coniideringy ?iz. thei frtehold* 
^' ers court, was conipofed of the lord's tenants^ who were the 

if-' * |i ' ' 1 ' \ . 

^ fares of eich other, and were bound 6y their feudal tenure to 

* ^ift itkif lor4 in the difpenfatidri df domeftic juftice. This was 

^ f ttt muffy lidd tvery three <^eeks ; tnd its mok impdftant bufr- 

^ s)dt j» Hi detofymnci by writ of jright, all. bontroverfiej relating 

** to right of ktnds within the manor. , It may alfo hold pl^ of 

^' any j^erfonal aclions, of debt, trefpafs on the cafe, or the like; 

•.*' where the debt or damages do not amount to foVty (hillings. 

** Wliicl^ if the fame fum, 6v three marks, that bounded the jarlf- 

^4UtioK of the ancient Gothic courts in their lowed in (lance, or 

** /krding'courtt, fo called^ becaufe four were infticuted in eve^ 

^'iuperior diftri^l or hundred. But the proceedings on a writ of 

** right may be rcihoved into the county court by a precept from 

^* tbe (hcriff, called a /«//. And the proceedings in all otEei'ac- 

^ tions may be removed into the fuperior courts by the king's 

*' Writs oifofte or acadas ad curiam^ according to the nature of 

*' tie fuit." Slac^oni*i Comment, b. iii. p. 34. 

be carried before the proper magiftratc fb^ cm^.. 
mination. Such is the chain of the civil autlientTj. 
apd of the police. i * 

i (hall now c:camine Engknd with refpeft to hqf. 
political importance. This^ beyond doubt, is con* 
fiderably diminifhed by the revolution in the United 
flares of America : iA which country ibe now pofr- 
felTes only Canada and Nova Scotia.. The power 
of E^ngland lias alfo been for fome years weakened 
in Ireland : and * Scotland will one day avail her- 
elf of the example, for throwing off the bondage, 
in which Ihe ilill remains. 

, The Englifti e{labli(hments in the Antilles^ and. 
on the coalt of Africa, are not equal to the French ;r 
and that part of Saint Domingo, which belpag|s to 
France, affords alone more produce than, all tbj(, 
different Britifh colonies. But it is from her.dOft, 
minions in India chat her greateil confequencei). 
derived : it is there that an immenfe river of wcalt)l| 
flows for her ufe. , She poffeffes the whole gf Bm^ 
gal, the richell and mod fertile province in the 
Mogul empire. Its population amounted to- Aide 
millions of inhabitants, when the Englilh lMi'« 
came its mafters ; but the tyrannical governinefit^ 
of the India company is faid to have reduced theia* 

* M. de la CroLx feems very little to have underftood the pr||? 
cTple of the Union, which^will probably bid defiance to his £rie^^ 
prophcdcj. _ .,j 3^,. 

'•'-■•■ :.|-." 


-tJfiWCmJHtHtiim tf'Eiiglaul. f^0 

tcr*'fi±^Aiilliotts* BciickJ this province, England 
p^cfiei all the coali df Orixa, and that of Coro- 
mandel, in which their dominions are bounded by 
tt^T' .moudtains only, and the cities of Surat, and 
Ca&bay, the firft of which is the nioft comlnercial 
csr^ in Indian The iflands'oif Bombay and of Sal- 
tgSMj on the fide of the Marattas^ make al(o p^rc 
or the EngUfti pofleffions ; and they * have befide, 
rsHiicY' forts and diftri<5ts on thefide of Malabar^ and 
% ^^reat number of faddriet and iettlemeats in 
cnfter parts of Afia. 

.The territorial revenue of thefe,, pofTeffipns 
i^6utits to above a hundred and fifty millions of 

Frfcnch livres -f;. 

'^If the riches "of England is centred in the Eaft^! 
(&iere alfo refines her military force: and, while tha 
iilui^ df Great Britain has ilo more than thirty 
tfiboifdnd men in arms, flie maintains bodies of 
mkA^s'to the amount of one hundred thoufand 
nSsiri feventy thoufand of whom a>e feapoys, or 

^f^^T^.l^opttlationoif Bengal, l^och #hen it came idio our 
kjBpiiy iUkd at this hoUr^ \t very much uiider*rkted in this eflimtiw* 
f About fix millions and a qoarter fterlin^. But it moft be 6b* 
WHA tliat much the greater part of this revenue is (peot on t&e 
Ij^ei^' ID the eftablilhmenu of the company's fenride. Mr. Haft* 
ingSy in his Review of Bengal, written by him at fea« and pobliOned 
SAi ifiei his arrival here» gives his opinion, that India will noc 
uBStd more than qm million fierlinr to be ^^nnually drawn from 
thence. This is ftrong teitimony from a perfon wh9 claims it ai 
Ut^hief merits to hv^ merged that revenue. 

2 a - Indian 

<■. \ 

V -. ■ . . ■ .. . . ■ ■ 

34<^ Of the CtHfliiutioft bf EngMS, 

Indian ioldiertj kept in htr pSjr. But (ht has nd 
reafon to fear that thefe fbldiers ^fll ever becorhd 
the inftfurticnts of defpotifm in the hand^ of'a mo- 
narch whoiti they know not; and froM whom they. 
teceiVe no orders. 

There- was a time when the power of France hi 
Indii was able to couriteirbalance that of E'figland^ 
but the eftabliChtnents which now remaih in her 
poffeffion ferve only to pioclaim her weaknefe. At 
this moment when (he is threatened with war, has 
fhe not reafon to regret her not having takeaftdvaitw 
rage orthe time of peace for fortifying the Me 'of 
France ; furnifeing it wit'h ammunition and iprovi^ 
fion ; and * fending thither, under -pretence afirude^ 
both flli^sahA -men; which on tlie firftiaft of hbfti* 
lity, and titforean Englifti fqaadroh'tcnild' arrive, 
might have carried difmay and war into theik" tcr- 
rrtories." •'• ■'■'■- ' '..'•]• \> .■ . 

--The revenue drawn from thence beihg thais.'in* 
t*rceptc4- or fufpended, England wdirld^hav'fe fosdid 
i^erfelf unable to maintain a war in Europe, and to 
p.^jr the intereft of her national debt, withQilt^faying 
aa additional burdenof taxes on the people- dF Great 
Britaift, who already feel -themfelves overwhelmed 

by rlioie to "which they have/vohintarily fubniitted. 


' • One of the committees of ihs National AfTembly has l^okcu 
k ftill more direft language on the fubjein. But an EYi^liihmati 
hi :V doubt", whether one or the othir isliiperfeft unifoa witnthc 
jacific (i'llcm profciTed by c^ie new-govi^i'niaent of Frinctf- 

4 To 

■pf the. Cmfiitutm ofEngUutd. ^^ i 

To be j^yinced of this truth, it is only neceffary 
to confider the prefent ftate of the public debt of 
that couatry, the intereil of which amounts to 
eleven millions fterling a year, a fum equal to two 
hundred and forty millions of French livr^s. 
When to this fum is added the expence of the ci- 
vil lift, and of maintaining her army and navy, it 
.fnuft be eyident, that^ in order to be punctual in 
.Ij^cr engagenaents, and fupport the weight of admi- 
u^ati9n^ and of her d^fenilvQ force, England muR 
]^ye a revenue in time of peace to the amount of 
'^fbur hundred millions of French livres ^\ If there- 
f^i:^ h^r fupplies from India were cut ofi*, (he would 
be at oqcf: deprived of the i^eans of carrying on a 

W^4':^4.:P^y^Pg ^^ !^.!^^ ^f^^^ ^^p the interefl of 
J|j((C ,4^^}; a failure in which mull bring on the lofs 
fj, b^r .cfedit, jjnd the overtlirow of her govern- 
jQeat muiit foon be the confequence of xhat lofs. 

From hpnce it is evident, that India is the place 
^.^yJbicr?^ .all, the efforts of France fhould have been 
^d^eded . againft her po\yerful rival. Whatever 
,-^^xique§i§ (he had made there would have increafed 
/^er xeiqurces, and lefTened thofe of England. But 
^2j4l^<^^o |^e|: adniiniilratioa has done nothing but 
commit political faults, to which their Uft con^- 
pierpial treaty gave the finifliing ftroke, 

^ Aboot fixCeen millions feven hundred thoufand pounds flerling. 

Z 3 \ have 

, \ 

•^ z. 

t • 

'' * I hive Bith*rto ^^rtdcavoared tOTqprefiiJfitl the 

V Ehglilh gbvcrrtrt^fe in its traebbarafter.rf I:>Ai;^l 

noiv cxiriiine the vides rittribmed' to it by modftin 

politicians arid ftati^rtformers, *; • -r ; \ I'rb ' 

■ ^ ¥he EhgKlh (fay tbty) cdrtfidcr then- frtuiiamttiit 

«i the feftris A4f licirlibertf : but what is tbetr fi- 

^' It is ttbf Vfo /iAm>'e^/W>^^^ 
gious jior civil toleration is cftablilbeci * ^AiBOll|^ 
th%m;«if^tfor ce^ftin fefts. ; t Rmnba^cittUblics 
ilf e perfectrted in England:: a prieflf who ifaonldAy 
)& wt>uid be hanged: aEndcvea die king? Ipiliffitf 

' is- Hdt^^e t6 perform in fecret thofeaft8)o£,iiibrflBp 

'which h;e^ bdieves ttqnired by his oohfcieaoeJ i lo 
It h not /jiif liberty (f to$miierce J '£bti mafa^ipee^ 

"^ 6f it dre ptx>hxbited th&e^ fuch as tharoSesfMniisg 
wool I all are fubjeft to ridiculous^ laws !byj op^uif- 
(iv^ corporations: and fome: are 'encocicagddr^by 
•f preniiums at the expence of thenationiiii -^a A' 

A g;rpat part of the articles of commerce are fob- 
jeacd to duties, fp much the ipor? fatal, be- 
caitfe they violate the rights pf citizens, 1^^? J4!?^8|y' 
of traveUcrs, the ufe of pioperty^ andrdveiiLtl^ 
farredhefs of that alylttm which (kould ^ be ifHRnfdtd 
to every man by his own houfe.' " '^ ^'^'^^ " ''^ 

♦ The rigour of our penal laws againfl the ettholi^ifts lately 
tccn very much relaxed. :/:/}; t 

t Thii is forely 'ha hilnngement oft Ih^ fttt^Mk dNbMfiiM^ 


\,0^thtia»»fiimkit]af Sifstvfd. .j4S 

X^niriiQt^ even perfoiud liherJy^ .tbooglu ic isrthac 

-tutdcb has^^cflrthe jBoft confidcred ; ijiiicc J; mfiy 

:te<f violtced on the oath of a man wbo clatxQs a 

ddit, though an imaginary aoc. A minijtcr can*' 

"notcaufe a dtizejDi to be af refte^ by ordciTr qf the 

jting; but he may very eafily f^j^dCb him » crodi* 

tor : and the ilijury which the fociety intemdids ;its 

•diief^ is pennitted tb toy baf^ indiyidM^^^ : pr to 

ii^ire: vikft bailifil ; r .^ ,?/: r r " j}: 

<^:>ii<PeB&]ial liberty is in another^ cafei^d^^^^^Nb 

ylKB^nDte bardflitp^ and jqo iefd iajitftkek iQnrtl^e 

^{Skfti|^nBCence of a naval arteanicilt^ i^f pre&-g^{^s 

qafe^bixcta carry^away by fwor/AotQiriythei -pilars 

of thr ncirdiant flnpis> but . eveiv t^ 
^^ytaoeajUerrcittaensy whohaiFe ne^er been^infl (hip : 
^tribT'^iave us d^ore to naeetthe dangem offthipffipa 
''kMi^7of{t9ie' cnensy : and whom no ailtborlty on 
Y^iaiftb^kasoa. ri^t ta: compel to encounter thetp. 
Theiniignjficaiuseiof £OB)|)kinl» madfiof ihis ad: 

• The fccurity of perfonal liberty in England does not conujl^ and 

'Snnpt coiiEft, in being Aeiref for a iftbmeht Violated by a fraud on 

Xtt?%iW T im htnoan inftitviuon> pcfrhaps^ can guard "ftgaibitnkh 

d|ltedt^>^^Griit giviag too nmch encotiragement tOiprtraHQ friyid 

b fcCjW i te f i9n4 : but o«t feciijrity; confifti in ^ i; ihat jmy J^^^^nc 

laid upon him, under coIqut of law, may be immediately, removed 

hy proper fteps> and the queftion put ia a courie of fair difcumon 

ji^ 4fcJfion by law. . , 

t This has always been coniidered as a fa& on^y juflifi^d by the 
al»Ml^:P^Geftty of the »firfiw» for jhc public la^jt/.v^ , I 

i^ of 

* > 

ofVloJcuce, pftiTcs that the EryglKth'^confUtbutian 

dtnis Hot fiifficicttdy ftcure the Uberty of men; i/i. 

'• Otic of the ndv'eriaries of * this confticMtioii goes 

fo faf ^s to fay, tliat the freedom' of the preft is mxx^ 

fited id England' ; and he inftances the impfifoq<r 

mtnt of Mr. Wilkes, for -no other apparent caiife, 

but his being accufed of having printed in- bis bmife 

a book which \^'as riot publiftieds ^ -^ ' ^ 

In enumerating the vices of the EngliQiconAx* 

" tutit)n, its (fetradtors fdrget not th« ine((ualkyio£^he 

' ircprefehtation i they cite, as inftarftccs^ fomHbos^ 

^ fidtrable to\Vns, fuch as ^ Shcfficldv Btrmin^tai^ 

^ and Manchefter, which do not fend reprefcatatiAs 

io parlratnent, whrle forte ineite )^iIt>lels farnifb 

'*the Hate with two legiflators* vs/ v *>) 

^■\* In fine, the power "whteh the i^ing has of ,r|k jnbo* 

; '•'-■ ■ » • ■.'■.■ 

-. . *. It has been often remaj-ked that none of thofe places ever pe- 

^ tuioned the hooTe to give them reprefentatiVesDy an aa oFjSiffia- 

ment, iat the times when a reforfti of jparTiamifttt has brnirepelhiiffly 

^ in'difcnffion. . -' - x '* 

t If the king had not this ponvet.of prorogoing and difiolvipg, 

. p^rKs^mnt would for th^ term, of its duratioD be wjiolly independ- 

pnt both of the king and the people. The pnly parliament we ever 

^ had independent of the crown, in the reign of CharfeV 1; 

ended iri the rebellion, the liiurder 6f tii'e kln^, andi ^ttife'fub- 

vcrfic&i of the monarchy, the ariftocracy, and 'the <^Qrdh; The 

r fbvereign power may be bounded, and limited, by diffferpotoon- 

VomU in diiterent branches ; but there mu!i not be ivjo iudefendent 

fovereigns. They have tried the experiment in France ; ajid it 

feems obvious to forcfee, that one will certainly in the end deflrojr 

the oiher ; though it may not befoclear^ whi^h will predominate. 


IfO^UtgiW^A^okHl'inQth^ {)arlua>^t at plfj^yr^f 
and dwriifi}«ii4f o«y wki<;h tj^ , means he pflflTii^c^ 
aiKQtmip^n.givfii^ him ov§r ch^ legiflauvejjqdy^ 
£Mm nooftroficicts i^ t^e g^veiiimeni^ wbicKap- 
peered 6> perfect to M<ftRt^rquieu ;. axidiof. whkk 
IML de Lolme h9^^ endj5avQvred to/giv^-tl^e urorld 
fo exalted an-idM*. » - . » ; ,i ; 

As a proof how eafy ic i^ to him who , is a&uated 
byz fpim of cenfur^, to r afp^cfe the bffl: iaftitu<- 
tions^ ttm author much celeUratiqd ibr his J^pouded^ 
and bis patriotic iienciaients^ M» de Coadprcet^ af^ 
tca:riLavmg.dooe homage to the criminal cp(^e of 

- Sngbuid, preci^nds chat^ if th^ 'i^xecrable edids .of 

. tiAiicfa it is GOfnpo(ed, are not.ait preient carried ii^ 

to exeaition^ it is that.i^^r^t. ^s.weU ^s ^^Ifrwba'A^ 

jvdges^'^wbo ^n-Uit defiiifUg^ J^imanUyy raihsr^fbufe 

to elude the laws byJubtiltieSj than to flaugbt^r their 

[ffUow creatures by their means. He fupporte this af* 

I Icctipii-by '^two caies^ whiQh I (hall relate^ becaufe 
they may convey ufeful inflrudion to judges^ w|i0 

viitigitt tei^foiTe ^as guides to juries, , 

" ' "^A catholic prieft was accufed of having foid mafsc 

, he w^ profecuted in the court of King's Beiich, 
'where mai^y witgefles appeared a^ainft hiai^. and 

' Lord Ma&afield &( as judge. ^^ Yoi:( arf^ ve^ fqfe^ 
t^iaid bis Lordfiiip to the principal evid<»>qe» that 
^ this man' is a pQpifli prieft, and- that he has faid 

"fi • / _ 1 . • V 

; f ._■ . ♦• I io not Jjknow the aatJxomy /pr theft two cafes. 

'-'* tft^4t^ h^ ^6elebrate4 ' ii^fi-i THAd^^m it W de. 
i¥^iUoiikmii9'ior'^i^tU^^ Wttip tb«^>iiuir» this mah 

-'^iiValt'fo/tt'-i^r^tilehdei are etitindf. fadsfied (^ 
]*• 'Ai^^^Kimh''' The jaitors demanded of >^tbt'sriJt* 
ic4(^,'^nfl^%en!rahded -of thcooiielTesy whM we«# die 
Seereiddhl^ ^ich eonftitote mafs ; > and . {MC bei% 
'^ifil^ ^iSStkiii one iktisfadfcory anfwer, thef £eijr«lik 
^t|i<^bfle^<le'i»is'neie^rovedy and decUted the pn-> 
{ontr mt guilty, • -o.-is 

<-'-i^l^Td^ iiffliKF M t><! ttttt^re finguiar uMirc. 
'f^ d)Hi<^i<a^s -^Hfc :ha^t^ afcOfldenq^ of 1} good 
-fiKt^b^^'tlit^^b^iMons of the vulgar,; aftdndocs 
'i^!%bhdur tb the ' hvanstnky' ^aad tbe Mrif4bmi«f 

a ctxtl&4 g(J6Ally<i,-v')ieA'4n<M'>^<»Man/a6€(!lfiNlltf 
^^i^^ji'^tcKi' vtta^^'bi^^c before huiitfdr Irial. 
3^iMiabitants 6f Khb ^ate '^vVre ' much im^WNl} 
inft hfXi, »i^,4 t^e witncffcs ,d?pofed,. ^^%^tj»ey 
ward, and her heels upward. LordMunfieldAlia^ 

rf ^ bee«u(< -tiMf^ .5viaH9^ 'l^vo-ifea. ]|CFr}: buf, flic 
.<^ has tbc boitoiir of b^ngMAa.l&iigU(b^ii^>jf^ ^«s 
rf^ yon aad I are; qoiifc^«effUyi|^Qi<:^i^f^Jf^ 

^ff'ing^tn^th^ air with' <be head btiow sm^^^ds 
^ffj f^iQir higlit ^' each of m nlay ido^ dbe^&mc.widiMf^ 
;^fimnky, jhi^refcarc I feoinoirgiafon for?gy^gfiding 
tffii^{ainft:!il\c p^ifoner.o \Xfeis dirc;9UY^(«i4^i9l 

friwt tkehbicriy ^ndciirK:t»t^^i0f ^ i^ 

2&Dth^&ig]ii^Ilaw9)ib (Wid a>foupda£iou i^ i'^^Ofll* 

l*iOid|^rfvtpf><^ej^ ^iVE^ i ifafy depend in. agpm ioef - 

furc OD the perfonal qualities of thCvytoiiiyiftTatg^ 

Ji,iiri*(^>fam^ w«l»«r oowa& witii dle^1S0glii||,che 

^^"^ Mne ti^ce or b^icr of the princiBte fiMi whom 
1|^att^5|wr/Sr; J telicre, to be aUco^erwIin «a di^ iuuiktit 



*< ti^K iaJFrancc as it:«si(b ii^.^g^^^^ .lf,Jfi 

f< fMNtcm* TbcpiKcr^ tQ^ i^fs I(JQg4Q^ fW^M be 

^^ gf. ibetiwrU»imeQiA i^^e^ province, could only 

u/Th^/n/^trjkfif^ &f ih^ Siing^ih ccuiilitution coa- 
§onmd. Its :iibuf(^ wAtb. if s^vices^ in attributing tf^ the 
clafs of i(B iQipor6»^i^& tho defe<5t of rfi pciUcp on 
tbeir toads wbicli Ci^pi^^^, tr^VY^Uers tQ be ^ci^j^dby 
robbers who make a trade a profefiipn of tbcft^ 
^d engagein it tb« nwv:« bcpauCe they I^^w ^trc 

I ' ■>* • ■ 

, , t, i^cd^ap?.th?Te IS no country, where there are better regulations 

to enforce the police in this refpeft.' Between fun and fan Ac 

county, as is well known, is bound to the prote^cn of th'e^- 

VeHeo «nft raaft^mdk^ good lifi lofCoi hy nSbtry, - if be yiifts hae 

tad cry by giving notice at the firft town. If the traveller d^i^s 

lite night for his journey, he incurs a voluntary rifk ; but t(| ^- 

jVUibKe^^pei^ns tQ. be ^er' in aiGfllng him to purfue tl^e rqbbera 

there i^ a reward of 40/. for the appre^enfion, to|>e pai'dbn the 

cfinvi^jEdon of the offender. Around the metropolis the'foidti ire 

.,al! -lighted, watched^ and patroled ; but it is impoffible td fKicteid 

thefe prMMtioAf duroughoot the kingdmn* Our'couitittttion is only 

in/aiHJi^ftyii^finMcil ^^i^hf^ ^K^ conftitution,, and will nptVuf- 

.,£9filf. mvj^ jwhQ has thp appearance of being able to maintain ^iai* 

filfy to be flopped, queftioned, and confined or punilhed,* on mer# 

fafficion, b^C!f e he has c^Qiitted fome open breach of ^ ]^i«. 

• • 

... . • • -4. , . . , »*• 

-i^ ' 

iihb iMfftilfi^n t6 ex|>^ life for dM^fidkig^^t 

gold 'thffjr'^dfemindi ' -^ >■ . :- ..j; r.;. -.r .K;r *- 

^OHe crthe VicM which (H<$cks te «lfi^W(ft{^4hd[ 
i?hfch' ii^pdtfs to be tfie-'tlefe «f "thfe^'ttiani 4^lAc^ 
than <SF ^ottib indi^diisilsv is tifi depravity thM« at 
their 'de^idili, whei«i th^ f^piaktci ^Ht^Telt 
their fuffrages. It is in the-lkliiiM^iAbfl^i'^aEbalSj 
bloody battles^ and aft thtf^fm^k-df tfr^fntomn^fs, 
t!iat thofr ttch-are dteS**, wM* itre't<i- d«fekid the 
ptMk )2bert^<i^m(l ihe'erite^^'zto of^^ftontcfii 
6t a m7rMerVi^^>flVffihg a th<$ilfaiKl Vkum kfi- cw* 
rnpthlg'' {b6k ^o at -fi^^i^tfi diipdTal «d «& like 

^ •» '*ft«e'^(*s-^^^ the'lrtufc^ftdpu- 

hffttc-^yicfes which ftifle pablic fpfrif , >afflrtHiUtfc 
«roi«fity,-^^^^ i-^cb^h the bold Afpaft df 

iflijmdcrice, <iia not r^ndtr thfe precipes <MF wifilorfi 
klCdtisk' t^'ihn^ (Etigtifli/ ilik'«-Frtn€h (hmJd fay 

.'i.i: -.^-Mi/.u ur , ../ .11 r- ■ fr ..... ;:. , .-.;.. ,i;..i ;.. :t0 
L^' Jf V ii?:: .'(If,! .•-(./. :fT.:jp: ri .-.i/n f-. . ^iji /Wi;.j. 

• An Englifhfhan Might perhaps think Hat' i£$!hSb >Fktm^v»ti6jk 
Ihould fo addrefs us> they would give afatisfadoiyproof of having 
,.tm^g thfSpi fLtleuSLbmc of th^ wca-^hkh givito Mff^htbehdd 
M^^ rf impfidimci. Many of the topics of reproach to England^ 
^ iA truth ^int vk firong but fombre coIoun> to the a^ual ibcebf 
iMttde s while nioft of die topics of preference in fiivotir of* France 
«re decked ;Ottt in mil the gaudy tints of the ideal fdtore. When 
ifaefe beatttfful pfofpeifls are pofitively realiased, it will be time 
enough for French moderation, virtue, and modtfty, to Qiame 
£ngli(hrlicentioufnefs, immorality, and imprudence, out of coun- 
tenance* In the mean whik it may be fufficieat generally to re- 


35tl Oj^tf^Jtlbii/Hiii^ 

^ yoQ btve made her fljr your ifland, bcdnfe'libf^ 
^ only deli^ is to be^lurrouadcd by the^viHitiiter 
^ It wasf^ripuft horetofore to reprefent you ; ^}^* 
< £ac€ your fuffrages are to be purchaied lyy iii^^ 
^ crigue and gold, the title of your rtprefontaltive ' 
^ 18 a title<if lUfgrace. • 

^^ Yoaiiavc fubftiluted Ikentiournels inftead of 
^ a noble exertion of talents and the faculties t>f * 
'the mind« Truth- i»- not the obfa^ oftfaofo' 
^ writings for which you deound an unlioiited pri-^ 
^ Tilege of publilhing your thoughts. Inveftives^ 
^ and unjuft declamations^ are what give vogtie 
^ CO thofe pvints which are to you what inflamiiig 
' iiquoffs art to favaig(s« -^You will have a kingii 
^ but it is frequently for infulting^ and defying' 
^ his power ; and you have enfeebled and limited ' 
^ his means of making the law refpeded> Id^-fer 
^ the purpofe of Sheltering yourielvesfirom tyi^anay, 
^ than that you may indulge witn impunity m isi ' 
^manner of eiccefies. 

■ I V 

iei!d.t^c9<rite..a kudablie ^nefpM e»iii|l«tiaii beiwoeatlie tiri^ 

ix>uittaes» .^ut to groad this country with a dflgrmling^ infiikiBp^ 
and prorpkii^ comparifon ; it confidcrs them not Si two tmioAl^., 
co^pctji'ors'^rortruc j^oiyi bgt'ashoftilc rivals for donimda if^ 
attVaVSl irmf.\ Art? thcfcthc-firft trmxz of tte nrtr Pnudl tftttm 

^iifc«Vcfftl>piHr.if")^^-*"' "^^ *■•■■ ' '^'- .• 4 >.s.i.^,-'. ■;:.i.;..,: 


^^«9gf9g^ fince^ you cQttiMSnec: bgr.a&plQgriQg:^)^ 

*^^f9r aa Qp{>Qrtwiity of ^ commitBng deprediKiohf 
*'./^ (h^ j^.aoid coaqueiring^ ^e means (^pui£ir^' 
**• ing yow|CjdebKkwb^>,i ^our etUenawft..aii infa^' 
. ** lent contempt for other natiai>i?^ fefv* is ibtrutt^that - 
«^* you bavf ^^t^, (^c^OiiflOYitrithetngdii the 
*V.arts, in waf^.or^in.ri^^rQ^u^^w^jpf :gcioiur? ' 
*^Thc fighfrof an^.ajrnjy di^ii{^rted,u^ ydiar^ 
•^.^oajGks w^d<fticiKff;you y?irH wsQt^ivJfQx^iynmM: 
*^ ui^^K^ovf jbp^r to d^nd yaurtlibertjc^y^oiar 
*5^J^ffe pr^your parUjunenfc, ftgwnft,^ 
^^fflf^jui^hQ;iPiiQi^ld luiyaiQ^^ ov^ei&taltoi'ds ^ 

^^^^ypr §)%^i?»s:city*rv/ Wavp yQiufiaGj»4fi«ucViRW>r ' 
* ^^fljgesi .«>ii$wr#4 ■ wp w. Ypvk xhA. empire : of > :g/t^ ^ 
^Cj^4iid^iafk^ ?i-lf vyoui poffefs.iwyt A.pJreicmi- 
;iS6^ in/taleA^$ nor ui valour> fr.o^ whencoioomes "" 
ffei*jE%^agft f pj^^ ifcia iniiuiU^^ .AiCdaia tf<9c jp wcy 
^\JiM#ef^J^^ ««• -JEsngUfli ? : imper^eSt asi yaur 
** conftitution is become by your vices/Jt ^iariiiil 
^^ without doubt the beft of all conllitutions^ but 
'!<4f4tt>iH^ on; th€hpoint of Jofiag this advanuifp4iirift;z 
'6^1$:^ our^kgiflatuires will' be preferable tcpyvur^*^ 
^<oj^r&niehts; {)ecaufe the divifion of oik* dt§iii^^" 
^'ments will'enfure a more equ4 reprdeiit«tibn^^ 
%l^y,m'Jk.. Wc (haU. iMit^l^avA JiJce ypw, I^A^,^ 
'^ ditary iegiflators^ or iegtflators whofii {MMmwitt^i^ 
^^pttaue for the couxfe of feven years ; and our 

„** judges 



'' iu4ge$i will oaly be immoveable vrbftle dieir, juT^ 
^^ tice V'invariabie. EUifted M^ of M cn^gbttAed 
*^ ^afSy aoid by the free choice <tf the aacioa>:ilhe^' 

^^ will Aot be the iaftruments of a minifter'j ftaret^ 
^^. vengMnce ; and juftice will be gm^uitous among 
^^ us, while with you it is the ruin of the ctuiiplain- 
<<• antii Our civil code will be clears Md its formfi- 
^^ iimple^ while thofe of your's are iatricate, and 
'^ oSer a thoufaad retreats to knavery.- 

r*^ Our penal code will be infpired bjr humanity^' 
^^ our puniflbfments wiU be ;gradittions on the feale 
<^ of equity, while yofors have ftill aH the confofioiit 
^^ of barbarity. Men will exclaim in. reading the 
*^ coUedtion erf" your criminal laws that they have 
*^ been drawn up by thofe who delighted only iH 
^^ blood; and that the people who make (uch «c^ 
*' count of libertyy hold the lives ef other meaaft 
*^ nothing. 

*^ Mcmtefquieu has done jrou too miKh bonoof in 
** his chapter on fuicide : your own judge Blacfcltond 
** has been more juft : men, when they are £itiaced 
*• with exiftcnce, forfake not life with impunity^ 
'^ in your ifland : thofe who are hurried l^ gloomf 
*^ vapours to abridge their daysy efcape not an ig- 
^^ nominious fepulchre, nor their widows the-Cf>n^ 
** fifcation of their property, but by theilombtf of 
'^ the law, which alfo amoiig ui^ (hi>ts JM^eyet on 
** the fame a6t of weakness.' - - . ■ -* 

!* * ■ • . .. * 


tJffbeCt^imm of England. J55 

. '^ Your bofpitals are better managed than cur's : 
*' fDUr roads better kept up : your fuccours morq 
*' abundantly afforded to indigence : your farms 
'••iwifely leafed out for longer terms. But when all 

our municipalities are organized; when the 

fpirit of rivalfhip has given place to a general 
*f accord for the public weal, we (hall not yield 
** to you in humanity, nor in the encouragement 
** of agriculture ; our rdads will be better fecured 
*' than yours, and property proteAed againll va- 
^^ gabonds by an armed force ; and our commerce ' 
'* will not be fubmitted to all thofe (hackles with 
•* whkh you have loaded yours. 

'* We ihall have no occafion to apply, for the 
*' divifiop of property, to an agrarian law, which 
'^ would fpread terror and^ injuftice throughout the 
** kingdom: we (hall content ourfelves with feeing 
** it eftablifli itfclf infenfibly, while we main- 
*^ tain equality in the divi(ions, encourage the pur- 
*' -chafiftg of the poffeffions which heretofore re- 
*^ mamed inalienable in the hands of the clergy, 
•* itfnrd excite the communities to diftribute thefe 
*^ doRiains among good hufbandmen in fuch aman- 
'^j^er that they may with facility pay the purchafe 
*• of them to the date, and thus will the plains be 
•■^illlmbited only by honeft proprietors, inftead .of 
*^ being people by day-labourers/* 

Aided by thefd charming ideas, the imagination 
of frenchmen plunges fecurely into the future; 
beholds the diowls which caft a gloom over the pre- 

YquII. a a font 

t54 Pf lie CoH/fihtibH iff Sn^faikt^ 

lent diffipate ; and triumphs over the terrors^ '^ 
Aicbnchoff predtdions^ which timid or malevblette 
^irits ceafe not to ^read around them. 

Before 1 bid adieu to England, I (hdll tali^ 
a paffing view of her ^ political fituation widr* re- 
focft to the other powers of Europe, 

She has for a long while enjoyed in a manner 
the empire QirerT.omi|gal^ by appropriating to hcf- 
felf aimoft exclufively the commerce of that kii»- 
dom, and a great pan <^ .the gold of the Brazil^r 
But though the alliance of Great Bnuin is ofutilitT 
(o the court ,of Liibop^ this latter power has at 
length pcxceived the dependence m whicS' it .» 
held by the fbrai«r, and appears difpofed to^^aMn- 
cipatc itfetf from the yokcj — \n Q)irer of a9 t^r 

: v'<^^i.<bijL 

not iar diftant from, an union with Spattu . 

J •Tl^KagUnipolitsciainiall probably ikStrsMxAt from Ofijr. author 

iatbc following fpecalacions. They are however, fo^ofi^^ 

in hStt if we coi^Ttaer thein as tke Q>ecuIalidkM jtf a fl$Hi^iaillin» 

not yet wholly porg^ed 1^ frfScieftf'dofes'of Ithtf ne W ^ con W rtifair 

from the «neieiii aiid (I helieire> I m^ «dd> itoUBrtoipifalei^jb' 

- loufy-and ennoty of the two ootnitrieSf toward* t^f^^ifj^i{gQjtc 

liietf u»feercll« daih in every quarter of ^ globe^fcaoTei of jdlSen^ 

tipnt muOperpetnally arlie : and they moft remahiii«niraleBttBief» 

becaafe they are natural rivals. They can only be iUiiii Xm^s 

"^liyiJic ineafufes which France feems to betaking iuiim fviSiif 

^iirher finarxesT, a:nxl the deftruftion-Of Jier tnukaadcolpaks^ UBlb 

"^^IMS'^Siigs oh eath fide^ the concliificnif ftffPlJie /ime$l4Nbf|0- 

bablywill, and perh^ oiigbUo4>e widely diflim. He wiip^pcy^ot 

.JjSj5witJ<^5X^aio£^f^^^ .ca«fe qf his w^.Tqmiti^ ttqr 

. thiiJc idmfelf a |food chiten 3f ^e ^l^'Wltdb^fti^^ UteA 
"cifisen of tbat conunonity to^wfiA he More isomeditttly, bclongK 

England. has no afTedion for Holland. - She has 
^yeh (hany fi^vere blows to its Eaft-India trade; 
liid ihe has the double advantage over that reput;f* 
Uc, of a fuperior naval force^ and a more enterpri* 
fing a&ivity. She has fucceeded in making Hoi- 
Land enter into an alliance with her, againll the will 
of the Hollanders^ whofe attachment to the French 
(he found means^ even while they were in alliance 
with trance, of rendering ufelefs by her afoehdaiicy 
Over the Stadtlioldcr. At this period fhe is hiore af- 
ifured through the fame nieans of obuiiiing the aid '6f 
" the republic, than the French cian be of rcnnitingf it 
io thipir interefl: : and if the latter nation (hould f e* 
'riouily enter into a war with Great Britain, its fleets 
Virilt have to combat the (hips of a fbte, which ic 
lias for ibmeytars preferved from abfolute rum. 

Sweden is now the ally of England, rather thiin 

of France : and perhaps the latter has reaibn to 

''')r^b|ioach herfelf for having foffered her rival to ob*- 

^i^ .f^4/cl^tipiu^ j[b:ength.jrrom |he union of a poyd: 

. ait^isk:t)iiP-.?ren lioqg fupported with their fub- 

""fidiMii (a wiiich they gave too much money for 

'loaU&tumng a divifion among its (hues ; and which 

they abandoned when it was their interefl to have 

^^^ykQpttted with Ruffia the empire of the Baltic iou 

qv this, however, the French miniftry might be 

^.able to indemnify themfejive^, by detaching Dca* 

. mark from an alliance with England, if the polifif 

' : tf courts Hill fubfifted among them* 

yt^ ftiiiSais aUo among tktp&fftilfi with which Eng- 

agno'sd ."is.:. • . - -. .- , ■ A * -*. - ^'^ • .-j" ~ wA 

S i^ Of the iCen/hiuiivn :9f. B$iglaiA ^ 

Ikhd has had the an of iraitifng herfelf b^iaft j^dsiiitf 

tageaiis treaty (rf ^^nfliMtce? onc-of the :«rtidttf 

of which was, that the court of Pcterfburg IhcnHi 

clothe its troops entirely with Ecglilh cloth. iBu« 

in>w>tK£t RufliaTceks tarhaw porti, and a miwiwt 

tercej oti the Blade fea; thatihe. has conceived the 

*Hope of monopofeirig thetradc fyf • Conftaatinojplc; 

and the Mci^itecraiieaDi and ihat (he appears tb 

bavefarnfed miarc: icxterifivc^: fchcnies for a trade 

-to^irhi Indian' I Qreal;?iBatain fccms tp declare herfetf 

hiofe iDipcSblyi fcpr! tUe fTuric; and isr defirous r)f ftoj^^ 

*pill§ fbofe^f dttirgils:^oi' coDqi^eftsj^ ^hichr w6uld^^iii 

v'lhfeh" confdqucdcca:' prove paorc injurious to heMlbail 

•;iler^lKaAce>^^ith iliiffii coulcFever be bencfitiBi. 

WiiarnrwiE toe tile refute cf thrfe-pofittcal .fljeps^cflf 

the cafcSnet: :of *St; James's >-»^ThatJEngland^ wifl 

infcnfibljr gain'tlve'luffeftionj of the Porte, and^hm- 

*der the Frcfnch -. friorti derlving^any advantage' frofe 

their atncient alliance with the : Turks j^whiib: the 

French, on their .parts,^ fronvforbeaiing' td'lavo^r 

"Ruteia," can obtain* iio returti from that poweP, for 

•what they lofe on ^the ^fide of that wiilch fhcroj^- 

. preffes; •'^The-netifrality which they' have obfervcrf, 

Ttiakes thenv appear in the eyes of Etrrope as iriaSftivfe 

•faHicfsr,' with'whbto the powers ai:*e confequentlyirf- 

.*■■■' ' "i ■'»■•* 

^ * frCHiithb ifiue of our laie armed negociation, it CeetKttmt 

tli'ar p-^Fable VHa^^ the author's pre3iSi<Ais arc ' vtry lar itiileed 

Yrtmr "iherir f cjomplilhnicnt.- it is not pofSbte that the"artide 

agrenng tt) abandcKv'tlie' T&rK to the fftrtuife' tf ' Wir; '^i\\iefik' 

^^^ :: ^ different 

iSfvtk^mtJiimkffiffEngknd^^ ^^7 

ibrming any coiuicdicnt, amlef^i bf 
tr^ies ofi commcrcCy the IsakaGC o£' which is » 
^Dfaeiar' bwn ikvour, , . ^.r .. ,0 

.7^ -The two crowns to which England is moft ho£- 
:tife are thofe pf Spain. and . Fiance. . I£ (he could 
;oace difunite them^ and draw obeidf .thexwo ovcf 
ȣo her fide in oppofition. to ^he oth^ r^ there would 
be nothing above her policyy ciriier .porwier;i, . ^^ .; 
-.i An opportunity at this naanteac bffiera for^at- 
tjtem^ing this projed»: lL.Ehgland;fhould ailtack 
Spain with her forces^ feix^dcd by- thofe frf^^I^ 
dkandy how can Spain^ too weakrta make refiftmee 
/jmck'her fingle marine^ (iipport the cfibrtS) cif ctvo 
£ich. enemies ? If the French .fuffer-ihsr to . be 
^ *^;fi)TQq>owered <^ithout going. to her aflUtance^^ n^hbt 
• jright can they h^ve to expert fuccoiur/ .-when ihcy 
ibalLifae attacked in turn ? What confidence will 
rxbeiplaced in their treaties^ tf.chofe which the mbft 
otfrident policy, and.^the 'tics i of: blood, have in- 
^tdnced them to form^ are confideredas nothing* . 
A Such are the reflcftions which I thought it riiy 
j|luty to. offer, ^>ccaure they naturally arofe out of 
.JtJXiyt fubjed. But I fliall be aiked how the French can 
i^Atthistime expofe themfelvestothc immcnte cxpebcp 
.'ofa naval war, while they are ftili cnilhed undet.tlie 
^^^ajrgis. of the lad in which they were engaged \ I 
Li^iuply that they ought to do every thing thaidepenc^pn 

-St )i*Af^\^^^ ^^ nft«»on, » do, ac<?ord,ip^ tp.thc rights of men, 

the m ciuzcas afflonj t!j!fe«Fii»§»yf./f'!!???j, „,,,, , ,. ,, , 
it\ii^i[i A a 3 thcxn 

33S Of tbi C(mJhiHtim if'EMgland. 

*«» -to *ypid fuch an tjycijt: ; , tbaij J^^^Yil^BP)^ H^F/^ : gum to England fll;^c Jra,ys|i(^i^^^^ 
(hchas aright to require ; engaige tl^la^pr^oH^cv^: , 
mand more than is her dve p and cyen p^ rfuade her 
to make fome facrifiqss tp' the Jove of peace. Byt 
they ihould afterwards notify * to jtl^is power,, if flic 
pays no regard to their mediai^ai that thre will 
not abandoji their ally ;. an^ in ooxiCequeQcc cqit > 
ploy their ytmoft force in her. favour, thfii aftonifli« 
cd Europe may fee what France is« when flic, has 
recovered the ufc of aU her faculties. * . 

A.war, thuilieguny would have nothing.iA x^.^ 
terrifying to the French. They would then bfp^ 
a. treaty of coounerce, tibe diiadyantjiigef pf wbijdhL\ 
they have too long experienced; and by cpndufthi^ ^ 
affairs with more order and ceconomy, 1. more ^XQr~ 
vidence and general unions than in the laft w^^.^q . 
combined fleets mi^tdirpi|te^eyi£toi;y y^ith j(hpii: ^ 
of England and HoUancl, Avhpijevpr thjqr &o\d4c^^ 
C9unter them together, and. wl^ereyer they. wcrcfojmd^^ 
detached, the advantage muft l)e; in tjheir^^vour^j. 

France would have nq nipr^ appreheofipn.iP^ thfe 
fcore of fupplying with prpyifions the .troops wJ^v 
which ir would be neceflary w guard her coloniea 1^ 
they, would draw from the United States pf Ain<V^icA. 
what cguld not be furniftied by their own pprts j. 
and ] h^iVing no longer aqy thiqg in India. jCo 4cV.^ 

» -* ■* 

« It Ihiift ntt ht fbr^ttetl (fkys M. ^e U Ct^ th^t 
aftmUy relative to thd alliance of IKrancewidi Spain* 


' *>> "• ' - ■■■" • •— ^ " C^^f.^ 

fcnd^^eY would have nothing to lofe, and all to gaio^^ 
in dM^ ^u£ii^r ; while char {invateers, encourk^'^ 
hfikthc^ pme» (^the Dikch vciTc^jir^' 

and tif ^Mttermg faohodrably inter the rofai fleed^^*^ 
wbtiid liin the cancer of gfory and of fortune. ^^^'■• 
l^^andy m the iiiean tiine/idejprired of the tab'' 
n^ of France, and dbl^ed to ^JlTlde her forii^^ 
utto iS^ parts of ' tftt ' ^litveHcf, wbuM (boii ' &i(d^ 
heifelf "^xhaufted ; ' aiitf W : iflyy Yeaitng tor ftfe^* 
her tcrtitQrie$ bccome-thticit -of ^^* lahd^wkrll 
w<^l<i fUrdiiih with regr^ ii^fitkiiAfi wHich'^fhti^ 
expefted rather to recieiireiy aiftd{>crhaps th^^ddt^' 
holder^ hiattccd with a rfetblnS6il'ln Otc pro^ijk!^, 
woBdioiftr the afcetidancy wlfichlie^ obtained m V^on-^' 
ietliifai<:c'6f French irftfolbtiori; The event cflFthdTr 

cii*cilmftantei '^ould be a peace, inbre- 
t<y Fracice thdii any fl* has yetcoaduderf^*^ 
^d wfifch wmddfore ver ikdiretoher both hobour knd'^ 
r8pctte|' oft Hic £de of Great Bmain. Such is the 
" ive V^Mch that nation itaay Ibok to, without 
lit their expeftations> fincc they are^ 
foiittdioi oil ^und politicai ideas. 
^\^6tw{lfaJEI&nding thefe juft hopes, I am very far 
tnta fHtmin^' wifh'et for war. I ihould rather de- 
foe'^tfiat the Freikh tnight be tranquil fpedtatori 
<if the- divifions which a^tate Europe ; and that 
chey Ihould tak£ no part in the combats which e»^ 
fanguitie the Norths But I periift in faying that 
^?;S9)!^«?lWnce ii».u^.be,&^ l^er 9l^ foferiAg 

r r • r * -i 

tp aggrandize hcrfclf by their mines ^"•fafcatffie (he 
would then acquire a preponderance fo decided Uf^n 
the ocean, that France would be compelled* either 
CO abandon all her colonial poffef&ons, oronly t^ipi 
there under the laws didated by England, * 

In this account of the Englifh cdnftitutibh/ I 
. have endeavoured to omit nothing of importance. 
I have made known her. public law ; her private 
}egi(lation ; her regulations ; her police ; and her 
connexions with foreign powers. In fpeaking of 
her conftitution I have, held the balance of equity. 
.Xhavcf placed otk poe £de all that exifts in iavmir 
of her government ; and on the other all tha,t has 
been remarked by it* cenftirers, 
• I might have enlarged upon her commerce, and 
on her India company, but thefe details did not 
eflentially belong to my fubjed. I (hall content 
myfelf with faying, that there are in Englarfd niarty 
commercial companies, authorised by * letters 
patent, which have made to government adv^ci^ 
and loans fo confiderable that it -cannot reim- 
burfe them : a circumftance by which it is frequent- 
ly expofed to receive laws from thefe companies 
who are in the fame fituation with refpeft to go* 
vernment as a ^ creditor is to a debtor, who , is 
not in a condition to acquit his engagements 


• Mcil of them, if not all^ I believe, are eftabliflipd, CQAiiraie4> 
or" in Tome way recbgnized by ac\s of parliament, 
j-l^igf-ify^cgy-fidineais iriit\ Many of* 'thefe cojppani^f s, it i^ 


tjiii ^Thyfofrinfipalr of (thofe^ii the ccMlpAtiftli fbc • 
filtanlt^^isivbkh -baichc! prmlcge of lending xni ^ 
-I jrerisntebt'fecurity^ aind of difcoiinting bills arid 1et<- 
ntti» of i exchange of private |)6ribM. Thid batik 

Is the trearury<)f aU merchants and bankers iv^ 
7 cbufe to depoitt theid mcMef >in it; and a trade is 

^rried on by the cbmpaayjfi^utiwf ought gdld ind 
^ ^ver. But its gneateft ^ |>rofit'ii derived'fro^ ad- 
-j^aiKing mciney to gowimhefSft^dft'the lahd^^c^ 
-.^.biJis iflued froQv this igrnkPar^ pajrablie it fight ; 

)3iatas the fottunes olflirialff^^ch thdiridd^ls are 
^iplai^ed here, the maacf pkWt^otStf from the hand 

ceitain are fo inwoven bto th94>AeiPtOfv(yuh|»ftiirf tovernoieiit; 

and are in themfelves fq necefTary to carry pc^ witk efieft the pur- 

'^jAles for which ihey were infti tttte3 ; that no nunifter will rafhly put 

UHAi e^ to them ; hot diere Is' no dcMtbt, that oar clrcomftancet at 

i/UU-moncfitzH &ch at t6 allow «r to rtimborfe ahnoft, if not all of 

,;^^itmf.i^vf^^koug\itffo^. Thej formerly adiranced certain toast 

to government on cafier .terms ibnn money ^oM be then elfewhere 

procured. Public loans could be now raifed on the iame or nearly 

\1i^%tilie terms to replace thbfe. old debt$> were foch a meafure 

iflltfelf Hilobgliif expedient. 

; } The bUnk has alfo an allowance for the managtaient of the 
pviilicdebt ; which allowance hat been lately rediiced« It gets alio 
by buying MP navy and vidlualling bills, which bear inteteft^ and 
other fimilar fiscurities of the fame public kind> as well as- by dif> 
ODiindtig occafionally good private bills. Thb is done mth the 
money of the . nation, or itidivi^uals, lying in their hands. About 
4etf' thoofand pounds a year may be demonftrated to be thus made 
by the bank on the payment of the furplus million tnnually, from 
iihie niamierin which the money is advanced to the bank.&tun the 
. exchequer, and the mode oif^applying it by ^ait^I jaft^toCAts aiLdie 

*uifcha^iifftKt''" '^■' ■ 

o€«B<»rM!CoitMwt caiuK>tker«%wiibdtti»gflMigioiit of,. 

btnk has been of the greateft utility to ^kiglaqdfr^ 
it: irebfei ks ipeciti ; zad iuppom the czdiaQge ta 
great advantage, / The French had in thtig: foijc^ 
4nfi:$mftg an eftabiiiluiient: vhkh wns no kfs foli4K: 
and whofe ondic wo^ I3«y^ hftv^ been difturbcd- 
i£>it had.not been fo^sHidi 4bMf<xl by gov^ODacnt{> 
oi if the minifters had known how to fupport it^ 
by pouring into its treafury all the fpecie received 
i^jpaynieht oJt the taxci« ' axid ail thu was cl>ihi^ 
aj[^aj]|^ indemsuficatAon for the expence of vnpo^JiiRg^;^ 
xinwrought gold and filver } and by dxa^ifipgi ^^jf^\i 
b)Ha flroiti thence^ without .timitiog.tlii^.nttfaofexia 
dafejirfilt/br Jntciferiftg iii its ditideURiSi ?i 'Bf iSibfiK^ 
dS^^fupplies of^ ca(h, the c^iffe 4yj[cm0'}^^^ 
l^l^e po^ffi?4 the mean? of m^JMAg Its |«aP5»t„^„; 
i^^.pffice^ which woiUfi hfwcinS)i}$<Jt,i;9myfW»»s 
and perfuaded the world that the paymfltlft36£ati)«^w 
lAM» in ci#idt!i)a(ibA W«s feettred byan itte^lafe>fl$6fe 

. Thp^nglifli J^ttJndi4 company. jpjyj.».^^ 
QJE only Jthxcc per qcnt. * upon thejc l?i^di» y« JB^o 
derate a^tliitintereft appears, thoiib bo|idil^Me4tiiu:b'^i 
fought after, betaufetheyaihe payable at-fixiaoftthf '^ 
date, 4nd to jhe btfarcr, witbbut any qccaai&i^tdr. 
f?^ bonds. And 9^ ttie iQjterilpi|^is ijQwaj^l'gof^ 


• 4 

s :• 



tki itef «Nr cdnfidefed « iMifey trttodt iiramfei 
vrMlc in your pocket-book^ The coitopalrfteGeivQi 
thdii in payments at their Tales, which are held 
twice a-year. 

If ^ that I have feidiipoft the- ^goN^emment'ot'' 
Bn^and, its police, and the ^fb&nners of liicfiniia^:: 
bttants, be confideredV'I Beliei^-it will be ailmred 
that it is not among ehefoillaiidcMthairinen nmftfeek::: 
fortruefibertyf i foiethhtWlft«<i^alftybf thferigbta:: 

«--'-■ \ . . . ' . ^^ -fi * V * "^^ 

» • ■ ■ 'i ." , ' ■ '. I i I • . ■ ■ * ■ ^ ■ . - ■ ;■ i; 

-.*■■ . ><•■>.. . ■ i' •' ■ . \i ,., ' . -. ■ ■••.. ■•; . J 

i It if the bappineft of £nfi;Ulhmen to enjoy that rational lib^rtir 
wmdi gains pennanence by being aiToa^ated with order ; and whici 
fiifltftWiiMly fit>hi Ot>^li^ffic»A> si^ reftrkiiJt A'bffi'tlblie^ 
liaik»ar«»itt«iriiieodeorwdiar^^)M '" !*'.r 

illic^opialtitii&fbniipiatily cnteftahifeNl^by many it At H^retidk.. 
fp«^#P«»* govtoiwea^. and htre awwci by M,.4e U qpi*^^ 
d^l^m^h^ dc^^ thf.pc^i^eof ^Hti^ididiltte^ 

proved tlie b^e of their ih^rafted country. Vbb aiict^t aiim^ 

w n b u8d fcfttBy«d; g .:■ \.: :t-:': y-^ 

■ .\l ■ 

-■■-'■'■ 1 

bave beiea their grand obje^ to fix^ confimi»^^jp|l^4)^«dita. 
coslBtiidop, revived by the ad of the monarcji m^ie)£ If:' ma 

poi^tf^uoiy^If Aeftiatacei tofecare to fii^ni^rei\&lti^' 

JJ^bc]^.^^ aUb Jby fbme law nyon the plan of w^^ i^f^ ^^f{> 
aft;^ve c^eiM^^ dieir ftate priibns |o the ii^pedidn of jaftice/ana^ 
thSs^'il^vli^iaVe (feprived them of Ol dknger. ^at noiyfei^ 
nfWdm^t^aAl hi^e bMneradMrte liberty thatfit'^MMlrtifibfiire ? 

eRO- agio* 

^3*4 ' Of the CtnJHhaion if England* . 

of men ; thtt real participation of all die citizetis 
in the legiflative power ; that privilege of rifing, by 


a glorious trophy of the overthrow of defpotirzn by the power of 
ihe Taw. 

After eilablifhing thefe fundamental points^ which conilitate ift 
fiiAllie \aA\ of dvlTfilier^^ the ftates- mighty Hke «the piu'liadibi^t 
1^ fktftr iitdoi^ lisvvriiiodqll^ their o>fsi, tnterotal cqnftitutioft i the 
copiittutiof) of the e^ecutive» adnunifiraiive, and judicUL powers of 
the country, if any modification had been found expedient : but a 
rage for ftill more than American democracy and equality, though 
neither was compatible, with their ittuation, had feized the miadtrof 
mnj 9f thofe theo^eticfd reformer* who were among the p<^ujbr 
traders of France. Their cabals were carried on at fhe houfe ^H^ 
American mini^r> Mr« Jefferfon ; their cluef inilruftors were thbie 
Americans, or thofe EngUfii admirers of American inftitutions; wkofe 
dbdbrmei were decidedly in favour of republicanifm ; and witk theCb 
were mingled fuch as, for thepurpofes of their, own ambition^ wete 
deiperate enough to employ the mod covert .means of ovi^rti|^Bifi|g 
llie ezifting government^ in hppes that their pwppowerQUgh^t.^ 
raiCsd upon its ruins. On the other liand, the natur4 ftrength pf 
the aridocracy was enfeebled, and divided, by the party who felt« 
ttr a&6ted to feel, a weak and Hlly admiratiob, not of theprineiples, 
bat for the modes, and fbrms^ of the firitifh confutation. : Thefe 
were MeBrs. Lally-ToleDdal, Clermont-Toxmerre^.an4 yiw^^ 


with many others who were among thofe g^q^^ally, efteem^d Jor 
their abilities and integrity. 

it was of confequence for the more democratic party to have 
thofe pcrfons with them : they were therefore 'flattered with the 
expedition. of a government fimilar to that of Great Britain t .and 
a majority of them» united with a fmall number of the demoetasic 
fafUon^focmed the firfl committee of conflitutiou, iji^ which^a fpe- 
culative plan, conformable to their ideas, was prepared. Bat as 
foon as the credit of thefe men with the public, had effabliDied the 
fcrfief that a revolution was expedient, the purpofc of introducing 


Of thi C^JHtMtm 9f EMgUmi. *^i^i 

merit and by virtue only, to all ranks, to all dig- 
nities; thc^e laws which proteft all individu^ 
without diftin£don of titles or perfons ; that abfo« 
lute fecurity of property, by means of a police 
watchful without being oppreffive ; that, full tole- 
ration which authorizes every man to render to the 
deity the worfhip which he believes mod worthy 
of the divine power ; and that public ipirit which 
makes of ail the citizens fo many agents of admi- 


them htto chs committee was accomplUhed ; and their removal was 
in confequence determined on. Means were fopn found to drire 
Aem firbm the nationid aflembly : their plac^ in the committee 
were filled bf meifAers of the oppofite fadion ; and> agreeable to 
^bdr |>liiid(itol, yet admitting a Aiodc appearance* of monarchical 
govcr m iyiitj in order to impofe opoa fuch peribns as ftili remained 
attached tothat form, an incongruous miion of tyrannical democracy 
and impotent royalty, was devifed, without the intervention of any 
siiediate power, like that of the houfe of lords in England, and of 
llie ^nacein America, to iregnfaite their contending intereRs, add 
p f e f tn t like dae from preponderatiog by the force of numbers, or 
the other' through the means of corruption. 

The confecpiences of this ftrange experiment have poved exadtly 
what were looked for by all foher politicians ; and France is at 
this moment, near three years from the revolution, involved in afl 
thoTe calamities ixiiich muft ineviubly enfue, when the ^executive 
power is deftitute of authority to gWt^foU efiaft «o .llleJlaws; and 
when the multitude aredifengaged from that necefTary fubordination 
on which the peace, the order, the very exigence of a ilate depend. 

If nothing (hort of that licentioufnefs enjoyed by men in fuch a 
fitnation, deferves the name of liberty, may the ful^jc^ of Great 
Britain remain for ever unacquainted with it. 

* YOti II. niftratioi;)^ 

j64* Cftbe CmJtitMiim^f BMglaui, 

niftrarion, and fo many confcdentn'leagutd for 
die profpcrhy of ibe-fiatc. 

:^C whftic Ihall we find a nacion lAich preftots 
to our view this bMociful tnu^, thit per^ ac- 
cord > We have been taught to hope that they 
imy beibiiadiaacouniTffspvrKeiftDi^^^qrope 
by a »(l extent of ocean ; among a people Whom Uk 
French hav« aAdcd to braak tbeir chakt. We will 
approach them ; we will contemplate then without 
partiality : but in order to obferve them widt a 
calmei; and more attenitWeeye, -in w^-fbller to 
pafs away the days which France requires from 
us for confolidating the work of her hp^flM^^S 

\jhx aflembUng un4er the eyes of Jier auguft cfiuff 

Jker double foldiecy ; and for binding all her cmi- 
dr^ itt dnectnunon caUleby« foleitm oarb. 0&^ 

' ibay that oath be all Itps, and fl(w 
^m the bottom of aU. hearts : may it diffipate i^ 
hatred; bamfh all fear ; make the French iad\d|{ntt 
to paft errors; and recal among diois tfatir iUii^ 

~ trious fugitives, by difpUyii^ to them a ha|^ and 
peaceablerojoum,where they maycoiM torecd^f^I^ 
Uitiiiifelves to thc^ ideas which will iooo. c^sifir^ ^ 
1(jpjear votuuil ia tbclr eyes. .l"T.i. 


, u •.,. .■*- * •..■ •» . ■ ...".■.•■.,*# J .-. V/ 


Of the United Stateiof^America;- tkiix 


^1 !■■ %. ...J • •a«-.«^ 

XlrOWfliftn I afcend to the -height of my fubi" 
Jeft>' I am going to fpeafc"6f a coriftiriitio^ 
created by a principle of iadepeniiericc, and 
adefire of equality : -which wak preceded bjr 
mnch; fixpeiience of misfortunes, and iniquhy^ 
.:^fflfa-trlliih has ttetn"cdBffl5ftitre!d'ih-all'it*s 'parts by 
'?h^--iJlfeV|3r''orVrj-rtifej Ina'^rbdviced in an age "df 

-Before we ex^ttninc whcthyer this conftitutioii 

'iherits all thfc apjjkafe it receives, letusobfervd by 

vrtijit'i diaiti 'of events it hai been eftabliflfed ovct 

■fbat Vaft extent ^of Corimry 'lioW fiibfeJtted 'to ' & 


The united dates have been formed iir come- 
quence of the vicinity, and thefamenefs of iotercft, 
which prevailed through the thirteen cotenlcfs that; 
were fucceffively cfbiblilhed in the noftfcoii^jparttf 


m\al Cohimbuft was in the (buthem part> tb^ trw 
fimnderof the£uropeaac(Ubli0useatSt; He^MMi^ 
fikc his rival, was the ^obyeft itf ^crfecution; aqil4& 
ter languUhiog ooany years in the prifcwis of* £ng^ 
laiid, he fioiflied his courfe by Ipffing his head oa 

^ Thts.oairigKior obtained . fn^'Otf^e* £U»beMi 

a charter dated the &5th^<]^.&to44^^ ? jA^i^. by rl^M^ 
the fovereignty of all ik^ ^uoitries^ ef wbic^-ir 
Jhould uke pofiefiioA : wa#: gfianted ta hkn- iaiMl jMf 
Jieirsy a3 alfo the pQiiy^f- of ^((^lifVa^.tberf ilDgt^ 
ventfooot as much a( pe$U>^ Jikc tb«<oiwinpiM0 

Furoiib^ wxth thi»; 94e % WiJ&ec^ fvlMuM 

Hfkin^ with hin^ p^p j(b»]p»^ *a|id tQ<^;PPd3^^ oif 
all the country from th^i^twemy- fifth ,4figrce ^ 
.Itfipide to thp ^f of $0in)t I^ur£ncft;; 4^^^ 

anayerfioofor marriage^ he gave to theJbtt^^f 
^^hieb be tbm xeiidier^d .blNTeif i^ \thc 

name of Virginia, :^.'.,.\^:t- ^;;i. ^ 

4bv «S!)HKyc^I)X«!A. was pQt 4J4>o(fi4' tQ;9ckM!»k(id^ 

AQir. «(^ iblcf. but. QbM$» li* aAd)it wA|:At:ib|9 

■ crifis 


~<^ Sbdi a - prodeduite, ^i>»'-Iefti''jdft" 
#ouId not have infepfed Ctomrareli; for it- "was 
stiasdk tnore'«dannii»g td Iiiin't6» fttd'^e people of 
iM(\gtai»ackiitfw«edge iH^^tttilc^^he U^ful H^ttdt- 
^Aiy^bHr if |h« tlirofte, littd'tflfe^hiiji ai afy^tAn ij^ 
^IJett! :«oii»(ry V- tkaii'M^beflAdi (k^teTed thea^^ 
•^^olly^ltfidc^ttifdbi^ of EbglttHd. Tke Virgkiiaris 

jnpoxtaot articles of the capkuUitioa. > 

b3jhfi«i|||ijitoyig iM4rilk&i»d4b &dl de^endcitt 

^ Miltltli^|ii^tflilt»'lJl^ieotilftHeit^^hk^ £^iaft 
^tilialiuit^raJjQQtudJtli^aJiiil ei^jttjr ^ ftine pnfi. 

" and fllaU dire& the affairs of the coleiij^^-^ ^ ' 
idq«^il^foii4M)Y'|^ff«rs'^btMi enjoy li#%fi(^x. 

^;%iMtteii~ia dM ^iriirNn graat#iii9¥^MisKlia{r 
"^Ici^gi^ ' tM tU iidulbicaiio-Q^'Virj^ fi^ 
eilio ■ " ii»re 

36S Of the Conftiiution of j%niriiJk 

*' have every where and ^ith alt Hationli thef (atMf 
•* liberty of commerce as the Englilh. . • ? 

^^ Virginia (hall be exempt from ta2ces> Vhitiibs^ 
'* and imports of all kinds. She fhall n6r beYub-' 
** jefted to any charges, neitHer (hall ahy lorrS't)*' 
•• caftles be erefted, nor troops be kept- on f66t 
«• there, without the confent of the ad!eni^ 

This treaty was fighed in Virginia on the i2t& 
of March 1651, and afterwards ratified in Enghind 
by Cromwell. • f 

The parliament of Efigland annulled, ihdeed^ 
at the reftoration of Charles II. all that had becsS; 
done by Cromwell. If this treaty had been cbdal 
prehended in the adls which were annulled, 
the inhabitants of Virgihia muft haVe been rci 
ftored to their primitive right of abfolute ihdepen<» 
dence on England. If on the contrary the treat^ 
remained in force, the Virginians ought, according 
to the 4th article, to have enjoyed the liberty bV 
trading with all nations: and they could riot, ac- 
cording to the fifth article, have had any tax im- 
fwfed upon 'them, without the confent of (heif ]ge* 
neral affembly. /" ^ 

It is of confequence to attend to thefc ' two 
points, in order to be convinced of the injuftice (Jf 
the taxes which England fought to lay on all th<5 
1; and which, after producing thcl!war df 


Qf ikt Omftitutm if America, ^69 

$774, biought about the iadepcndcnce which they 
WMW enjoy. 

J ihuft however obferve, that all the dates of 
Ntfrth America had neither the fame origin nor the 
fittnt titles as Virginia : many of them were found- 
tA on gr^ts made to the companies of London and 

Tfaie origin of Fenniilvanta was very Angular : it 
ic was founded by William Penn, to whom Charles 
Hk. granted a charter, of which the conditions 
were : That the king fhould have one fifth of thcf 
^ produce of all mines of gold and filver z that an' 
annual tribute (hall be paid to the crown 1 that 
tfie province Ihould be called PcnnlUvania t that 
fbe ihhabitatits Should have an agent at the court 
(tf London, for. the purpofe of replying to any thin^ 
which might be alledged againft them : and that 
in cafe of their not fubmitting to any fentence 
ndiich might be pronounced^ the monarch might 
fiduoie the government, (but without prejudicing 
the property of individimls) until the people had 
made farisfadioti. 

By another article it was agreed, that the mo- 
narch could neither lay taxes nor impofitions oti the' 
faid province without the confent of the proprietor, 
or of the afTembly of the province,, or without an' 
aft of the parliament of England. 
'. This lad article, which was confined to Pennfil- 
Vania, weakened the caufe of that proviJnce in the' 

Vol* IL B b laft 

U&. war;. becauCe thf ^ tftxes 4en(K)rednn|ioq ki^'ere 
fan&ioned by an aft of parliaments J3uktfattj£cmM 
iUyanians affirmed that the treaty,, made: ofdj^isi 
tweep Pexui and Charles Ih w>s withoucitlueir bMff< 
cui^rcnce: t(ie convention faetveeeirdiam 
^n4 tbeir gpveFnor. .tbGre was np jgentioD/ .mewtejaf 
the fupremacy of EnglaQcW :.ln. faftj . one si.A^ 
^irpcles o£ tlic-weaw be^w^sa i?<5in?a!ndbjtbc:«iii-: 
griflt? im£orts,,v ^h^i ;f :*. riie. gpYeram«rtK"(th»to|l 
\K theToyf reigiUY)at flvU^^r^e^ in the. gfafirabiS. 
^/.ii^nbi^^ )¥lu^h Cbail ppnfift o£ifaff 

^^.gayernqr,n-andr' the^: r§prcfffitatiyes ,of..dhbe:Jr2o 
<^^mea; an4: tl^t.:!^)^ -fl^^U^lAid^e . Uwp imt^^ 
\^.. XzxtL and eftabliih. tribunals ' and tofficosxf eifc 
U Alio determined by th^ ^faid t^fjity^-itlwtjitfa^ 
'^ men who refide in the proyjin^d^) ^fid^n\(r|]tQrj|Qt^ 
l^tbe:xaxes to go^ve^nment^ (baU .^e jpoa^d^Tfift as 
^ men, and enjoy the.ri5ht:of:. elet^ng^^ w^[ 
*.* being elefted tQaU,eipp|oyjH€B!t«^:>^ati^vtrji^^^ 
'f. whoever ackno^^iedg^s ane-.on^ni^ Qfids 
^ '. . £h4I not^ bet diilurbed on-acjcgfu^, q£ ^is^^ptw 
V principles; in matt eis of faitilvor <rf >^H>tfl>ip.i HQfo 
*5^ be jxrcvMjted j^roni. njaintftiniftg or, fre<yjftn&ng 
•/ any miniftry.*/ . After this oontraiSI: ^Ij^ad b^«nf 
made between Peiin and the inhabitants. rofJ^i^Ti 
land, who had attached themlclv«;ta him* .tjiiey) 
embarked for America, and eftablifhed thi^mlJ^iYfi* 
in a canton of the province knovvn^by the Aa|Qe^<j^^^ 

PKiladelphia^ . . .v-s: ;.iV.A i.-^^M^* 


Cy ibi^Gfr^iiiaiiin ' of America. 371 

^i!^l» prarinbs of Pennfflvafiia Was rnori" rapidly 
iidbBcod than any of the other ftatcs of America, 
bBbuife iti fyftem of legiflation appeared more 
iwfekv&fidtjs, the Quakers, ekcltid^d from Virgi- 
ua^and :ali the other Englifll colonies, were ad- 
kiitCBd, and exercifed there thofd foft and peaceable 
tFKtutes which charaderize their {tOi. 
-irBuc nothing contributed fi> tmidi' td peopld 
Moith America as the religious^ wars df Europe. 
.5ihe emigration was^ A> g^*4t in 1633', thkt'it was 
taken into confidcradoft; ifi^^hcf^otiftdflofi^e king 
df England, whether it ought not to. be -forbid- 
ite;'4nd it Was effedually forbidden in 1637. But 
ttis prohibition ftrved only tb iricreafer the defire 
d^etnbarking for America, akid Btehwent thither 
Awn all parts of Ewrope. 

•i^ I Intiderahce, fo injurious t6 France, would have 
prove d very beneficial to England, if (he had 
l«ft)wn how^^-prtferve her afccndency over thofe 
Al^ni who by taking refuge in the colonies with 
iMiictiike preferred the intercoiirfe of commerce, 
did not Mfholly abandon their country. But the 
Snglifli^ who believe themfelves to be fo fuperior in 
knowledge and policy, had not the art of nouri(h- 
inig that afleftion, which animates the heart of an 
emigrant for the (late to which he owes his bii'th* 
Full of the idea of their own fupcriority they re- 
garded with contempt the generation which ex- 
tendfd itfelf beyond the ocean, and which had no 

B b a longer 

3 7 * Oftke Conjiituiion of Afnericff. 

Iqnger any thing in common wixh them but jhci^ 
language : and making an ill ufe of ibeir ppwci 
aii4 opulence, they arrogated the right of clireAii;g 
the commerce of America ; and of obliging thf 
A.mericans to receive, from them alone, the. am<« 
cl€S they wanted, and to affign to no ports but theu^ 
the produce of their induftry. Many of the Ame- 
rican ftates, influenced by habit, were perTaaded 
that this rigo^rous law was really what, the Britiin 
miniftry pr/etended, — a paft: made reciprocally be- 
tween them : and asfuch fubmitted to it without ii 
ipurmur, • 

** While ihefe unjufl; pretenfions; (fays the aii- 
^' thor of * .R^^i^;Y:i^, fur Us Etats-Unis). aficd^ 
<* only particular objects, the. people protoftcS 
*^ againft and difputed them, but they rather choit 
•* to fuffer, than to come to a rupture with Eng- 
*^ land; apd it is difficult to fay what t^ight have 
*^ happened, if the Englilh minifters bad cpnti- 
" nued to advance only ftep by ftep.. The good 
** ftar of the colonies had howeveer decre^, thai 

* I hafve made all poflible iuquiry for this work, but..! cai^find' 
no publication either in Fremch or Eftglifn, either publiQied iA Eii* 
rop' or America, with walch the quotations here given exa^y 

\fy as there is Torre reafon to believe, the work of Mr. Jedidiab 
]Vio-fe,^ed, J Fh'v of the prefent ftuiation of tha United St^fs 
^ Am^ko^ be the one alluded to by M. de la Croix, the pa&gef 
xa:k<fd a^ c:,:tr£Ciu: rj-s very fzr frosibelog clofely tr^nflgtftd., 

** obflinacy 

vfihe 'C6ijftiuti6h if Amerh al 3 7 J 

^ bbftiiiiaqy Jhoulcl prevairover policy; the riglit 
" of tJreat Britain to tax the colonies waS opinl^ 

"** aiiertcd ; and America bad ho alternative "tijit 

-*• (■'■■""' ' ' "" - ."• ■ . . 1" 

**^'to fedarate herfelf from that country.'or to dim 

•* iinder the moft (hameful and oppr'eflive fls^- 

• ■ - ■ - . ■. * ■■ ■^ ■ ♦ "•■ ■• fc 1 ■, 


, It would hardly be feetieyed' to' what an eiterit 

l^ngland carried defpohfm toWards ' her ' colonies. 

If the afts of the Briti{h* parliament did not furmfli us 

withaiithentic proofs^ TKeir wereforbiddiefe tb m'anu- 

wl&ure'eveh the moft neceftafyarticies/in bfcler'to 

oblige them to import thofc articles from England. 

^ATda Lord Chatham, who vigourouiiy opp6fed 

ilic||taxiiig Anierica/ and afterwards the Am.e- 

i;ieari war, exprefled himfelf thus in tKc^ houfe of 

pccjp. ' ^ "But if the Americans, (hould ofFel: 

^ to fabricate even the nail of a horfe-fhoe, 1 

*'* would have them made to feel the whole weight 

*' of the power of this country."' If the zealous 

'dercnjier of the colonies {J)oke thus, and was ftiH 

accuJe!d of partiality for them, it is eafy to jiidge 

how the minds of thofe men were difpofed, wh6 

'flfeii^Mift^dona wafwith Amenta! YettlifeAme- 

ijicans neyefthelef? enclured with patience all thoTe 

fhackles and tyrannical prohibitions, 

.vj |t*wd«hot in this inftance a chief, a. monarch, 

ci^J)ftfflhg his fiibjefts, but one people opprcfEnjg 

si^%^^ f)e6plfe: ft was a nation, whifch' boafts rff 

ks g9n*K)6fj%'and'of underftandirtg the fights of 

p b 3 mcfi^ 

374 CtfiheCoaftimim^^MiSc(> 

men, th^t ^^s injurliig' ^the^firft T^btOxsigiti^itiMj^ 
ture ! S6 true it 1^ that id«fpodfm: i$twA% Kxekfi the 
nialady of kingi^but of atimemj of:^ flsiteii, .who 
have acquired an eiiipir^<>^er tfthors/ As w proof 
however thai tb« AmerkaAshad > not fbrmdd' aay 
dcfign of fcreakingcheyolce/ 'which they 'had "die 
weiiknefs to let £iigki^d' imfxjfb, they in the^ peciw 
ticm€' which* !«iere:iDddreii^ by them to the kiag^ 
only dsfirdd to be^rdftej^^diRiith^ firaatiot^ in which 
they'were itenicdhwelf ^FtcrT^ief^acecrf 176 

The SngUfl^rhitidfteY^oriTfattiatcd Ibcbefi^ 
and -by an^o^icdvo^ bi^ ^ower/iiTued^'widMot 
any regaM to jQfiii»^^^ihe&l^ ilampHiAiI^jiqr 
which it wasdiistf^A tte^rtvp^b^ls^bo^ 
writings of a fimilttr ]ciisd^^otth]t^6:^vaini;ii^^ 
on (lamped paper, 'which i-iiad^p^ JbcsiAinip 

duty. • •' -' •■•' ' ■--' ^" i*q/n:.n7 jzrfT 

The publication of this aftiiolfjciili Britifh^parlidP 
nient fpread a geneVal -drflatis^^on' ihnmgfactfae 
American provintes; ami 'the^inhabiimiti :?iiorf»D0 
^flbciatioQs for prevemissg th^impwimbK^dilfc 
of Britilh manafaftures, until a, repeal >^*^th€«^ 
had been obtained. The wconen entered ^-^kk 
laudnble zeal into thi$ patriotic confeder^ : fomt 
preferred the moft ordinary cloathing to the finf^ 
xy they were wont to receive from England ; while 
other3 abftained from tea, which was become a ne- 
(eflary of life: artifts and workmen employed 
tbcmfclvcs in jywnuf*5tures with whigh they were 

tip kbw ctoaAsf^>i)bca^Mdijar}iigb9t ydb^ifthato tbft 
<ttJr(iftoffiimpbrtfid^fflo^ V ^I'^Lrrr 

iMTsiM^^iridk the? ^n^h.^/miAosai migbt'^b^es^ 
fFgftbd-to make Att-^.+h^rjrefiftrtiii^ofr vJhidh it^wfts 
Salable; if tl^'Viol^flipf iil0(;^|^ttbl^«as?^ 
^l^d tn'; auidy^ ki^tiiJ|>«ft^t^ii£vrQfpbffarto.idiis 

but f ar Bafe fcfitimtnt tsfiii^evcib^mTlie^tsbmifQi^ 
^tbofe mercbamsi;>Trhc^:9im!cfa3(rid^ 
MKfonlumfsivialarmei^ ^ ^vejtim|nit:SH ^ndbfbjp 

lirkfe tbq ttraer ojB> )df&pq|>omt3ed ioMrfe^ SofPfH^ \ ihfi 

qprfiftitkb dfi>qt8ito.fcnlbrd«^it.,T-j.7^r- fj^jqrnrf^ xT-. 
This triumph of the colonics was but tranficflt. 
%iiii^6(7:i:tfaci Vd»^i(h}^%mttriiniAntidt^^ 

9ttd«^iie!ni^li^t(i)fi>rtelr98itbeml:i>y dneiliunp- 

font I t)aita:e)9^3i^Q4purs;. : pftperi aiiditeay ^ .which: Stits 
^fortsAjkom.Qcta^t'BtiuSn torAmevicafi-Xfiisbisdc 
ms^t ii|q)!0^ ic&)V)exatii»]s^irbecatrf'4^.>hQiAtfnei^ 
CfoA vt^renpt forced '.to. take thcfir mnicbc8i;;}aii^ 
^a^it, tnigb( beiconfidcred t>Diy: as^n lml2gfB^lltA^ 
tsdn^ of priM which ; the, vendeF wasnat 'iibai:fi r. 
^Nt tipoo Us. commodities : but in order to; tmkr 
^t: prottneiB^ jiift dir^AnuntailtursfliQiikl dbskB.beea 
rUicrs B b 4 able 

ibi^ita'Wipoit from. iQthcr parts: p£ EiuFopCf.OF tq 
p^Q6r«'^roai(heir own, foi^^tbe-articlet; thus faddiv 
tK>nally\ taxed : as ihab wati not the wa^ 
Si2<]tri(}ere(i: as .jij^ireA un|u>fl;.iaid cm fiecefiancs^ . 
tbft ^MXij^iOppofitioA .waa maiie on . chit jQccafiox| : 
jMLjt^d kffit^ m^^''^9 ^^^ ftamp-4L£t; and liiojt 
gained in <cqnf^Qei>ae,«T6COAd $riumph in^lilit 
yfilF f 7 7ft»^^ ' V(l|^n^ . .parliament pafied an^ «i^ >7 
)^^4m^ J^ tJi)o&. duties were tajcea off, cjtcept^tJiMi^ 
Pf^Aiie per pound^iinitfiat: even.tbis 4^ty,wa$. coi)tii] 
nsfl^^s^^.iti.wftf faiji^.lpfe for tlie fajc^of th» iw^. 

^mi.f^'':»X(A HtQrdec^tQ prpye thfe trM^«C tJMj 
affertion, the tax on tea wa8.4)9t .)ni)l^4<W.(f<^f 

,, America might: pcrh^pjSi-J^Yft remained iwCTT^r 
<ipP!^n^?nt pii E^glart4, if thektierj^ w^rpqd.bflbtb 
t)^'<>^hfglis >ybic^ kfft ic;bwes <^ vfvrpatiw ««Jfc^ 
iri^fsd, had.igi. ft^tyre^ pq»ftn«d ^r.,jbwr«i©|tf 
\^;iiiin proper bpufni*.;. but xb^ wil .geaafis of-.ty* 
i:^sy. is always hj^fryiiig.:it:ipi» iWtfemes^ fOdiA^ 
L273 'Ql«^ Britaijtt^ jhoughj-'', proper to ^nfoic^^ 
tberp^jffpeflt of th? duty on tpa-witb gre^t xig9«r- 

j^y^pn.ihU the indign^iipp of ;he American. pro*^ 
Vjgcpsbf can>e genqfr^j. '5h^|[>HjS:w^re ^soiled hy C^mtt 
a^,t|iQ.,ftaiggjt^ jiicli inafl.?f^ of ftiipsj ^» refvfod-. tO» 
brjfig^iOSSi' *?ftrgo§» qf tea, > aad in otheiEs, the mer* - 
chants to whom tea was. cpnfigned^ r . ^Rlfed .t<^ 

^S^y^'ffvs ftferf<i>vi«»i^«i: dated, to. vend jdois tax- 

pd .xoioi^^Qfil declared an emeny ta his country^ 
lEbMB$jrih4.ikAie fem^mcf was proitaunced on thofo 
wb« eye(i'kfp^ it ja tbcir ftore boufpa. -■ And 14 
HMVy pUccs che dnnkriAg of i\^i bareregjB was fo«k 
lf8v4;ufei|onimced,tto amonn 

tlptRI:o£:ihQ£^4e4yc«;j whkb bad "Mtb^rta coafti^ 
xm/^^x^ oftt^ir^ ItuMriiCs^ ^pr^ Nt'Ptf - : . 
^OfOfbr tei'&Kporrcatr:|iDir^i;^iA quarter of the 
2^b; ' ;^t>d which was * imhitd at five or ^x mX% 
Wwi'*not d^ iiaglc theft - wssiiufiered td 'Und:: and 
a(4l6ton^ which wai& tte ^nclpal theatre of thii 
iflfiinrc^ioiii^tl}e4nhabit^t« dt^oyed in their pon 
j^ ^gfM' of three (hjps^ which came Weighted 
30fth (M. tt'om Eurppef- 

. The £agU(h minifter, withing to take ftyeng^ 
OttttaAt ^ the inhabitanti-of this important towiv 
|A^<rtBied the fie^rky o^ too halUlyt 

'^^^illptjKl^mte jietfple (iaysk^e author who bat writ- 
.^JK8^4Mft>s^n the A^erkaa revolution) viihed to 
.^^^^h^j^ ^he'^iUf city punifhed only by being 
f/zioWigod^ make amends^ for the wade conuniu 
^^ ih tb^ har^Qur^ and to pay fuch a fine as thi^ 
f^ Mg^n&'X^.^oe; punilbing that ad of violence 
f<^ might be thougi^t to cnerit^ But this punifhmeniL 
,^iwjM&' judged ^00 lei^ieat, ^nd on the 13th of 
^^. March 1^741 a bill was pafled fori)iutting fSxp 
55 port of Bofton^ and forbfdding both estporta^ 
f^ tion and importation,*' 
Thecounof London glorlfiied in thefe i^ourous 


tiQH^ and tQ tdopt t^t Spirit o^ obd4mifirr{¥ith 
iv)ikb£nglandr;had iimghttdsMinvb'tke^ BAt 

pply united tli<Aiiltdtvo^«iorc^d/o^ mxtk k>t9mi^ 
nshkh tbe ftate^' tlmti^Ii^ ic£?If if^^o^ft^^^axiMfi^ 
frtis^^iKlai.y9Uiringr C4> qpprds :: arid in AlT'theitfift' 
ftliiSrs 0ft te colonyv aodoycnrior^thfr neighboring 
^l^ni^y tht: . inhf&K^ntts : took tipr. !tirnto and^ift^w 
tr-fbe il^lkfoffBtrfliftSHnV.Ar^ great ntiilabfiv-iilf 

Jf ; WttV^^we^fti^ft 1^ acfivfr, imcb .bearing rtviro^jM^ 
^< fome three men «: ^ndthoire i)e«r>gfii ^s»9ft jP%W»t 

€f tvificMi^^-Qn :^ccpu5nt: of ,!tbfer«xt«fflwptii^ utrbloh 

V-agriculnvc badc^^t»pe^ie|qH3fed^-4hte1i^^ 
•f which cofjfifted of ^pvaie^^doi«««sl^^WI^ it 

•^ ily. The (juwyty of . ricB5w^fe^ya*;fdi«rif^^ 
**. Carolina w^ jrpdigiflWA Sndri^^ (Mkgiwft ^^Atl 
** the fame writer) I have frequently bceir.Iao^ic* 
^ nefp i}{ felicitations to^dbtfvia Aomgfi irtiiiiiiQe 
l^y^flel, for enibarking white -and T^k«y tjcoKaft 
^ Xhc ; proprietors, who had alireftdyHSBHc their 
^'^pires of provifion on boards and de£tined^diei;ti 
^<>for?a^k^in theiilandf^ ordered the captaint 
*^ of ^e#iRf:toJet fail for Bofton ;^ ivhil^ochei;^ 
*• who were proprietors ^pf TmalJ yefly»j) Wf»^ 
;r *^ freight 


^^^MfsTeA^i hive VOf, ipATtActHkit'^'^pSAc^^-id 
^iiTiaufwi^feir'tUK foteirefght ti^ekkit^iikfif wbfft 

^for»} Twnf that they sH biAiere'tlMflhadl btfttflfifft 
^rSQeed with ihit>uAitf Aom 4$(lfKilt itf li!$ttA$l;»^ 
-VNpdfrom bppTefIk>H'«d(cf{>^ttffi{»ti} WhihiiktymikK 
yiith riefilUnoe ^ hi z^k&imP t^]^1(lKig$He!^«hiit-4)f 
Snifhffig- ic^ all 'ocherto^tmt >ifftlntos> ftibtitsil^ 
K»i<ior^ «nd that ic^wHl<i^ri«H<iir^(l(Io«ik' afdn^iM^ 
Hcutri0f facoour in'the mk}ft'0^hV)g^i»l A^prt^ 
JMiion; 'But-its^eaure-(boft-bee<nfle«'¥fi^ eiktoAdA 
tMtfsf>vchfi inhabitants of the iii«ightiM«iw^tb*^i; 
HaiiffsiL«!im tht&ti to «hfeb itls defti«ted>;^i<dbft 
Mittt'^ fguiqfdus etothufii(hi*iii its dtffi^nctf¥'>^Kiti 
tl»%t4^t^fopp]^eflbri'~«SM>ndMlghis ^H^^Mdf ^d 
ill fU«oP&'(id\3ftitry,'^^efy JbhabillAiK br^ )illf»e> 
e^M^liH maiAei, %aV^' 2liIbeMftd«ft?bdt^46 ^efl^oy 
§tM AMiotf ^ wUich h«(1^a(» toQgi^^bfo fO'i^e- 

dnlA^tlM Midflr^ thir*ferMe»lS(!o« j&hgktid^lmtf 
fiill>ltvB<»fba laigoVtiffftnjiAt 'ilftd'tfoo^ d«^<»e9 
tOTWi oKl*s:'''I»f -thenigfit' of Ih* 1»th-<&f 'Afril' 
f77^the'^(»mm8nder'<tf thefe trot^if'ftttt^a decftdiV 
moAt itr deftroy a magazine of sataS aHd aiittnuni- 
tion farmed by the Amcricftfts' 4t Cdflfc6rd';iboul 
twenty miles from Bofton. : • -■■'*' ' ' 


1 •« ^k<* 

■* A 

5S0 Ofibe^C^UuHm'^-Mal^. 

■ * 

'^ The ^detach(neiit -Qiet urith ibme hiilhia id' 
wajr^ wbich they cafily difpierfed^ and t^pMlf 
aiiuMi^g their march^ executed their orders^'t^jf ^i^ 
fisoyiag foiiK^ ftores^ B(K upon their retuVli tHqr 
iwere'barrafled withcxvt imermtffion bytbe'Aixieiii 
aoir, who fired upon them froin houfes and fenciftj 
and purfued them till they reached Bofix^n ; ierehi) 
Ikiing kiOed on both (ides'^: and from that itoo- 
nem the flttme of civil warburft forth^ and Ainencii 
was bathed wiih" Efiglifh blood. * ' ' 

The troubles iK^hici) kgitated the province (MifA 
jkdhufett j) of which BoHpn was the dipital, ^txt 
iib|>idly ^ propagated^ and- the Americans ' poflefled 
^emfqlvesVhereYer they-could of fom^ .ajEttah^iiii^ 
trdn^ and arans;. ••■..." - . * V-.: "" ' .- ■ . ' ''•/ 

'. The difierent Hates in which there Trere^pamtfi 
^Ofltutii^teeS) named feprelentativei to f6rai:aVit))i^ 
grefs^ which opened its firll feffioa at -Pbiladdli^ 
|>hi^*f*% - ■ ■ '■ ' ■ ■' -' r*- '• 

■ This congreft difrefted all the bufiiiefe of tlic 
iwar; and though each colony named tb^'^^ceis 
of its 6v(^ regiitient^ it wa^ die coifgrefs t&it'ap- 
|M>iD^ed the generaH ; and by them George-WttOi* 
fiigton^ dtputy of Virgiiiiar, was u^animouily ^te(5t-* 
cd commander iii chief <ifthp^ troops <^ tb^' united 

'■."...*;.*••--■ f*. ■ ■ •■ ■■■ ■".■■■' J. »,.... i.' ^ .,..'•... 

, : *. rriif finglifl».lQ& o^ .thU.<icci|fion,^iii kiUcd> m«iid«dr.aiui 

■^ On the 26th of October 176^. ....,,.,.,. ,., . 


'^ji^ff^^ r^'lphk o^» had gitcai pt^^ 
^D^tafit.tal^tsB and f iitq«i f«[ i tke^ Wai?:^ qf f 756^^ 
^ff( ^<]|mm(0Ob9n which way gi^^i^Mm hfcgagp^ 
Mf. coAcewed io the m<^ honQurabkr tenns ; aad 
||l^:l^ ,t^ peapt, afl^ well as dwing jdie )itoux£b of ihd 
i|^, . he has juftified f he i^nkm, wfticK was emcsv 

^y3?J?^€ Yirtu^ of this gr^.mafa haye uftcljubtcdljt 
jP9qttibutediioc ft tit«|« to combit^e all, thofci^^ which 
the French fo much ^mirej in One of bis ' conipsf 
jc)^)^iiianns« ThcaioKhoX;<:^Reckerdl>esfiirfisjBti(its^ 
l^f^^ who is a citizen of ViTginia^.xoukl not; poT* 
^^^r^eewhen he con»ppred>t^..wprkthjeit.Ii^ 
c^J^ Fayette would play in France ..the. part: t9 
which his happy deftiny has called him i bis eiih>* 
igj;^ 9^4li^dM;f efore be diftated by nqthiis^ burthc 
(j^^n^o^ vuch, and for th^t xoafoo I thinkieoughc 

* *^The charafter of the Marquis de la FViyettc 

^AiSw 7^^^^ biftQirianri Js jpflrabjiiftied in America on 

li^jfe"^*^^^ Wb^h.qfee itioft fubtle malice can 

'?(iPf)fW AlAke,.: tl^^ie i^v^of a fiogle anecdote of 

!JnJ|i^ife^,-wi»chd0Q»^^^ us in the recolj. 

f f^lfl[£t ijcrn^, and' increafe ou r refpe<3;,» I baVe already 

!f?opWpryed :^bat his ^joMragtv ^hich never fails, 'is 

^^ ftill lefs ftriking than his pmdence in command : 

. f(f V and:<th^ it^ig XK)t hiV. military merit th^t reiGideri' 

*^ him moft dearto w. 'The only dbUbt xfre can 

**^cn£crtain>refpefting Win i«, Whether li<{'appeal'^ 

\r; ^/.- a . ^^ moft 






^c^fn^i^'Vi^ho^ncfilnr tmfon has ?pretettded^Mi 
*i ifei: th^t for fa Jong^ime: heifekxegrec acftid^ 
^f:Aif^ tA«Jbl^od:c^v^heb£iiigliihi /^^ 
^'x^JU. Eax^^ li99brjedJ» tbcjcaai^at- AibtfUyi'lS^ 
'^(]|^[ mommt wbueo Aroiold.was piepatriag i^ Imd^ 
** Butler to execution. He was vcercaiA^jgftilty^j^ 
< i ,t)^ the ;Marquisi^fin<^mgeilaat 'his > tri&^*hsd^bdba 
^'.Wegylftrylpdk aihatitoge^ of thac^eti3^<Qi:«M*x 
<' jth/sd^liveraDceof Buder.^^ fu:ft^^ar<>f»MU^ 

, Tbe Jkmc: writdr iofpiFes :^ grmd 4(ltd^ ^^1^^ 
couatry^ by ^dding^ ^ That prope(iik^"^'fil(^e£IS 
•^ blpmilhes ia mca dcftineA' bjr iiatt|te',t6^«?*fS^ 
^\ tiont CO hupiiia kmd^ is Uap^ily -^gfentfi^^'^M^ 
u iVtu^iricd. : the praifesi beftaWGd^o<^^e(4t'W4>ufaitb^ 
*^ Ao perfoa : there,- \not ■> doai epi^^ ^^ HlPfef-artt-tJ^ 
" b\alh^ toXpy out its viftimsi^ . Cferiwai IW^^ 
<^ lonjiM the Manquis de la Fayetti^' Have ^^ftiS^in^' 
" to. feat among us.':* . '..■ >, {:.'?' v:::-.:nc: Jii: 

^If d^€i:e. is ; no. exaggeration in ^tfefe- eulogy >"it^- 
nuift : b§ acknowledged that the Frettch •' art'- ^ftifi * 
greatly jpferiQE: to the -people 6f JJiarth StofterkS-'f" 
cnvy/istfey^Q means baniftied from--thdif- tagkifi^- 
but tt^fccarjevecy d^y:^atching'thai'4k^s(^^jgiK^'*^ 


r *• 

WP(A fMKl. calufniUaceaitb^ ' fli^ aPHcf 

iQS^tlKP' buK lq£ iier daits^, ^< li« ^^deteftiibl^ wHifV 
tirt>l>ciiad f^r^.oo 4»liberi rwfcmnliKtc becaufe'rchejt 

in^x\^^U^lJbei A£faeixiaB^) ish^^^ fM^tke^biaiiiai'- 

cllcclpf^ rtot faU >witIunt!ihjp>«plan*^to^^rcribet^^^ 
Hij^fy )09CfftiiioDflib)? w^^chcctict citiuils d^^ibihSei^u'' 

aat circumftance : it is^ that England cdi^-'Mofc' 
A|bli4etbf[ -ail tii8rvi(%0riiis >i^y: 
Cll9i^j1nc^^j«(H«rro addhg* u-gr; and'^thaffhe^ 
Aeif iS^9l> tMF:^nl)^'tv«3r fucaoefsfol a6bions^ thoc of ' 
SjHEa^<^x9lgainiit.<|2|3iil^ral Purgoyne); and that 'bf 
X^iMm^tft&iifiRi^^hxAA'Q^ compelled 

thfhiPiMniy! f^bvceHnqoiflioali nle;a> to£ {ovemghfy^ 
X^rflfy^yndQtcit^Cthaj^x^ppref^ be always 

the contrary, liberty gains more by one (mgle^vie-! 
iofff^ IthaA (he Ipfes j^y : a thoniaDddefeats. ' Sh^ is^like 
ztumcsttc^hkhis compelled to take a Yetri»grid<i • 
cqwi^l MiA ^hkk, if it brakes but one fift^e \k6tk:: 
oj[Ah(^ which are mf^ to oppdfe it> acqutPer fuk^^ 

ban ^4 

and the work which had (>«en completed whb fd 
imich apence and tfouble^ muft te all begvtf 

Another circunlfbincey fid lefs vrorthy of rtmafk j 
is the find of wifdom and virtue, which extfted- in 
the ezecucxve and legiilative powers^ and ih tlM 
body of the nation^ during the (Iruggle between 
the United States and England, before the repob^ 
Ucau gotremments We^ created. Eighteen months 
had (carcely elapfed f^on^ the time of General 
WaQiington being appointed commander in chiel 
before it was found neceffary to extend his powen 
The congreis granted him all the authority <^ H 
dictator I and the ufe which he made of it was fucb^ 
that the greater part of the Americans are flill ig^ 
norant of its having ever been in his poflcffion. 

The power of the congrefs, of the affemblies, and 
of the committees was without any limits ; and yet 
never was authority exercifed with more . paternal 
gentlencfs: the fimple recommendation of any 
meafure was fufficient to infure univerfal obedirtice,- 
and the only punifhment ever inflifted oil thof* 
who departed from their duty, was the publiflhing' 
their fault : a piiniftiment which was ^fevere lA its' 
eiTedt, becaufe the culprit was excluded by it ftrotti* 

lii places where there were no tribilHalsV the' 
point of honour a<fted more powerfully tlian j^y 
ftnience: no debtor deferred payment^-antilim'* 
- • portuned 

Of tbi Gonflimion v^Amtrica. ^85 

^rtuned by hi& creditor ; and where courts of ju* 
ftice fttll conciilued dpcn; the modenktion oC credi* 
tors rendered them ufelefs, 

Thefe are cifcumftances which do honour to a 
liation, and render men worthy of conqueft and of 
freedom-. What d leflbn db thfcy prefent to the 
i*^rench legiflators ! How firongly do they incuU 
cate this truths that it is neither by punUhments, 
by tmpriCbnments, nor by feizing their effeds, that 
men can be led into the paths of juftict and pro« 
bity t 

The conftitution of the American (lltes Was like 

•that of France^ preceded by a declaration of the 

rights of man ^^ the principal articles of which it 


* It is truly tftonifliiiig thit t man in gen^fal fo well informed^ 
nd fo much a mafter of the fiifajed he writes upon, as M. de lit 
Croix, ihould have fallen into fo material an drror as that of fup* 
pofing that the American ednftitutbn was preceded by a dedari^ 
tion of the rights of man* 

On the neisting of eongrefs in Oftober 1774* ^^^ii* ^^ ^ ^^ 
Indeed to publiih a declaration : but it was a declaration of the 
tight of Americans to enjoy all the rights of Britiih fubje^ls ; and 
in no re(pe£l a declaratibn of the rights of man. 

A fecond declaration was publiihed by cdngrefs in July 1776; 
bat this is (b Ux froni being a dedaratidn bf the rights of mad, 
that its avowed intention was to explain the caufes which had irt- 
Hluced the Americans \!q withdraw their allegiance from the king of 
< England. (For this dedarationi and all the other ftate papen ne- 
ceflary to a perfedl knowledge of the American eonftitutlon, as it 
was originally formed, and as it now ihinds, fee the Aifp#ndix«) 

Vot. II. e d When 

3^16 Of the Cim/Hhtlipn tf Amirk^^ 

itia| not be u|clefs to cdniideri atid . €0nij|>#f4 ttritk 
flic^e whicfa) form ^ bafis of tb« Frrxich ^V$ra^ 

,The foft article IS thus cxprcffcd ; f,,..: m ,; ^^^ 


^iWhen d^ dWereia ftatrs ewer te loMi ctc^ fbr4WFii^|Mi(iifcB 
conftitution» agreeable to tbe p<nrenrxsfer5rei to ttari kihhKaf^ 
di(ik> of«i!ftfe4ei«4oa^Ki4p(Brpdt\iial uni^ 
rights of mail formed t|ie bafis of Sa^ ^ 'diem* vi^- MalUk^^^ 
Feniifyl^ttiua, Delaware^ Maryland, Yirg^Di^ tad So|«th Cao^&p^: 
abd it b fiom ihbfe that M. de la Ciok Us cxilnA^ libd khiSfiJ 
{Wen as extra^s from the Americaa dtdamion of t&9^r||^ ^ 

:^ ':ni;- .?fn 

. That tVC^ decorations of righu of the tt^ttAJkttt^yMf^fffff^ 
cottfidered by the Aineri<auis ^lemfetres iii..the 1^ tl^y^ii^jili^ 
tidcealnr laCrtHx, b evident from the. odebdoe^'dem 
wU(^ fbok place in the convention of the people' tf Od^ftift of 
Pennfylvankj on the 26th of November 1797, oin ihif m^mSH^ 
df «tc;spdiig or refinfii^ the worn conftitotuw ftffiffM^ 4heir 
ncceptanee, by the general eonveatioii of d^gmi ftlWpjIWlW 
of the Thirteen United Sutei. The . principal fpealu^ f^f^ 
its acceptance were Mei&s. Smilie, Whitehifi, and Find^y \ and 
one of thefe gentlemen, I canndt at this moment rec<!^&eQf Mu^ ^ 
tkiem, ekp^ed himfelf to this effea on- the poi^t^I 'ittfv¥^ieeii 

ung of^ «' Thez€ is no declaratigR jQf.ri|j>tt3Hf<teiijM> 
"con^tudonoiFeFed for our acceptnnoc; .andi»s ^ y |^,y^^tiii 
'^general government are paramoi^t trr ThF^T^ny-ir'iini^ rnfiUJTnrinn 
^of the feveral (hitef, the declarations of sights in tht cttdnta- 
** tions of thefe feveral fbttes are no fec^rity;' the]K£^j^iMrl26tte 
^ tb i««v«ii the CBJoynent (SF the bentiiM^ cf lh%4D^^ 
The conftitution of Virginia^ nnd^the. dKdmsUoJtE ^ImiS 

clndfd in^i^ hs^ «he^e .i^*.de U. Cn^iit l^smfdf iHfjfttMAt. 
•exe^ejtiftin^ tong. hSTorf . thiji dtb^tcLon tKn€W,!0OOltW 


>A* », ^ 


Of ibt Cof^imim tfAMUca': iftj 

^ '*^ Alf tJ&n arc bdrn equally free and indi^cftKJi'' 
^*^efit ; r and poffefs certain hacifral, inbereht/ an* 
<^ findlienable rights^ among which are^ the enjay- 
*< lAg and defendrng' fife and liberty; {tcquiring^ 
^fifm^flbSog, and proceAing propeirty ; aqd purfijitog 
tifitfildtebcainfng faappincft and fiifety /* 
^"^'ftirftSftffetJf ' thw 'article appears* nibre tele» anil* 
^/$il0tlh general c<ftni>rehenfib A tfian that whicE' 

ray/?«^%^ «!<?:K^ • ??<^ cannpt be J^HTt «^. 

lyfU i ^t ^j^tahinr^t^tfA r. % where eyeri .xhe-fbn.„o^. 

'ibe king is born with a right to the crown whicht 

»lttM^tia[Ve?'kbt, there tiMar* be' a di^i«ncei itf the 

!9to<«wVeyed V bto^ ' ''"' 

3«WM4%K. t\*it\ •.",■■. •■»■'. , .' -^ . r- ■ ■ i 

^o Mm'^^M^^'^^firMmi^ »« .elbWinuag it a^ 

JnW ilM h 'Hefofing -toottc thejrigheof ele^oa^andt 
«»^H)(«terffire right- tff'i^fdehtatiori ? ■. - 

^ • J^ 

•^"Wi5.W«oVirMrs't.<> the fecond article.- ■ '* 

^al/iMj??i?wer .'refiding originally; in the .people; 
.^S4lQ4^eing;4enve4fjrom them, the ieveral naagi^ 
< ft 4 tii i m an4officcps of government^ veiled -mtU 
• ^^ ttJ i ity , whtthfrr legiflative, exeaitite; • W ju-* 
•^^BSfll^'' af^ their iubftitiit6s*and' agentir'and'ate" 
"««fem»W^accouIltabkto th«t^. ,. ,, ,.. . , 

.]UfiW>«9mparcbt^i» amckt with:(b« tbixd«£tb» 
Winliit 4ed«Nuioft,'#fatcfa. ir, r- 
•'8»»IIC'p*i(i'eiJ)le of all fovercijgfety fefidcs eflfta-' 

•»Hli^ m'iEe iiati&ii : ho bbdy of aibii, Vo mdm: 

Cc a "dual, 


'JS8 bfibeOmflitutiin of Americd. 

'^*''d\;al/can Cjterciife apy authority whi^49fft;OD^ 
** emanate exprcfsty frorp tben,ce." ^ ,,j^ ,j,,-|' 
■ 1 tliink the fec9n(J ar(icle;of the Atacri(;?ijn ^g§^-' 
'ration preferable to the one I,hayc,nO)*:,^ivsjJjt'tff"' 
caufe it exprcffcs the fanieidtvi, witb.S""**^ ^- 
ipicuity. It comprehendialfo^hcjif^epqjl^jjy^jip 
of the French declaration, ybjch is.'poo^e^ygi^^ 

^wefe terms : '**|The/io<;!ej^ hfiVa "gbt t^Q^djj^^i^ 

«l^r a'dv^tag^ ovpr"A?"jtyii' J^^^^^ ;*^**^=2ji^ 

w|^«Vit tiie dutjpA^ 

aer, at 4l times^ anaccount pf thek <^fiWtf*ft4» 

iy t6 require fuch an_^accotmtv ■^,, , , ., 

The third articleis.tlms worded : ' ' Governme|it 
** is,_ or ought tp he, Jiilliciitcd (or the comrpon 
*' proteiftion, bcnefitj.aiid Iccurity of the people of 
*' the^nation., _ _, _ ".^ 

" Of all'the d^xerfe mpdfs or fpf n;s^o£g;gY?^i^ 
" that^is jhe bell wJiich.prQcqrc5,J&3r l^pfe 3j(ij.<^iu:c 
" goyerfjc^, by it the greaicti.dp^ee.^f ,^i^(mncfs 
1^ and faf^/^9,rici which U jjf ft j;ecur|4 #g?|9Jfe ^e 
". danger o^ nl^le.:admirijfj;i;^io(i : .whpfl«;if,ef J^s?- 
" fore i governin(;/it X /py^iij-ioiufficiepf^ fpj;,pw- 
'.'' ducing that end, or tljat,w,|^5.ifl Qpppjiii^j^p if, 
/'./(fwJ'.'n'Hblf^. anil imprffcriptibl&,r4gt^ \p_flc^rna. 

Of the ConftiUiiion of America. ^89 

j'.r *. • ki" f ■'■ . ^'^ . 

'* to change, or to aboliih it, jn the manner which 
■•^'ttt^jdit^e^misft for^ the -pubfi^'^airari^tige:^ '' ' ' 
This article has hrfttier tlie^lknrc'cfeaVqe^si^'pre. 

^SH;'6?j««hefs drthe^t^STi?r'^^t?^es/ 'it cv^ 
lftlplfc's^'&»di<^t6n: "U, lt''iMfe''rWcm''-(if 

St OT^'rfdier liiri^. t^C'riatioh heeds no reafo'n "but 

ItsOwn Will fof bein^ goverqcd otherwirc, and for 

^^i^n^'i hew' feitft' df'admintftrad^^ it is iifelofs 

tide may therefore be reduced' to thefe Fe\v words : 

'^Vi^^gk/ernment icttig ^tnJlUuted for ^ihe^ '£o6d of all^ 

^}w^eVir ^ the majority of the people comptdiny the go- 

'vitH^^t fBoutd be'cbangekaccordirig^to the will of that 

majority y when its will has been fully ajjertditied. 

f ■ ^^^*^iJ\3^1hish^, of cdl'pora^ or aflbciauon oFmen, 

^^iS^V^'iiiy cithef title '^6 obtain advantages' or 

'^^i&Mu!ir and excIii(J^;^e' {)rtvi diftlnftYrom 

^^^ Mtim flid ccMimuhfty V • than " wTiat^ ^i hies ' from 

'^^^fecWfittderaridri of fiSrVice^ tendered 'to the pub- 

^lic^ ' ailif 41i 15 titl^^ feeihgiri nature; neither 'h^^ 

•^'Hii^^kol^lh-Anlmiftiblt tx3 dhlfdrerirbf defcend- 

' ^* *nd upns^^ural." 

C c 3 Thi» 

39^ Of^^t. ^chJUtuim- 4^ Antmif^ 

I This ictatlc, *£> t^celieot iii a .rei^»iblj^|k9ijf|||fcf^ 
inr.oi».%ltcrctkB tiTOi«nisTel4&ive^^^ <^]^)«c^A'^^ 
etmnlf adbpccd y^: the. ^rcneh xx^iiftitvtiQfty-iljyil* 
the iprrbciple iiafe i»nn <a4hcMd) to ,43 ^ Mi4P9^td^ 

dt!izei»iiiflingui(bfid by p^i^m^^^i^9f^^ 

by the voice of xho peopdc to the right o(.^9W|||6| 

ing thcm^.:i; .ly..- ^-^^ -. i. :v .^.n,t ^riiviv^l .^'ii nl 

y^jthcifaw ought WifacJ» tyQ64i^ 
^f aad, ill oixkr^«apciva)(i^PFrf^-4o ll^fi «MPP^ 
<f bers of the two . firft bodies^,, *jd to ^givPy WraB 
<^ an opportunity of (hating fuch import»W.Qi«i^ 
f/ thofe who fill them ;iiUt^ peii<^ba 
^^■reduced to a private conditimi^ and <oi|c 9gi^a» 
«f the imuUitude from among whoim:ih€iy;)^er«^^At> 
M gioaiiy taken ; and the places Uuis^vaoai^.OHgJ^ 
^^ to be Hiled by others^ by mean^ pf coladiPAlbt&Qp 
'^ quently, certainly, and regularly ;m«ieiG jijai lo 
Thefe ideasy though not escprefled mthc^ivf^fi^ 
declaration of.rights, are to be fp^Ail: iWidifl^KfAt 
articles of the Pxench conftitufiQfi, #njd/ ^^llfeifcc^.'fee 
itsfundamentiaLprincifde^ ,r; ,,,::;.•{; Lin ;^v j) 
The fixth^article runs Xhi^.:: v.. ,.u i.j:;:>jcjx^ 
** The ele(3:ions of .the members who arc ito re- 

I ^^ prefem 

Of ihi Qn^itmim €f jtrntrtciCj jf t 

M^:^|^litiefiie ^opU Oiould be frself andej. . d^^^ 
^.^^ i9|UAif firing fuficiettt fMKiof of a o>i)iftatt: ion 
^•ttr^ft iM-t^ genecid admatage^^f^iihexQaQinM 
^^(i|j^ ind «M^ €lie atMDhfwmt wUcdi juiicf irom it^ 

^^-bil i^ •<id!lliof^^«gu« articict How^ cacfealt ibiit 

4biitii»ereftU'tk;e|eadra)v^&re} WholhouM 
ik^'^tffl^ ti^ 4ti iidiabicant, j^oir iitnitf m vighjof 
^g^^^<^V;)9f^>M^ it^nv Mf pwvedymur 4aii$hmtni t$ 
fjH^'/miy':-' -::'' ■'■•' .•--^ 

. Ia ;lie ft^e^ch s^rticlc h is declared^ that .i uw 
^^^ji^'pixtoivitti:^^^ bjQ jolittftakcA 

^ft^^'liiii!, dr «p>|^|e4 to |»ublic ufev wkhout 
^^^^'^tkiJkiitAy or ikat of his legal nprefinttd^s't 
^^^S6t jti% tke |>ib0|^ }>ouiuiby any laaributiiifih ai 
^tkty 4ia;ire in like maimtr x:anfented tx) foribeir 
f^^OlnittWi good/* : : - 

dc W^fioxl ii^dUUn<% poiats united: heve^ vJbich 
V^lK^AOC'Ca have beoa comprifed, iai.che iame ar-» 
ttele^^ -In relation €0 the firitic iaxA be obferved^ 
i^;^^irb2it€y6r ittay be (he f ci!pcd due to proporty*, 
#Kfe&fewr the public imecefi requires this iaciifite 
pf that of an in^i^idualj if he or his reprefentativt 
4n9tlT4tconfeiit to make fuch iacrifioe for afufE- 
^ftettt^UAdemnity, ibciety muft nxft^ be^ deprived of 
^til^ utSity' of a caaal/ ft public road, or a fonreis. 
\i would therefore have been more, wf^pta have 
f:|ipr^ffed th? law thus : No ferfgn tan be^depmkd of 
?i :: .'- .;.•* . Cc 4 - '* ^.1 1 " /i&r 


g^ Of the Conftitutitm of AtHericii: 

iheleit/tpfrHioftof bis yopertyri^tbiM'^ hi^M^ 
the ctmjent tf bis reprefintativeSy even fw phlW^i^^ 
mlifs the neceffity^ ^p¥^g ^ 't^'fttci^'4tf»^*ft'j^^^^ 
ftwedy 'mi tben there fi^ ie 'previfmJlf^rnMedho ihe 
froprtetdraju/i cMtpenfatidn, miher in e/kitei Hi^WSiSty^ 
tMcbeverbefballchnfi. '•iftU j>6*rer&«f MiJdi^ 
<* irtg'laws, or the eXeeutiorf ^ \sr9^;\i^»ff '^^^ 
^« Aority, without the coafcnt dP^bfi MfprdfehtotiVek* 
*^ of the people is injuri<^s to th<iit^^right'sh,''%h4^ 
f * ought tiot to be cxercifed." ' .''«'?' ' * '^7 * ' 
This article, which is the eighth, Yfttiftiahia'bF 
one exception, for in all ftates the power t#^grkSkt-' 
mg paydon is allbwied-tothc chief.' ■' ''^'■^'"^ ' ' 

• »* Laws made to panHh fdr aftlbris adnt*l»fe¥4' 
*« the Wtftence of -fuch Tawsi'lind' whidR^'fta^'ite^ 
^ been declared crimes bjr preceding l&'^vsj Uife^tin-;' 
^^ jnft, oppreffive, and irrconfiftcnt with flicJ'prin- 
** ciples of afree government." . . . • ^^^ * 

* Tbe French' legiflators haveadbpted thr^ article 
in thetr declaration, by fiiyingjr Nevriecanbeptinifh'^ 
e4 Intt by virtue of a law eftablijhed Md 'pro}nk(gifted 
frier Ie the offence^ and duly adminiftered. * - ' ' ■ - ^ 

" After laying down this rule, it' (KoiTld pci^^sf 
have been detrfied xontradiftory, to infirft-piMitftr^ 
mcnt on any perfons acciifcd ofther critht^bf 7^^ 
naiion^ becaufe there theh^exifted no' law by^^/^iiMr 
limJts were prefcribed to the obedience diic- tfo the 
orders of the king and his minifter^; - evett" Vhtii 
liptfc orders infring^p the right of the nation, whofc 


}ire:«iii!ij^iu;e Ivui iiideed been too ioog. confidorcci .« 
• V \3R^etwc)fth artw^^ ./. ;. . 

^^'SF^^^ ^yitbout iufficient pcoo£; ajadri£ the .pr-j. 
^^1/^ PR Pcquifitioji .irtiich thcf bear: to aay officet 
^^ ^r iij^fS^nger .of ftate^ to fearch. fufpeded ^pUccs^ 
^/'^t^^fp^^ ^y. perfon or perfoas, or tQ fei;5C tbseir 
^/;.'€^(3:^;j;ontaiaenot a pjutjcular ddi^riprioA<>f4hc 
^^ places, perfons, and things, -agaiafi: wJbich-tbey 
%a(^^r|Q9^p^ceed;i^druch w^rants (hall ,neverrbe 

The fame ideas^are aicpr^lfed>.morq priscifely 1% 
^.fcyexuh ^rticl&9f (be French declaratiocii Mrlivch 
Qi^^\Xi^^Z^,ff Nqi nia);j:m be. auufsdy Of^r^edyor 
** ^^^^^ht hi fnfM;j0^emhtedf ^d according^ te^.thc 
.* ^ fQmJi:prefa'iifed by tie Jaw. ^ M'^hoev^r JftisitSi • -dif-- 
^^ patches I executes j or fmw^s the execution Afarkitrd^- 
^^Tf orders y jQught. io..i£^ punijhed i . but ,^v^%y ^(tnsen 
** . wija is fupmaned or arxfjled by ^ivt^e (ifjM i<^<H^H 
ff;i^fiantlyto)obeyy' v,. .... : -^ -.»: ,v ^HV> 

Ttiere ftill remaU two article^;Vvljicl^^d^^anidHij^ 
^pagpt^^ular attention, becayifi^ ti^e;(ub(^€e 9Cil|;i^m 
i^^i^^rjfound in the Fi;ench dQdaratl^a^oi^'^jr^hfSf 
poftof thfm relates to the liberty of the,preAr.an4 
^ ^jhgr: to ,religipus toleration. . ; * ; . . -, r. ^>/ ;,, 
^Z,* Ttie freedom oif the ptcfs .(fe33^thevAJpe^^n 
^„^\?^XAUotiy is. one of the ftroxigeft. J^uiwarJw of 

»:; I 


•-> -t , • 

I...'* , •^■'1.' > '.-• 

Vr..? "-<*.puUi9 

iMitbe'Hjirs^^of c<il0ititty; nihoimikk a''*triiai^'^' 

«iid «rb»,''gt«Jedy after all> phie&; iW-^ipihWta 
which they may theeafelvesLakQtiro,- defawi^fiif^fiir'^y* 
"ithddi fo^hplftces^or digniti'^s are h6hotim{»(]r W^, 
•i'Tki^elbvetith artieU- of the Frei^h idfecHthiftidtP 
cov^foi^u dteck vipoR this Ubeity^ ^ T^ $r>ei' 
" eoiiMniEfntcation of thoughts and opioiottt' (fiqrft* 
** this article) i$ one of the. m6ft preoi<»us rif hu «f 
*t 0i|$i. 1 1 £fieiy citizen may therefore fpeak, nftke, 
'*<i6H4'pnKffee\yi only they muft anfwer for thtS'' 
** abitfe of that liberty in cafes deteriniiitd'by>the 

^Thii'Ut^'isnot tnade; and if we may jitdg* bf 
i^r #Kiel^ f6iWe#ly fubfifted) ths wntiog'anii prlnr* 
ia^yffMriU db'«h(ireJfeb)«ft6 which moft tffloHtiallf 
igm t\^\mmy ^WU Isrbidden. ^ !!«« ^ k- h^ 
iimcIyimpd(«itoir#'to>hav»«' lawr efUbliite^^WhkH 
6Bli>%Barl^^nt'<»at Wllat is j>ennitc«d, tlt)«t vhat 

li 4o b^'«^6<lei«di^ aitatotifei «id iiHU«}p ilh«yli 

ft^hdo(|>i4ad>dcif«)«dlm:))pJ«Dur;s v-- ----/fii#'t 

r.nus3ifi According 

'^49V9»:«i^oo vQolj, . 404 peiKcr Jl>]r force. «ir)Vli(4«wft0; 
IfCajfiK , /til Xiia^^ , (tf coAr<;i«Qces ao4> 1^ <tHh 

We have now examined the^ 4eclfir«ttoo^ olxlthe 
v^^Nlg^/ n^) <^wh4ch^fcece4«itfb6ic:9fiftMU|^ of 

iiftent with my prefeftt rf4tBr» tkat tto £nsUflv.#li»B^ 
§niHo3t>A. ftitution 

396 Of the Confiitutim rf America. 

• I t. 

ftitution is as far fuperior to the conftitutions oftho 
other*- ftatfs bf fitirope, as the America* tftnfftfW/- 
tion is preferable to that of England : and t^HR^i 
fhbdld aftierwArds ' &tW the pfe-cittiheific ^«tf^the 
cohfthutibn'of'Friftcfe Wfef eveil that^*iP^^A!iita-* 
i^ca/ -rf V{h(JhM'Xii^i^'ciCecx^ 
rile materiids -tvliich' t h'ave ' ^trp^liod* W^^tTfeft 
cflays will render it more eafy tOf^ ibrtii- titlittr 

■fiii ri/T " • ■ ■'• - ./ i ,-. . .■ ^ ««. . ^ I... ■ / V •• ' A» »j 4 >u 

. The g'overiiment of 'th'i- Uiiited' States-' Af^iild^ 

rica'is in fiibftiincc this/ Tltfe'fBvrfcignt^'terWfei'th 

the mafs of the itAatoitarits," who coflfidt^lletttti. 

ercifc '-df their aarfioHty' fo ^erttsfrthe •ntftiilik' 

of whom is rtot fb great kkWpt^eVem!'thti*itik«ei?5 

iVpon which they al-e tb* deliberate fi^^ l^Jf<|'4crf 

profoiindfy drfcufled ; 'ticither 'is it io fefeiififft^ fc 

to 'admit "of any one amdiig tlitm' gainihg W^^itio 

p(^werful ■influence. * Their commiflSbffs.-i^re fdr 

a fhort term : their emolument exceeds not What k\ 

ftcceffary*foT ihdemnif^-^g them* their ^xpeitces ; 

■thcir^po\yer*tehfifts in making laws'wlvid^theji^wuft 

^eirtftWes^obe^r ; and in appoiatiijg *d?Jifofilei«m- 

pfenihrciffires, hone' ^i which catifce-*cldt>by^wiy 

^hc oP'thcWfeltes, without difqiidHfying'hiib^feom 

being ^» hitrnbet of*thfe legrflative hoA^i -^' ^ -^^' J ^ ^ . 

Each member of^the^*legiflat?ure^v6tii§S'^dcwd|ng 

to his^^wft* opinion;- \Wthont ImviHri^ -*itfeafi«wi f for 

tHe'cbhfcnt ofh«t:ortftitiient5':^ yjAH^U'atetbbligai 

•tofftHtw tliclt^ inftreftigti^jj if iiYy .l^aye- bei^tl'jgireb 

./ \t' 

': iv ■. ' ■■■/ ^ 

Of ihi dnyiilfitm of America^ 39 y 

trfifi% bnii .. rr <,;• i,-; \ , ?<f,t ,,. ■A■.^i^•:~>':^i^<-: .:; not?. 

^f^nt^iyg e^cteqd^ ^9 ^ W? <^^ refi,de ^,,jthe 
,tel9rP^9(l^i4^:the5^1iaye atf^«d Oi?^ age.^f tw.ea- 
lK'ifeve.jjear5,,aadi3ee9,4ti?c;is of.the Uait^^^ ^t^^ps 

There is but one clafs of citizens: any titlesi of 

J|»l&«fee^Wflfeu^p^ of .^cofsiAXequirei^, tjj^^f, faqb 
<l^«^9WTfli9»ld,.^e,rpnjiWMfFfi be^re t^e fwty 

«»i«««lAfW»k!% wpr Sl»e- Wm%K ; of . fc}?&fif^^ ^re 
**i»ta4i.Wli9 any.:9f;fte#pwtmem$j.wbich,^o^ 
itftcalsgi4«^?f.tbe: efpcvtive, and :.tbe judiciary 

<!-iNftc:P§rfi»8!:ares,«bligc4 .^y», .wntriJpjitft ,fp. t^ 

xfonScifl»t<g;**>iWb*cbftJi<i,|#ffy is.^:^ft»iif?<J,t9, ^^.^ 
thriftian, ai^df in 9fhm:SQ: b« r*pr;Q.?cft^a:f«f:i»fi- 

gng)*,8%8nibipr/>Cit!»^ Ug^flathrc body,,, ,;,; n i>:i 
•roiIl»dtefl*|cM6-3'V<»ee:in-the qpogrcfe,, yixqrc it 
bw^fbyiesl rseptefeB^nvics, • :Ifi af6iin»rO^,UHi^.<^ 
^*cq^B§«Sf % mjijorityjof^vea tvie^iYM^ i^ ^i^%ip»t; 
.^trit is not fo in important matter?; fuch,as dc- 
2 Glaring 

the imajintty 'xnuft then extend to* -i- 4it^^Sm9A 

^. f....f. <.-. .,•,-,« /i i: '- ;f4t> (.vixjjibxraHl 

M ttfki^ 

ievea tttces ate faffidmrfbr ^Mjf^c^g'^r'^cSe^^ 

feut mxhctartef ntiRfart'lfeqiilWca. '. '''••'" ^^-^ "*'°« 

I ihaU lefcrv* for lhfe'n«M'cKa|>tt#»'i!a|fW8iH^ 

United: Stsoes «f AhMiridL'' W^^'^K^f CitiSW'^^MM' 
was the origin of ■ ri!rtif bnStSRflfMhft^ ?^i!lfe fbtnoP 

tioff t>£dieir firft jdltaHfee^(Ki«i^M(!r '&h^'^ 

the yoke 6f 6i«i»tflHeili»/< 'W^ H»t«'i^>tli|^tti 
yoke bitcame more ti»ny% m'^^^ln^NfM e^° 
fehrtlte Americ&ni'!inadte'fD 'eresk'Itt'^'lliJfMr 
atifeft ttt their primitive' liberty, thty raafe<?<ifip? 
felves above all the prejudices, all the Mkap\ii^0 
entertained of thofe vain cliftindions, wIh^H ilihe 
iiifluentie'of other ibdeti«s' hbd ihtroiilM^ «MOif^'. 
thenu^ !»1VM' not c6ikM«tfA^ ■ii a bat-dd^ 1M|^ i^fl' 
vh(yffoffeAd <±fnimftttd'-tbTettirttHio oBftwit^^-^^ 
WicQftfoatfdod with fimjjfe citiitfHir' aitii 'itb^iSif^ 
until itheTaifitgeis of drttf equals AtotHi) r^dfb t^^^ 
t«l«i8ii«> Oi^t^s* - They^evwtcafrtetfflrt^^'IPosft^S^ 
eqii^y-y SM ^ir iterffdi^foi^fc<^fty pajft#*&l? 

ftHtefts^ b;f the ■fociisify-; - knWh-tftidtJi^'ftl r 
/i^t;ltei>tte//\^Jttldt>pbtt *cprefagttittiefe''t, _._ 
el0^¥iWvka%;"4^^'ti^m6Wand fSbi! if^al^P^ 

%|^I|;,|Aiglit Uke jpkice m ^oo^qatoet- vS-Ah 
^gj^. fff. ^Baftin&ioft, which-ir«s tO imvrbee&'mjkfe 
l^Hcdit&ty» OMieiid Wtt(hkigMB, and the igtatta 
0|r(^«f clkt ofic«t$ d«tnit«d bf the fbte^, difildlM 
t<^j^i«<«rve ttidiy Mh<er «nm*B!lMfr& txlides "ditir^rew 
mtmA and tk«ir patcipcic yir^tsefe So' ^eatirotK wt 
^l^lu^ffi^m&.fyc/ix ittfuited thrt><ig!iketti; all ftelftates 
^^litpi^eaci^ atid d>at fign df Jutii^tl^. teotbeH^md 
i|,|ii^.>afi»« *iaj« by rtie FJftMb-tA 
q^ljl^^ j||.HR 4V^<4«yo6i 0(^.chttr| fetsvioen -..-•, 'i ' '^ .v 
.^ll^iei^ltfil ^1 ,oM|ipltt«s the.^fttttft of dra^ fubis 

ME^ ][^(i^f;, JiUsiKi' .fajn- a(l<»f««4 >fh«: i:finGa»m»m' 

fallQ> ■ "i" ■> ". '■ . . f .1- II' '';■ "•*.•■ ■'^" •■ ^"■' 

■^^h^ lEir^^ i v(f<>rtt ^ffas, «ot <;«npliBted . .irithofuc* 
^'t^^ m^Vktpppqikionriiiid jtitit %f»«fiwnft4 

ii||i^^^ flje clamours, t|ieicoinffn<U^^Mfca«iip«rir- 

^lA* I c9P(^we^- w:iMc^.mi :«?;;.;v«g»lm. 

^jj^pjjh^w j^cpanmeoti, andpf enty-feiW «niHip»*- 
of^ ^i^i)jt j fflt » :,.-.whicb deftroy^pd thf) bftge>-::«fc.f(»-. 

^^M^i 1^ Juft v4uf ;«««ipjaK!4ivfe0f^ 

40O Cftbc C9nftituim' of America. 

which diihanded fo many merceiury troops, aAJ 
fupprefied fuch a number of ufurped fktcftors, and 
Edacious ill acquired prmlcges ? Inftead of being 
lurprized at the dificulties th«y had to eitcounteri 
the French ought to glory in tbofe they hifc fur* 
mounted. Let than confider the obftixAt^'topiaib^ 
they had to fubdue ; the wide difference between th« 
condition of the clergy in France and in Americ^i 
and compare the ancient ftock of the French goti- 
lity » which had caft forth fuch a mnkitude of Ihentri 
and with which (a many weeds were daily:;int»r- 
noungling, with the feeble ihnil^ which hadifiWSf -^ 
ly thrown out any fibres on the foil of the. Ujliliid 
States: let them balance the diftiadiops-.gjiiPdld 
in the one and the other hemifpherei u^ xktlfi wiU 
at once be convinced^ that die greate^ dk&L^\tf^f% 
to conceive how it was poffible to introduce, iota 
France, that beautiful fyilem of juftieeimd equali- 
ty, of which America had given the e]Wixp}<i« . . : 

7 .. : ' -' 

■ - • 

• % 


• ' . ;)■*.! 


' i : * • .' *\ 

.i r ■ > 

t . 

^:iV \ ^fii 

-" , ■ 

1 . -^ ■ 1 

>' • «• ki 

■ i *; JiL A', 



* ih * 

tt«" ,- 

( . 4M .^ 


-Ji/t T/iH V^^r 

ifOVifTW^-^P^^^^J^^Vf tOtf. OF THK UkITED S 

^IMMilM-dF k^nft couuieiit, and ^in the t 
WIT ifiiif tiicir kaum wert inflamed by ^ 
- trifctiiit la At dbmtnkm of m neir pover 
^:%Mkdbi0#lMge a oentrt o£ autfaority from ^ 
^lMUl|te«vdera wercto proceed. 

ill vfi^' Mfteen "ftam/ etnincipated by a folemn 
■^^i^tf'\bf- peatee,' might, .each \mhia ic^ refpeftive 
-HifeiMjr'll^l^ eftabKihed* a government, and made 
liM^fc^kiklf. 3wt^^hat would have teen the re- 
fult Ofr-^tS^ independence ?-Wrhat concovd would 
not have prevailed among them ; that they wotild 
not have concerted mcafures for their common 
defence ; and that there would have been no pro- 
tcfting law to which a ftate, attacked, by one more 
powtrful, might appeaL 

The Americans were t(X) wife not to perceive the 

neceffity of a firm coalition, fedured by a conftitu- 

tioB which fliould unite them forever. But how 

was this conftitution to be formed ? The members 

'iCdiefecongrefs eftabliihed at Philadelphia, had been 

Vai. II. D d appointed 

40^ QJ the C^ftUutioH (jf Amcria^. 

appointed only to repel opprcffion : tbeta|k.aiQgno4 
%o General Washington being con^pleted, jbe . ha/^ 
no other duty to di£charge, but was free jto. f^F<|| 
and (hroud bimfelf ii) his glory ; and ther^ of^(|ip| 
no legal power which had a right to dir;e(^ tj^ 
Hates to aflemble ; to eleft deputies ; ^d (0^%^ 
tb^m^ furnifhed with fufficient powers^ to jpr^ate 
fundamental laws, whofe authority (houldjpi^^^^ui 
qver the thirteen ftate$ of America, . j.,., ^ a .^^ >* 

][)! tliis new fituation^ the Americans had r^ccf^^ 
te.the mparw coiployed ia^EngJand, ,a^d JipfUad, 
whPi\JJie:?3f(;cutiye pQw« i^ a,iu3^iatcd or.^^ 
^d : they formed a conventiq^.;. luid dfewr up^ihft. 
plan of a provincial pqnilitution^ which ^9^4; ^^y 
Require the fprf e of law wjiex^ ^prqyed an^ ^}^^ 
iy at |e»ft a xiwjority pf fhe. ftatest .Thi»j,,th« 
conftitution of which I J^tn gPWg to giye aj^i.^jjCr^ 
couHj, was aqt the woik of . a. conftitptive b^dy*^, 
invefted with the power of decreeing laws. . . . 

^ftcr n^eet jr^g for a time with the oppoiitjon* 
the QbferYations, aqd pvpn the.politive. refofaJ^* o£ 
fomc.qf the. ftatps, that worjc which wa? prod^oed 
by wifdqm^ juftice^j and a principle of f qq^^Ii^yy-^ap. 
at Irngth prevailed^ and obtaine^. the .^oi)Curf5i>C9i 
of all the ftates^ 

The American copftifution b^s pi^e very gijcat 
nicfit^ I mean its concifenefs ; for the yrhqle i& 
cpmprifed in twenty pages. Thus there is nqt.ope. 
thief, o'le agcat of authority, or even one Qiti?;fin«, 


« • 

♦fe^ti^nbMnform kmifeff " at -once 6f tfa? eirtftnt 
d#liis''duttes^ and^of ^Tie p6wer ^ith w]l5^ic^^ lie is' 
jMiiftieJf inVefted, oris authdriicd to inveft btberV; 
rIKaff ribw take a*^ the frrlhclpal joints of 

d^ tonftituaoni^ th<i ftWt article of which is ti^us 
lii^rcSfedV • '--^■^' ■'- ■ ^ ^ ^- '^^ ■ ^•^•- 
■r^^^^'AnlegijffitiVfe ^bwert herein granted, (hall be 
^vcftM in aCbngitfs'bf the United States, whicH 
•* (hall confift oPa ffeii^ and lifoufc of reprefenta- 

^^«* t*Hch6crfebftt{jitac be compbfe* 

^bf * toemb6rs''th6ftti" eVer]^ fedond year by th.e 

"{i*i Ntj pcribii ftiall tie z rcJprcferitatiye who (hal$ 
^^dt h^e attained '^tb the aj^e of twenty-five year^; 
•♦^anid bicn (even yfeats i titizAta of the United? 
f^'Statfcs, and wha (hall not, when eleAed^ b^ an in- 

^'^liafiitalnf of thatffetein which he (haU be' chbfenV 


^* The number of rcprefentatives (hall note^- 
f^ fcc^d cine for every thirty thoufanrf,btit' each Rate 
^^(hall have at leaft one repreferltatiV^'; and -tintir 
•^iftra (EJnutricrarion fhali be iriaUev the' ftatc'^f 
^■li^e<».Hampftire maU be criHtWd'tbfcWtHeltHfe^^^ 
«*'-B»r^acfctfetti dghr, TRhode fed kna^Pi-ovr-- 
** dencc Plantations one, Connefticut me', 'NeW-^ 
«*'York fix, Nev«'- Jerfey "four; PeiiHfylvlitiia eigiit, 
•» EJeh^^afe orteV Ma^Iahd'fix; Vii^iftta'tenJ North.' 
*^'eai*Kna five, South-Cardlina^ve,^ aiid- Qeoi^ii^ 

'■' Dd 2 

* " ib aimhtfiifg bnctcprcfckai^ro for ^fiWrir^tttrty 

ber of reprefented indiabttaots in tHb Uiitt6i$fiU4ces 

^itt\ift be ohe miltion iiine hnndmi ind fifty* aiiu^ 

Yahd, >3l^hich, togetHtr with feven hund^nfed thb^d^fimft 

ITaves'etnployed in the thirteen ftatcs, feirf^'^* 

pulation ofW6 miflldnsl&htindrtdaiUli fifty ^t^ 

rin<ir fouls. * ' -^ '- ^'^ ^^ ^ 

' ^^ When vacancies happen in th^ viS^ttBm^h 

*^ from anjr ftate, the cxecmive'audioricy ftft?eic# 
"^ (hall iflbcnoirrits of eledioit m ftn fdfchVtaaifciCs'/ 
^ --cif >j*|,^ fccmfe <jf ttprefenttriVei flmltcfhofe^tti^ 
'^"^ fpeaker and other offiteri^^ andfhdll havettrt^^ 
*^ j^vrer of impeachment; ' -= ^' -^ -> '^ *' 
<' The fenate of the United Stater ^OMlJ Bi 
^* eoinpofed of two fehatonfitxn eath fttte,' '^iuSfen 
^* by the legiflaturc thereof for fix ycart;' fciid 
'•* each fenator (hall have one Vote/' ■ •" 

" Thus no regard i% paid to *e immber bF^iriha* 
i)itants in a fbtte^^ in the ri^ht of m)hiin«cinjg'4eiia- 
t6r3, '-'■•-■ - '- - ••■• ■' - • ■■«■•:^■•^■;-:i; " 

^'■^^ No'perfon fliall be a Cehitdf who fflidlt^tfcft 
*• have attained to the age oF^hirty^jfeitfi;*)^ 
** nine years a citian bf'the UnhM St^es^ 'M A 
«^*^ who (hail not, when deftW, be: an ifthibilant 
'^ of that fta!ce for which Relhall bechofett* ' " 

'•■^--' • '■ •: ' ' -- ■ .■^: :. --.'.;,:. • -. -,' .fy-r- '•• 
"» By ^n error, evidently of the prefs, the tot|tJ.ii«8i^ir»qf »• 
ini^afits j^ iil^^c ;CidjgU)al.»ii^ftat€d,. ta be cigh^^l^iitt two 
bandrcdp^rftins. ^ - ' 

' ^ ' ^^The 

} i 

./..M^Tbc^YJce-prefidentof the UnitoliSl^cs fhall 
-^i^^ pffefident of the fcnzxc, bu^lMl hsxp qq, Tote 
//.pfllc6 tbcy be equally diwi4^d» , , 
..r<^/>)Xbe f<mate (haU cbufc their other 90cer^, and 
f^^ 9iifi a. pcefident ^ tempore in the . abien^e of the 
y f^ic^prefidenty . or whep he (hall e:{cepcife the of^ 
.5/ -fiee-^; pre0dei)t of the Uxxited States. . 

** The fenate (hall have the folc power to try 
)ff,-i^lf^pc»cbiBeai;$« WheM i(ftting for ' that; P^po^^ 
|^<^^^cr]f4haUbe;oapath. oi: a&rcnarieA^'" ' Th^ is 
a^fWre aivi fimpLe declaration o^ the part of ..the 
^I^vp|^ivra^'whaa4(e fcfblddeo by theirreligpoa lo take 
jlfB^t <^ ^^ ^ Nft p^o^ ibaU be. convi&ed without 
^^ the concurrence of tworthinds (^ the members 
4<§pwfent»-,r -'.• ' :». •■ . . . » 
nsi^ffflmtn^diately.. after thejr ih^l be aflembled 
J^ft 4n ; fonfeqven(;cv oC thefirft elofUon, they (hall 
^^ be divided a»i^ually a^ xaay be lAto three 
.^Hckiflli^ The feats of the. fenators of theArft 
.Y:idla^ ibaUber vacated at the ezjAration of the 
^ fecond year ; of the fecond clafs at the expiratioQ 
j^rfo£'the fouirth year ; and of the third cl^s^t the 
^$';9|Epirat^i»^ the fix^ year; (b that; oae.third may 
i?fiJb?r^hofe»^very fi?cond year* .. 
mc^f cOnbe^ Qongrefs 0iidl affenxble at leaft ofice every 
^ year^ ^uidfuch naeetiog ihall be on the firf^.Mon'* 
*^ day in December^ unlefs they (hail by law ajqpoint 
^^ apdiffiMrent day. 
'^v^'Ekebhoufe maydwmniiiethenrles of ks pro- 

ff:thicdy^cxpel.:a.aDci9l>c^-.i. ,-:..-» .o- lisrlj no •' 
if,.'« Nciiberciboufo d«B«igftJWvf«£^ofli,,qf .jpgngfcfs 
<5.flatetti withQut,tl»o .q»Bfe9|j<ft^ <U^;Plti^, ;?ffei¥» 

! u** Theyt(b«il. in all «ife>»";«cfipfeTrj?afewjM^y* 
Ifratod; bwaclik of. peicei,bfjtF«WJl«8«43%!^#5?eft 
«> daring tbeit attqndiftCji Afij^e fp%n^o|,^J^tfe. 

•If.i&Qm tbC:fam<J.o;:04 -jib lo asiTiBn atljbnc ,irT,w " 

«« a compenfation for't^,;^^g|^,)^.^qjgg^^m 
M,pf^l»e;U;eafi?ey.of.rfift,yflit?^.§|a^,f;q g^ jaj 
'.,;«,* No fcnator qr teptr^feat^UKgjfeafiij^^i^Bii^-j^ 

5f. time for which, Jiey^as -<ii<»<^l^>yfe*MtP9iftfi!#jfft 
*/.-any civil Qffice. v»ader,thft aMlliQSFJtyda^itl^ftlJ^ji^i 
lif State*, Ji»d w. perib,n-^oJdiftg;f«^ f><^jp, -jlft^l 
♦ii'.-.the .Uoated Slaves,- (baU jbejaitnumbr^r.^^gjjjf ^gp 
^/haufe diMiise^is-ppntiajjtatyj^, jfi pftcft, w , noi j^n 
re '*v4il biil9!fi?f.rftifinS;flByfB»e ftiajl) c^jginat^fjig 

" bills....-; ^.. .. ..; ;:. ,:,.; -: i;:iiyh..-3i 3(j 11 li ,tbiriw 

',1 af ^f?p«fftf)5aHveA#n^ tks i^9m^i ^4kjl^§f9m 

«/.«f ,;ihe..UBit^ States.}; ^^ . k^[JNm9mi Js^ ^99i^ 
'.'.fig* JG* ^t;ifclJQtiW^i#iliie|rtrft:Tit>.ff ilJjjhjig 9]^ 
.iruhr .■ .A 6 a **je<aions. 

tlftht Ci»JHtutimii^AfitifiifA» 407 

^^^JeSfSiSEf,' ^to tHat houfo in which ic fliall have 
•'^tifi^atidi \rho fliall' enter the objedliotwatlarge 
*^ on their journals, and p«ycced to reeonfidcMti 
^^'^i'iitkx fuch recon(idfefi«k>a two^thirds of that 
•'^^tdtrfe (hall agfee to jitffs that bill, it iball be fetif i 
*^ together with the objcftibns, to the otheir hOvrfej 
^^fiy-^hicltit ftiall likewfe be reconiidered^ and 
^^if approved by tvife^-ithfirds of thdt houfo> ir feall 
^* bfctbihe a laWi But^irt all fiK?h cafejthewt^^ 
fr'bf both hotifrtfhi^ t)e determined 'by j'/rfi? jftid 
'* «^;^j, and the names of the p^rfons voting for iftid 
•^ agaShft- the bill^ (halt "he chtcted <>n die Journal 
'« of eaeh hdufe Hrfpeftive^f/' ^ - • .- r 
• Let us paufe for^ii memehti and compare -this 
^Jl4fe^^^fted artide^Avith that iti the French con- 
ftitiitibttV jrelative to the royal fanAion^ When a 
^ei^hbsbeen piSed iathe hationa^l aiTenoibty, by 
i'^jbrity of (BYcn one voice^ it bedomes- the will of 
ffiie affcftibljr ;• and is carried to the chief of fhfc 
nation, who is cdnfldered afr part of-«h^ legiflacive 
©odyv The chief muft either fufpend, or give it 
Ki^'%h3:ion. If the decree, though good in many 
^biftfej requires modification, it is fufpeiKled ; after 
which, if it be re-offered in another legiflaturd^ it 
didft^b^ pref^ited in it» original form; and as it 
donfequtfntly pofiefles all its original faokj, it Will 
tte^gafh fufpended. In fine, if a third legiikture 
MfiAfs Uti' its admiilion^ it acquires the force of lawi' 
Wki by thistneans a decree is kept back for fix years, 
^ ^^^ ' Dd4 which 



M^>tiiexdfiftuiltion>iuui witfaorm tfie«(MNAJiBb M 
czplmt tko caofe of^ hi&. refofing it. hiii fenfticUi^rftiAl 
required diatlm le^ifbiis fior fiichToft^^Asbfild^bc 
jreporfed ro the aiibsUy) 'a6w&dicmpoR9 ff^^vo 
Aitd^ of the iiAcmblf rfikf ;not iacfa>pitfcgiotgeAiDn^} 
the fame decree (hould be carried back toihockttgj 
who if h« perftftisfdici hii'mfofii^accAdd^^ 
\i\% Jkj^iHfivB^Vito ^j but sf;?4miicbe''ci]a39G^tiUffM 
dificacions pointed out : bf JCheJuiig ]0Qnt^«da^ftdA 
liy a nujofity; tbe<kci»«&oijMcbeei%a3ff<ja^d 
prefisatedibrthei^alMc^ptuccw'ir;: '^ -o b^^ '^ 
But to return to the AmechiaȣQii(lumiitei:'w '^ 
^^ Emty c^der, refohnfoiii' Dribtb^jmerkitVihe 
^ cmcurreilce of the feifftici^iBKi iin^sf -sd^nfied^ 
^^ tatives may be neceflary (except on a ; fiKflioii 
^ of adjotirnment) IkaU ivkr f^tofbitcd; w 
t^tdtot ol the United Sc^ies^^ Bnd^faeforritfaa iaine 
^«th&lHake effisft^ (haU beapprmted. faf ;hiar^ of 
^^^t)eMg diiapproved by hsxi^ 
^^ two-thirds of thefeaate^iid>houieo£*repndfinBit^ 
^^l^i>^( ad£(mling to the rules and 'Cbhdidotiis j^e^ 
^* fcribed in the cafe of a bill/* j ^njo-j ^* 

r^We iviil Inoiv^ tak«:& rieitf of ih«r pOTrdBi)o£} Odn«« 
gibff ^^ifl^ol^iiive what >o9iaifti tut ei vukiomitaigmf^ * 
*^ The Congrefs (hall have power^i'.-u \o w^i ^ 
l-l!f iT^iaiyA atel: corlkdbfisns^ duties>^ iiii|K3(£^ Mid 
%:^9K!fe8|:' ipr .pay.thjDdobrs^i and ftro^ideii^^ 

^tk^ Ci^^ktutid^tf 4m0!ka. 40^ 

^ tcdatargi t but aU cbtica^. impofty^ mi^watk^ 
f^fludl be uniform throu^oitc tbe U«kod rStata»i«,» 
oc^ ^5 iTaboricnr money ml the: Untftri;Ste(fi8 ; : 
ov¥^Q fegnlacc comiDcrcc wtk:ibi^eigflt Mtion^ 
f^rond among tboitireiatftaCes^ and mchi^ {ndiati 

ifo.^{3a>'eftabiUh.Mldimferin riUe. 9l^oa$ttrali4>ti»9iH 
^f iandiunifona law%DniAi^'ful:^0^ <)C bapJiCi^if^). 
ft%ii4N'btt^io«tt|^.Ufdicd Stat^ ;: ; • ^ 

tnt^fFbrcQttL tBDi^^.tc^hf^ ibc vaJbe dteseoii 
^^ and of ibreign fioiiit aod^ &x ite JUndmdt irf* 

<< wcigitt and naeafi2n»(i / ^ :: i : . /^ 
^ilf ^inTeifinmde fiorrtbecpnnidmieeiotQmiiK^tfeie* 

^tiisg^te &ciintielaad;(nirrant coin of ^hie \imfA 

'^i^ftfTocfiaUlsflft^pofb-officflsandp^-roadft; '^ 
T!i¥iT6:momat^tiuc progcds of fcience axKi v&fyk 
^ axiB^ . bf feccirbig;^ ifbr iixnited time^^ .^ Pfk : ftUtkoM 
t^j and in¥encDrs^:]dM: cKclnfivc righs - fc» c^tit -jpa^ 
^ j^KsSite wiitings and^diibyveries 1 : i ; ; r a; .^ 
-;>f1 Tti conftitute tnbunals inferior tQ fib4 i^^ffctftia 
•* court; ''■:>.;• •■. •. »m .u ;.>• ■:•• '"" 

•'l\»ds&B*8nd:ptaHftt piracies 4iid jirf it wi tt i nViia - 
*\ iMQcdsa the kig)i&«ay>«ii4 ^j^jiegii-igiinft^ 

•*.Uw of oatioM J V- '. . . ;.■•. ?;r^-:,y k.> .» iX ■•■ 

i>i«f 3» <i«Blai« wary «nttt icmflrs^ oanrfiki ^ni 
^.repfifal^ aad make rolet concfmiim mtjwnfit 

^^ «* T& raSfe and fopport armits, buttid ipiJfWipKd- 
**tk)ii^6f money to that ufe (hairbefol?i4iJ^cf 
^ tcmi than two years ; .1 lio^i 

^^ To pfdvidc and maintain a nary ? " " V-^'^"^ 

• -••To make rules for the govemttcttt attd'firgu- 
*> iatfoft of the land and naval forc<fs ; ' ' ^' - *"' ^''^ 
"'*'T6 provide for the callitig fortKthe4riflfdfs 
«^- to execute the laws of the inrion^' fupphbft icffiir^ 
•* redion*, and repel invafions;' -^ ■ **- --^ 
'^ *^ To make alt laws which Ihall be tieceffary 

^' ^^ind pn3per for carrying into execiirion thi fcfre- 
♦'^ ^ding powers, and all other powers tcftcdby 
^ this conftkmion in the gWrerhmtht of tht Uhi- 

•"^ ted Statesy or in any department/ or office thefe- 

**"of« ;^' =- » •■ *■• •'.''-•'-J *'-' • ':- ■ '-■■ ■•■ -'^''^ •••■■'■^ '■' 

" •* No tnbney (hall be dra\vn from tlit treaftiry 
" but in cohfequence -of appropriations njadeby 
^ law ; and a regular ftatement and account of the 
••^receipts and expenditures of all' public money, 
** (hall be publifhed from time to time^t 

"No title of nobility ihalV be granted by the 
^^United States/* * 

• * Thus we fee that the Congrcfs is compbfed ' of 
t^ro thambcts J a chariibef of reprefeiitatlves' and 
i Chamber of fenate : that the firft is' compofijd of 
fixry.fivi thembers, the other of twenty-fix* fehatdrs; 
aSid that the legiilative power : refides in MEieft t^o 
diitinft thambers. . / 

We will nowpafs to the executiite 'power; •• '-■' '' 

*»■■' ^i' •'.■•'■■■'I •-»■.■ 1- ■••j' ^^A« ' * 


' • - ' - • 

: **:;T^,!ex?(CWVfe power ibsU b<>,v^lfi^i%st pre- 

" Sold his office during the te^^il^ou^^f ^»^tho 
-" vice.prefidc^,l?e.iflgc^feftf9r^th^.0«nae tfpaJ'. 
. - .^mB^mtm^* i^m^ag^ to, j^ie.coiiftiiu. 
tion, be re-eled^i, Jp^ifioififi.^W^Myc rfepismsSeA 
«f:l!»ftftH^K?fS;^°i®akc, a.l»iv prohibijing the Omc 
pSw ^W,^S'M , oftc9, of ,,pread«H, fof jwr» 
than eight years, in A.p(q:jip4;9ifiwef;j:yeaRb» ■.:-, . • ' 
•{i^i?^9if ef§>n,..53fcgpf,j^ n»s^flat feor;^.,$tfi?gi, or 
.-,*'f^}?iefl,,of $h? .ywte^.^ta&e? ^th^.fiwf fifilh» 

/-.1i59JthffiP%«i>9f < jfif «A4<^y: -neither, & rw 
«%^fl: l?5.iSJigtt>le r|9.:tJ«JtiOfii?P. .who, ihall^gt Ji^v© 
** attained to the age of thirty-five years,, and h^r* 
•'ite^«eftiyc?ir^r«Wsat.Avithinfhc U^^itgd Sjtates." 

.:cH6i,#<5lioft ji?#a^;>(srit;h gr^juftice, and wijbK 
ot^ ^9ie;-,99n}plicated ,£^rms which >vf - hav^. v^e>« 
in«-Jf*ii.ii» «fee ^ledi^nsof the doges of Veqjce,^ 
ofGenoa« The-confticution dire^;tha( <^ < : .-v ^^ 

^;f)\^h?, .ele^rs; ^iill ?ieetj.>i their- jefe^aive 
*^ flates, and vote by ballot for-^^^<^j2e{^>li);»j[jo£ 
*\€^^.9^^^\ Icaft ihajl not ,|}5.aa.inh^iM^t>f 
^^.•^l?e^e,44t?•¥«hJJh<an(<Jyf5. ,. Aft4.|ta#^ 

*^*?/:ft»J?^ejr.^,.yoters/or^ ea^h ;;;.,whu^|iftj.^ 

*o^aJl jfeai?^4 certify, ,^/l trft9^t,|fe^f4£^ '||^ 
** feat of the government 9? the Uni|t;9f^J%§,tg,l^i^^ 
** reaed.^a^^^efidept.of t^.^^^,, JJs^^W^- 
<4,|^eat of the ienate (hall, in the j>refencc of. the 

** fenatc 


I ^, A>t nit*? 

^.^9ertiflc»tc»9fMd aU 0ifi rotes fliali th^nbe^tipfbcd^ 
^^.Thepcdqahiitiiig the gr^ateft mimber<)f^^te9 

«^ rity of the wholf ouap^H^ pf cI^A(9i;»^^^infri(i« 
^ and if there he more thpia \ onc^fi;^ .hi^yfCf fiack 
*f.;iayqmy,, ai^d have znA^f{y3^nyji!^^ 
^ then the houfc of jrcprcftatetjygs ibaH>kiyqntif!}»> 
'^ ly chufe byvballot xijqie^^of them. jforpc^iid$Qt 1:3 
'Vand if no peifoa havie ^^^^f^^x;yyr^V^4^9f^ ^^ 
^4ye higheft on dbe i3i^^4;tM? faid ha^ife jM4'fi» 
*' iike xnaxmtiT xhufe t^e pf oiulofUv ; Su^ ut^^^p^g^ 
'f the prefident the YC)tes ft^U be^c^ea. by lW<i%, ^c> 
** reprefenutives fromreaeh ftate hariag^ ^oe t^fCr*- ^ 
^^ Before he enter on the execution of his offic^^» 
^f^iic (hall take the following oath or affirmation x- 
^\Ji do-Jolemnly Jwear {or ^ffi^rm) -. thai 1 witlfa^bfiUly 
*^ execute the office of prefident of the United Staier^ 
^^.ottd Iwiily to the ^ ^ i^ aMityt^ frefrvey. pro* 
H ieJSf^yfind' defend y the cpi/iimioK tf thtUmttd 

- *5,T^j55e(?^c^t,fl»U be commairierift cW 
** the army and navy of the United Stat;c;^.4ii4rOf - 
•^, AcJtmlm^jog ^ftjTcveral %tes whwxaUed info 
«^. 1^ A^wil fcrxict of .tl^? Uwte^ SiJ^es ;^^ji^ h/^^ 
^ Ihaft hare power to grant reprieves and parde^^ 
*• for offences againf^^he Uni?ed.j5tate3ir,^^ 

.Q«ib.,of iropeachtjwjnt, .. _:m^ :ffT ^^ ' 

jfutid c onfcn t of the (enate^ to nuike treaties, pro- 

1 «« vided 


oi^idMtWb-thii'ds bFihe!lcAMton ^h^Mi &mS^'i 
«e^e itha«ittiftnc ^ kkc ftiiafee UmII »|i()dint^'.* 

<i»i'FH«f)p«<ifitt6iie (Mil 'hilVe^^et to ifiU t^ilf 
•«We>1g«Wey **t 'gfittt»i^ fediiittt!ffl«iri8 SsWtKmif 

«'bM^hd(ift»i <^l^'eitM;^'^thtel^ *btf lit ca!&<^ 

«^^«^'i1rfbaffiiabrti^and o*ci'^bK6 teiiafters j 
«« fefe'^fli«I"taltfe'«4i-e ftiic'tt* laws l>c 'fiathffiBy' 
<«^\^^^d,'- a^d"^aU ' bdmMiffibtt^ all dii^ ^ofBteri 
♦'^^f'tfie^trMtid'States.-'' • - *'- '"^ --'■ •-" " 
«<lTh*' tirtffidetit, vk*:i)rtfia«ht,-and'»l! tfivil' 
«»%flWeri\if the iFhitted SflfttM-Wafl be *emi>^' 
'* from office on impeachmenc for, and con¥wfiBbii 
'^^g^^tkirfbri; tjribtiy,' 6if btftijr'hig^ 'cSM^ and 

•■*%fefifcRitfih"6ri.^» '•■ ' '■' "' r^'' • '■ ■''■ '("^"^^ ^^' ''' 

^©h^^refiaeht bei^g: fo 'rfeni6*«i «r^ 
« Th* prdident Ihall, tt'ttslteap-lfiiife^Slitei^e ' 

4h4 ^fie^Cpf^mthUqf 

** ther b6 SttcreaTed ndr'dimiriiflKfd durii%^tfib^f«.' 
«• riidlblrwhfch ht^Om have been ifeaed?"^*-- ' • 
* T kniwir not ^whether the United States -hStrfe'^c* 
tailed on^ Gencml Walhihgton txi^^ctpt^^y 
appoihtmenf , fmce he has -bedh plaited ar thcf^hf^' 
of' thff republic, the- atithor of Iteeb&elS^'^fi^a 
SiauVmsfin fpcakte^ttf hisdifiitfcreffddSaij^ 
*^ When he confentcd after a lohgtidto^'fa^ 
** iipbn hitn the comtnand oF the a?Kiy',' h^pi^^-^ 
^^ f^'-to-Clbngrcfs t<S fiippott the exj^cnfefe ^-"fifs^ 

•* tahK,^t dedawdtftat H6 w«nittf qSAt^xf K^ 
<^'6fi tWoliimentt 'hr^btthfiiti evtn-'r^ 
^ portion^'bf' the 'landip- tfhach- were (SWnttirteix 
*^ among lieofficcrs of thtrttmy, sctonfin^ Wf tf^fS*' 

" Before the revoWtibn his income radDted-Kiih^' 
•' to fupport a decent flyle of hofpitality ; But finr e 
^* that ewnt, there is reafon to fear -it is riot Tuf^' 
*^ ficicht toanfwer his txpence; as there isii9rart 
^ officer tipbn the continent can deny hitnfdfiF th^' 
^^ plieafisre of goin§ 4t times to pafe fonie'daysXvitS^ 
<^ hiig«Aeiut^*and his houfe is befides coht&iiattf;^ 
'^ filled' \dth foreigners who have an ardent, defifd' 
♦^ bf feelilg bhn. . ^;:>.r::: 

" ** At th? commenc?m.ent of the year* i j^jr^'^tlr^^ 
** general affembly of Virginia wete ik'hdpes'of 
^' prevailing on him to accept ^ htindred bbntis'of 
*' three hundred piaftres each; but their Efforts W 
*f ip^^c^ him to receive them a$ a tcftiipony of the 

** public 

♦* nun «i[cufoii bijirfdf vbyji^ayi^g fM vl»f oWifw* 
%9M14r«|i, -^p^> i£ . bipjrw(5DUft wj^*,,npt;, fo^f^qit^ 
•A^e ^ouW^wber Qlwft fp,ftU ajpHrt cf Iu»^?!i^f^ 

♦^^vl^a<i4«s4,it^t Ive fftU'fto invincible rr^pugnflflo^ 

4?iVbSft'9W^*> ^Ptit.^;^ t>aeij,.fince:aGli;n<wi|?dged- 
^i^ 9Fi^^^P. was, jp9^ fi^iw j^li*n,iW«.?tthe, 
time fuppofed, an4 that be deferved to be con^^^ed 

t9.5^igiff.-ft^ jpvjcl^.fof \\k PPW^g? ^ his yVtf-y>'^ 
.^i^jfi^p)?! a prp9e(Jj[?Rf< i^Qwld not be att^n4e4;>t:^tl» 
C]i|^e9[i,e,4ange^.tptheii; cpnditution, theJlp^ec^cans 
PRP14)i^9? ter^ perform^ a nqbier. ^§: ,5>f ,^uftice> 
^^^^ |?3r;=Pr9l°°SPg.i" f*vo"i; of II4r,^W^i^pn» 

'fei84s?,S.P.';^fi^^^^» "°^AM»^t perip4 :H?k«4x«*pn- 

»^£WM--F?^^er,.him iAcapab^e.<^ 

4HaS?f Mfey^^ jeP^Wicap vvoul4;lMAOBP9fa* 
in theflrongefl manner tI^eadniifnqQ,Qf]ry{^,^j^rr 

%W^,f f?? MA} #»!<? !?6,ii» feHr,?.^.?t5##.«w^ 

vMfii><i^im^ Pft(s QA,P; t|^p fhird ^ra^fili, o?;^hc 
te^*"A^fi" conftitupion,, whicb ^ f ^i^ju^ifij# pjJwen.- 

'Jlc'rr T ■• 

4Ti Of the Con/Htuim pf AmrUa. 

'* The judicial power of the United States fliall 
^ be t«(l:ed m one fupreme courts and in fudi in* 
^" ferior courts as the. Congrefs may fxa& time to 
'* time cnrdain and eflrablUh. The judges^ both df 
^ the fupreme and inferior courts, Audi hold their 
^ offices during good behaviour^ and Ihall at AiMd 
^ times, receive for their fenrices, a compeiiAifitii)^ 
*' which (ball not be diminiflied during their cwir 
«* tinimnce in office. 

*' The judicial power fhaU extend to all ci^^ 
*^ in law and equity, arifitag under this conftisutieti^ 
*' the laws of the United Sui», and treaties madfj 
^< or which (hall be made under their authority ( 
*' to al! cafes affefting ambafladors,, odier publit 
*^ minifters and confuls ; to all cafes of tAaoMnf 
^^ and maritime jurifdiftion ; to contniverfies fc6 
*' which the United States ihall be a party ; to 
'' controverfies between two or more ftates, bo* 
*^ tween a ftate and citizens of another ftace^ be^ 
'* tween citizens of different ftates.'* 

'' In all cafes affefting ambafladors, odier publie 
*' minifter and confuls, and thofe in which a flsite 
'^ (hall be a party, the fupreme court fhall 
^^ original jurifdi(%ion. 

^* Tlie trial of all crimes, except in cafes of i/f^ 
*' peathment, iball be by jury; and fucfa trial ih|0 
^' be held in the date where the laid crime. (hall 
*• have been committed* ,^^::'^^., - 

-f ^..Trcafc© 

^'Mi^ 4teiibi «gakA tfae^U^ %«0M Oi^ll -e^nirift 
'^^mk^ hgi^g wtft agamft cbem^ i»r MKifiutg m 
"^ IMk enemies, and ghribg cbem aid wA gf^m 
*iJHi^^^ .- i • ■ : /-^ • v.; ..,..., >.» 

H94c iMii «iMftlf done to os^rk fa pre<;4rdy^4liai: 
tuiiil I <lik>r<lteibeett oiunaiif ocoafions ii»4ui|itrar 
^MfMii ibMfely defined : b«ck«iRaftumitG«&i^«^ 
«M ift^the«ni^9 ^iafithet»ar^ aorafedihQukiiiot 
be ^omriAed but on die teftinioofnof twoji^adiea^ 
.MeiQie there is Bot a country on.nrtli wj^re tw# 
H tMiiiM^ iwpfildt boieifliwao«d bjr haiMd^fOcfiiUiiped 
JI|illlilHil|^obwr iMe irietiefii ogaiuft ^bxisiMR.^'' 
^ yf 4 K»i 40iig £m:e&M» 4md k oannptvlie jcoafroi- 
^t|iMHftj^WyKaicd^ that wimMt wMbociw death or 
1llilMi«fbrior yirtflimcntia:>afiado4<^4eftei»A oa 

^ infiiMl% the mnoMnt etdier im^Amt iibvot tiiek 
HMkiofiS'*-^ Btfides th^re are 'few* men whoie-'^nfes 

their mtention «ltyit)e ya&y k ir daogecouiiCa pali 
':iMi thmr fia|9lo endtec«^ ^^ofit k be 
4)y Aheit proofii »f^ thev^gfiiife a£«tht 

.*•* '•■ - 7 r v.' ^ ■»• 

Wh»rl have Ikid will fuflincn%'wdMi^|n«mi 

i ii lM l iiia thMietrtech «afmkk tiinu^th»tliineea 

^ M fc ill i H i inii <# itowrfcifc, sELhede Ukad tO^ti. 

t te rtmO Miiribte tiaM»t* MCdletoit» ua^laKiif 

A-dt* An» ^Siitis&Ai»tt of teng.aUD«Mkiaal||roM 

iqpiVLfuty aft dM liattfe (tf xtpraftBUovoy bac 

Voi,. II. £• by 

which would lead mejiiMhA«:>9 al dll^^cietec 


^9«w^t^eipA% flStIm gQurenuttenesRofaaientao 

<f0^ ^icJiip»r^J^t» t!^4-^0':l^ kosbQfioe&T 

oi>9thIjol^jdieiIaiiditildts£aatifoB«ft:£ijhr AtMifho^iifl^c 

vttf^^a^donbig oS«odcteA^idr£ieiavtt)idURb«iflMfif»: 

and bp«MBsdjaMUiri>«ek Uwich«fflbttl4l(c»iiiilir>> 

{iieiii[i^m-<i«iti($sf ichiociSMi)iit&b«ln:»'«id iSbimt 
of the United States adl in his natiie; Siniiiio:jfaC^ 
JbftflfnfiifiyigM^KBepJiBr^iiife good j bttt.hoafc for 
iodeiai^cvilit^Kirt^poTM^ 'nn^^' fctfel^^noI»auii cin 
a-ioiiafo^iiilf lib is ttf 4kifieftt&tn hi.o- •-.'; ow hidv/ 

it^omHt 9Jii%esn«nf;iiibto jtpi^iiUid ^- idf (tmd 

j4iiftitoieiitde0«b«ft(irt&cMi^i»iiai<iic¥ iusd<b]^)»er'- 

forming their fiinftions with inctgtky'ji {th^-«ttiky 

•x)n3riaqeifi2en»:fa«ve'«<si!C<U(ifi tii't(M|iP'tMk%!'0««|rfc 
^'>c&«ig«ft{<4ntlv'tJiMi6^ibiecftaft cMifC#e^wflMtMat«lik 
2itta9ft<dMt!bdtti«t, ^n? thftviaK{r#4l«ivgltdlittigi{iMM^ 

-•clUmJbe«r !tho> lMk:deiti'eqiid]^'>wkh •tih«ki'4it!^<- 

cation of the oidttey piid into their tiCA^Mtffhb&tOlCe 
<iiiK(f«><rHoihliv^-t^~ctei<ge' «f kiai^i'4)Uigttl^^ren>- 
X<Aee>ih>oi^ Mtbohtp-^iad t^^teaii^ttly b«>>a|"- 

t isOl^^^tfftW}', aa iklfoit'&li<:k<»-,icaii|M'*<^(^ittiia 
•^foiB&Agctor hiil4»«i<3%»i :)»ii ^ei-cfem thet.pftSbiirc 

^^^CathkHiwA ^th refWHtaiute/iicttnkiitiiijtuliitjF'to 
'i. Sea f *« M«ft]^ 

420 Of the ConfiUuim ^ Amtrii^. 

- ^* Many> ifldiviiluals (fays b,e) At^wiA W jtllf 

f < nuthpf !of thk opmion, th» defire which tliejf JF^aitt 

*^ for eftablifl>k)g tliamfelvesi of|: our coati^i^fftAjbut 

' *^ bi5exa<!t kgowI«dge of tbofs cowtric^ con^ iijf ed 

«<^ Kim- that fuch a projeft B^wftjjs^ thf f ^<4^^l[^i^ 

^^ noranccrand of the &lfe i4esas 0ie; |it4 fo^td 

!** of whai waB to be h9pcd for ^!^^t > . , : / ^ ^ ^ . 

• ** A number of pierfon^ ipwgii^^^hat t^^^^ 

^^ ants of NortJi Amecica.aVc. /iqb ;. that t^ev are 

f^'lx)th ^bioj aA^difipfea to pef;QQ]qpen(€0^^^in49 

.^ of iodiliby ; - that jiiew'arer at the.lar^ ^v^^fpn 

ff ignomcie ia* aJl^diefciCfices.; adiirthat ia eo^f^- 

^ quenecv £QF9igmFs of geaiua, who hayc^cn|;iT9t«d 

^^ the btUes4€Ur$5^ and the fine ajrtVJDKiiift h^^fl^uQ^k 

vM defired aoioAg theaift They r alia fu^ppofe v(hac 

**^ there are many lucrative employmwfSf which, the 

^' inhabkams of the country are not; qualij&ed ft> 

<^ fitt ; aod that ftrangers of diftiAguiflbiedir birth 

.« mtift be there greatly refpeded, and Jikqly «o 

;^1 obtam at oacetbe beft of cheie appoiAtff\ent$. 

** The troth is,, that though the people .pf this 
*^ ceirnitry are not in general fo thpf^ in 
^^' Europe^ yet there are not many arnQng^psfWlMft 
:^^ ii^ the ol4 world wo^ild be accounted Wfaltb^ 
■/^ We have few men of l^^e landed cftftte^, finr 
** formers: and people . muft either cukiy^ta^t)ieir 
•« grounds, themfelves, or apBly ta foca^ tiad^, «• 
'< to merehandisiu There are y^^^ ifew people ficli 
«^ enough w-pfiqrwtifts in painting, feulpture', w 


< c 

0/^ Cin^UutUm of Annricu. 421 

** ardiitefture, and ttitftfore A^h of the Ameri« 
^^ cans^ Ikve a natural g&niuk for tiiefe -itck have 
^^jl^f^dthirir coTHmy for Europe, where thdt 

iki^t irc'itiore tdeqMteljr resr^rded. 
'^ ^' It^t^si^kitrts HvA the tliftthematics ^an ifii^ ' 
*^M^ )£iach efteemed ao^g us j but we have id- 
^^'i^i^ytimi college or ihiit^iitiefij provided with 
f very able proi^ohj b^es a great numbcr-tif 
^'ii^eailes. Yotmjg'pedple itrcf brO«^ up there 
Y'lA i^ ftutly of the Iinjpuag*», ahd of all the prt- 
'**' '{^iKt^s 'cdtkkitteS With jtirifpradtfhce and phyiics. 
*^fiWt'«rdr few^ovfl eflSfces, and no ftiperfluods 
^^^i^M^: 'aa'd^itis areftiblifited irule, tl^^aedi- 
^* •py&enrihbiiia !i</'r«»ffibJeiitly Ivusttttivew }»rt>. 

-i./i«'^j3, fe^fd i^it^nitait bffites they^^^^ 
"^ With the War ; M at -thitt- nftodWM the sttOf h 
-^« aUbiftdtedi- •"■ "• '■ '■ '"' ■ ■ ■ ■■ ■' 

-' '« I'v^biil* ftili lefs advife th6fe'to iotee; bith«r 
"^^ Whd hav^ no' tkhclr recotn^itendsitlofi^fl'tiidr 
** tfrrth; It is (continues Dr.- JfVaiiklia) to ttrn^e 
*'*'VKilcfe'his its vaiue in Eiirdpe,' fevrt it <?6uld not 
'■^ i)fe"fcarhed to d worfe tnaf ket fl«in- Ateeridt, " 
"^■"Vfri^rt'th^ never fay of * flarjftiger^: tmf^s^e'A 
'^':\skAy Mai d<(es 'he'-dof Ifhe cah exertife & ^Ait 
^**^pffefi*fejn fi^'is w-elisomfe ; aftd tMie%elfevB«'wi^ 
^-^''firiwff ibt-rer^yeaed by-aH' WhoikHow-M»;i -Uti^ 
^**Tf'laHotiircri or tv^a ah' airai!«^-te'^d««»al«# ft* 
^'^^^pftjporisoh-fo the utiKty !W 4« oJE^''ih«#»iFfayi% 

•* tlhofig^^fediito, tSiitQod^fifmr«il iiiifficpfjbscuii) 

« \^i$be^^^^s tid«'bHiig'a lbf>»ftievinll«f|73abdtin'J 
*« cheap, becaufe o|fi^iO%ftt»ljb{rte«^^<|f«ftii:iW<ii 

«< &a^«m<iAt t#-€ftrtle,!*^hieH' «i%:|>rt«3r:«iwtliith«2:> 
* * fattier hrif e^ in'Eur«|)te>' i&i^'eafil)? cftj^iflvtbiiiivri v 

.«*fet"«crf*m«n^W^;;- •■■-^ <-■. ■(.:>>; L.1 v:o.i; hr.r: r).:! 

lias money enougW«d4>tiflMdi'c|i»^ k^y !ah4 M«ie ^{liq 

gtfttf r^rtd! :^|iiii^d > e:^iftence>-! fi> i^tsfmni^ ^::rtpc«> 

* • ; » V 

thiok^-ilwmAl^: ferwoiite-»;fee, ti^^imiviy^^kwifhdfk •» 

by being received into app$9i^ififPiJir;'bf m:i^^^> 

diiop4t^lforfakeby^fdwW«fpif«tf^4nt^ » 

We lww'«»tvtfefn.wtef:cfeif <wfcB«4we?it>j>.^ ». 

date their independence, BQ|r.4<|Kfdbp^|a^^ >» 

agiMt^<)efgQMfr.(^$l9iH¥tM«:ia Wi^^piffpwi^f 
curity. Let tbf^)M9|d«:.|t;;,(lieq» fff^mn^^h^rj. 
fio^«eid ilfftj tbe?|i3K^fqiA>fB,^fc»|;r,jj^;^riy^^^ 

tfa9ir£^ttngth{^9))|(iM!if:oiH;9r4e ?au jW ;,.,(•»* 
M tJ4iel(m4'!ih9al4ot^efj,h«^9bie.,t9 [dirMmtf >■. 

undaishjtr p?jH»fti«{n,TlP!p^r)Wpu|A ^ fi9iji9^ffa% «^ 
fifliM£q.'9f th<^'vrbft a4«4 !fki-»A p^>4k>^ ppW, 
How/w^dihf bj|^n,5Chfi>l^|lfp.Aip» ^flwJSiURr-. 
dee;th«ipretew«^f£m (^lous ,p^!Kio^( :Aa4:'^ 
whojBitf Wl.«l^<l^prp>A»|H^:Pa4g|)tic^^ • 

ibe had there fo great a force readj;fo^:ipf9e^i4^ ' 

fetf fby iome- fecra ttc^ty; jvith .S|^i|^ si#^ i^|ufe^^g|i^ r 
inftJm «»tfriioa flow,juiyy.;!e»wr$aw<^:jjiy,|srf0p«;i:i 

forraai!j,fl^«l>igbtiBOC«qMfii/9%)U}fl(4<3^E^^4?fiM^i) « 
ing-4g)»0) wide* hpr 4c»ni}iM^} ti^ilslf^nk^ctvhi^,^ 

Ihe&i^tONii froaarbcr*, ^;ia fyiof^imsi^mmk^^ kid 

priff wkh iiU.ibc ft*rjF.9fcr!*M»Pe9« ;,';.)..'. y 'aoti ajtrf 

Jt «stiin|K»ffible;t^ -foDcffie !whft«ii»4jfe,lin#idfty^^, 

theitte »f this new pcivjW, /MhicftihaikfpoiBg^pij^/^ft 

.a 4 

4H ' ^f^ilt^'€cfi0kMim*}ifiJbn0iclO' 

4aj;t>^k' *v^ b^^'i/tk ^oiti^ ^ meslBiKc xm ^^ho tti^^ocidF 

fire of liberty, will go a^ fix theu^itewlk^aii tka ioSL 
>vKei% th«ir hopes fM^Ke ftfetfgeftiattili^tota^ jind 

flM#<iritnihc«)i if t^»- ittfatfbttMaicQf jientiptfinBc^ 
«!S^if^c vesMfctotii iiitdec^tdjiiiegxis jnd^akl>iiaripr. 

^l^Hsn^ {M>^1^ i^^migjntHts^'frocb tlwfe oslkK 
ilfaft^'^rtd tk&t Icttfg cKdrir wiiich, extendifig M« 

'^f^ctfvkllin ftxtiide time be ^ncirdji bcoken. 
Tti49¥ ¥H^ iltothl^ ^country will loie iatt chiidven ; 
n/fii(p'w\il'iio4m^t adcMwledge ber authoric^ic^ buit 
atta(l( tliefiKfeimswt ftricDuntty nearcr ca jfihem^'^onn 
Whence ^th<iy^ .'m«{^'*4Mrmg a^ cbe 'neoefiuiea ^thejr 
htiW <>cbartiio«)r for, proce&ed by the&tg.of.Uboit]!. 
iSuehardithe^angtf^ivikiclY Francer/cnUg^ txlkipj^ 
Tent, and fuch the jobjc&s. with which the nwufti ar . 
of herr mad^iad'ihoutd^be contkiuaUy ciiq)hi)iced. j^St . 
VfUi beiinforranatitibrr-his cotrntry^ if 'he coudtt&s 
^m%. in tl^ midit of a tdtnpt&y 4U he wouid incite 

' •. ,. : . . ^ .!».;> * moment 

iantjibk JdiftiiiigriB«n6r4«f»«iKlA;$W feomflmott irC 
Srance^^ and/ilMr ;dulflMi«)«» 4ft r dur <lwo iM^lNr- 

^giiln divided >ktoaonaflK:l|icfli«ikdj^iiKi^ 
JjtxviGtjaidyanssd beyond Gitamif ^iid coftfid^ced^^t 

'^Umpdcvet taiho aQbk8;<.^ dbie Cbew of W^tjiftid 
lihc iiuHmrph^ vJbUft k cafts^ humilutioa on,thiQ «iti^ 
;ZtMf jsmd .fcrvkude on the .pe«(«ota« > W]^ have 
i^samincd the works^ of, «W0 conccadtng JlrgUlatOK$ 

. : . . . A . # ji^^ j^ conftitution U here metnt. 


wbtyxfifpntddhtltt bonour of &toia^riM[i90)iii)4 

atteMil^yrjohfcrvccLtfais ;gloricMi«f cofitdl^7)i!«iiwebd 

awii^iedtheloImtQtte^Hinl^ i^^iIb 

ikftor qtiitdng PoliXMi im foim ^atefONMck ^taqS 

SwedcnrHtbat :00MnO7 f^Hsv<^^^t^iH«^o<0wWtiliv/ 

in ti2m r iod^ > afor ; prooeodiog^ fitnafe lers^lbtioijrtArf] 
revolution^ feem at lad to have attained a fettladtm 

diibofromilgi.'^otikiiig ; ti^Bfidesr^eciitoft^^utcascDUseu 
tymn^Ivr could l^tre^'mihedftaiifdittch fra^ 
fbicrrigfi' that iroyaI^la^^ wfaidh xWdersil^toiitbei fof^iii 
premb irbiter ^^ifhe £b]$use2(tbef iiOAdt^i^imd ilhiriw 
Iife'o€ilits*ffibieds«*^«^ . '^'•Tfii:*:!.- n.i? ri fijxi "/r-n '^i^rij 

Wrhiveqliittcd .thofe frosch iegions^andirfe*.:!? 
tuned j^Ab^lyi whcrcc^iTGp^A^ 
miftrefir 6f ihe Adrtatia iet ^ for a . loo^ kime i(ng^<y> { t 
ed our attention, by the corhplicated (onn^fkki^idtf-^ u 
tocmcf 5 ^ ^ which V with jone, duuid hoids ) its . chictf iii 
chaimv and^ with' ihb other keeps.the^kuniibkd i^itih: -. i 
zei prpi!traterbefor< ils feiiate/ andjf»mbHng:ibct;H 
forfe.'h&^iiiquifitorfi.r-v.'^ 7 -V x ;.:f-|i: ^jtoi rn^rb abjcai 

l^he-ifkiaUerirepti^dlicJ'hahranot a^pe aiM luoror^oa 
thy of ourarpgardsy bccaafe:i9tergtlhiing»i^ faiear£»t 
the Jiame of republic^xci£es!tbeAtttentkai ofipdlir y' 
tician5r{ :du)ugfadih.feekingtbene>£9r Jibe^ 
often, fitd nothing but opprcflion. 


after emaifdfitllitg' fhdblrfelvisl^ ftt)mi^ctifdk3i>^9§r^ 
SpBln^ ttiMft]pfei»^«wr die ocdb'^ ^Jootfieifdiif); 
witoWN^fOei^^^htt^Miglitff nioiMiiroh^^FTanbc^'r!; 

themp(Mdi€rotidied^\;9v)'b^^^ a iiwrn^ 

Aa ifland^ (till more renowned fovitf IWi^lSbcrJol 
hidn^iw^^m^W^ ^hidw dfa$wbTafide^itlljc^Teitot 


there may exifl in the univerfe a bettir>giif t rirfiiriit ^ i ! 

the^pgfiti^ofriii^rcyi ItS!^ ledM)/ jsnxi» ith^riblrfoitl^Sm 
theiUiifitedcSraief of ;A3iiertca;; ^rn yd , tTom^Tonr ^r»o i>-:> 

thap€llf^-ifdttoE)aried'me<;'^nt^^^ I >\ 

m^e them lofe fight of their own i)itf}iKDt%piund'didu^^^ 
^os^AwpAcMly^tqm toward^^ithac i(rbje^ 

ty 'Cfc^pD iDC/iof^QdiiltfrmgxtoDih'airrooMit^tioBp^^ 
wtvf^Uns u> difaiib'^df^' ^#(edc^riifitend;iany a£4 >> 

4?f ^ f^:^^/^'*''^^ -^^itf^ 

faitT betveen the loftitutiov t£ (of9|gnq».)ind 
^^oft w)^hb4Te. been crenttxi in France. ' 

, I.tieUc^ I have preTerved in thefe comparijpM 
the iiopaitialitj of a public mao. I have endeavour^ 
cd a&b aot to embitter tbc misfortunes of thofe wh» 
vffi iht y^ms oi % pl^a which, in Its prqgrefs, 
necefluQf deftroyed pb^e^ons, fo much the mo^ 
dear, ti they had been long cnjoyf^. * 

If it is confidered that I have been obliged to 
fpeak almoft extempore on the fubjeds of which I 
have treated; and that I had to difmifs and oblitc- 
me in the cotmncDcement of my undertaking, a 
mnltitttde of antiquated principles, which bad fbf* 
meriy been the obje&s of my ftudies, it mull bo 
acknowtedgedy that to open a courfe of lefture* 
at the Lyceum on public law was in tne a courage* 
ous enterprize : my principal motive forattemptio^ 
it, was to fui^rt, by my feeUe efibrts, an ^abUOi- 
mem, &Uing bafUly to decay, in which fo many 
wfeful objefts were united : and where the fcicDces^ 
hiftory, aadxh» ^elia-ieitreSf had been developed by 
ibch aUe hands. 

I prefumcd that by adding to thde fubjcds, ta 
interefting in ihemfeWes, that which at this mo- 
ment occupies all minds, this eftablilhment would 
become national, and obtain the prcfereiice over 
thofc ufelefs aflemblies, which offer no induceOienc 
for frequenting them but the opportunity of indulg- 
ing ji love of idlenefe or a fpirit of controverfy. I 

f^f the CoitJitutkH ijf Amrica. \i^ 

ain ililT wfllihg to believe thit my hopes will not oc 
deceired: biit, whatever may happeq, I Ihatl^at 
Icaft always preTerve one remembrance, which wiji 
bV a' ccitain reward 3fer nlvIaTO i nieah that'ol' 
' merited, of at leaft obtained the fofTrages ol 

patnotilm. ; ^ 

Oi Lzii.-'c ■.■ J ■ > . . \. ' . . .. K 

«31lld0 blU >;Ai4.U<b . hf.ff f »»-,'^l ?>V«i' • ^*r-?v' TyJi'? 

• • • 

vnfifTt ol .'l'>iHv'' f^. \' «; •*^^ o^ v'^***-* r^!^rl .♦tr^-TT 

billow Jil:i^i];rU£:Oi'^y^ :': At ,, -h -^^ r- \\<. . / C :.' *<*^ Sff^fff 


Mx.a :.■«« ■-=..> "■>i3->i'>.ir^vW.'<! Innob 
015JI (b'jo 5v;-S!!;<Pl SMiMioiWi'iJmhiq amil Itil) 
-fihnoi .'Jiii j'jd ^smiiJMT.Ij. smol siitipsi oj bnuol 

uw ■ -I'^ijo'l - ;^v ''■ <l?ftliW4Ri^' J);n3:!G nwd ion 
-^iso- ; Ju:ii - ; ;i;-! nil !jn.- ,->3.f:i!| ,r:^ta-», 

x\N accouilt of the conftitution of Fiance >vouId 
Ve iu'^ii ffiSifliiift tlt^IukniK: : lime aiid experiei^cs 

'teUffitbiiWii; tll(!iaj^ar'of her legiflators :"i'(S8 
«o diffaft^ttSlRi'iriMiiliii thrdUgh the citics.'^iaa 
more j!«a/^^^fl«^^iff^^ff^ is .work 
«hich cannot be too much accellerated. Men of 
patriotifm and knowled^^ifi^ft^'^i^ Aii'iii^, no 

>ltft aiMW'than'himotifttle/'ttrould'iiot'eiSfeaVour 
to write elegantly, but clearly : and to expre^^bd 

•ftMoretti ftira Bctnn^fifftciJ w-tlie^caiAatJ of il- 
literate minds. All o i ' u ' a iiien l g-^'ftyfe-qagltt'-tq 

1m 6el^dl'tfiHu(^ iiii«nalibn,'md the laii^ge 

•Biiai'^fiaiaiJf-'witliaur%Bng-"hlwj -iit-ih6S,"-"it 

:.-/:iK !;t:i-: :-, V? ic;-":-= ' ■-■: .. y.<'-f 

* As ths French conflitntlon ii now fitufhel Miivttit^ifo^'i 
hands, it ^y be thought perhaps that this e)Mnter-,aualu have 
fceen onbitted : hut is the fenttmenu it btaathee dg l^tldl harunr to 
••hnilth«,'f5«lp4il!i«(((fti«rilflidl^ftMfi '''-• ' ''" 


j4 patritffctCaffchi/i^ 4j» 

Tliis attempt was made before the rcpKlenta-' 
lit es of France had fonned themfelves into a iu> 
tional alTembly. The decrees which have fince 
that time proei^^-^(»liHlf^'li%iftiuiTe body were 
found to require fome alterations, but the funda- 
m^B^ ^ctBi^siR)ijqii4iiwrf j((»ieli«iu{ynihav« 
not been altered, bes%v^« 4ff}iatever is founded ea 
wifdom, jufliccj and the laws of nature is invari* 

_^Iaration. pC the rlgbts ofman.. Ilhall tern^^^e 
Inline by declaring the duties ,of the citizen.- j^ ^j 

iS^^nq/.-j c; !,-(x vImj;.-. jd.i i-.;:nc5ji5 -jiiiv.- o; 

11 1^ *«i?T««t4'l¥4)ffi'«»»» .•% Sf»«tMM« 

C>i4jfe'WH«4B«?Etei?o IIA .sbnim 3ji!i3;il 

vj(*»ffk *«(feBf ffi);S!iftiW*BI'5}ii*SiAw» J«l». 

and were exprelTed by the lune appeUaticf^^^jt^v 

What is now iinderitood by the name of Franc, 

' tS'lTHSiesiiWi *'"■'■■■' "'-■•'• «<■'■•-■•*.-»-- -•'-•■" •°- =■* ■" • 

""'itfSpe'HSli^ •■••'' "■"■*'1"1 '%;«* '^x™ " ..i.™.l 

I&s a Bee n)»«,Hjt6e\(l»»f.4'tt^Sl#ie(tti« 
pleafes? • . . , 

-.<d,T H. 

...Ifcl. .- . - k . -■ .^Jk ,.^.- ...' 

4^ A- patrttiit ^^gAi/h. 

• "fte'liUf^oWdy Aitfg- which injnrt* lionMf- 

ibme law. ' *'' 

^ - It-is ^bri^ the t^bolenkfidn : be^iifiir it ISij^il 
fimfe'betttneen^an'tlxi diio^b^n of t&ie fdElety wEt^ 
'ttntipdies nic natiOtf. - *' 

Who'irt The Nation ? ^ 

The king and the people. 
' Who U'tKc king? 

He is the chief whom the people have chdRui for 
txeoitiii^ the !dW,' and maintaining the order pre« 
fcribed by the law. 

Who are the people ? 

All thofe, except the king; who form the ' na-^ 

Mull the king be always refpeded ? 

He muft always be refpeded ; bccaufe whoever 
relpefts not the king, fails in the relpeft wkich is 
Atie to the nation. 
' Mull he be always obeyed ? 
' "Hie nation owes him obedience while hf coip^ 
mands nothing contrary to the law. 

Whac power is it that makes the law ?• 

The people and the king. 

How is a law to be known as fuch ? ■*.-■;'• 

Wheii it lias been propofed by the people to.^ie 
king; approved by him; and that both tKe one 
and the other have confented to its execution. 


d pairkiicCkt^kiJkii, 4^ 

JiAmf can ve be certain, that a.kivJw.k^xi 
Jbto^okd by the people and .qoafimtad to bjr lifit 

•ting? -^ ■-.,..* 

When all the inhabitants p£ th6 d^partotelittrare 
^preTented by men whom t]^y have ifeely eloped 
u4 f n vefted. with their powers to ftipulate ficK t^ieir 
•rights t and when thefe i*eprefentative£ haye ha4 
the liberty of rejedting or adopting the regulaaim$ 
CO* which the force of law has been given* , 

What ought to be the punifhment of a frcie man 
w|^o tpfufes to obey a law ? 

The.puniQiment muil be pronounced by the la^r 
itleif ; Or by a law purpofely made. 

What then is the diflinftion between a freeman, 
fuch as a Frenchman, and the fubjed of a defpot, 
fince they ihuft both be equally obedient to the 
law ? 

The former concurs in making the law : the lat- 
ter muft reoeivc it in fpite of hini. When a law 
is made, the former is ftill at liberty to obey it,, or 
to feek j under fome other dominion, an e^ei?iption 
from obedience ; while the latter is perhaps^dcuin* 
cd under the yoke. Death, or fubmifl|pn to the 
will of another, is the alternative of the nave. Sub- 
jedion to the will of a people, of whom h? makes 
a part, or voluntary exile, is the right oT a ^French- 

What are the means of exiftence for a French- 
man ? 

f ♦.^.n , 

,Vql.IT. Ff - ~ His 

1 ■*. 

. . Hit^ propehf , his laboiUy his induftry » opjbjlj u« 
tefit^ i ftAd.ii[ he:liaii no property^ and is ism^W- 

ctf labour, the charity of the rich, and the reUf/^ai- 
forded by the ftatc» ^ t • «- ;:'•?'«'' •* \' 
..What is. property ),:.'• . v w--\ :i«l// 

That >vhich has been txafti^ittied to li^s^fj fdhic 
urtuch^we havei acquired ;i or that w4itck .'Wiecteve 
created. - \r:^'* a"> -'v?^- 

Is ic always a cifime tQ> atta<Jkth«< property 4)fAn-^ 
other? '■ -■>•■.«.)■: ■■■►'* •'."'.■ ■ rj) _ 

^ -.'Yes, always : -bec^^.osderiijjependt^i onthft-'re^^ 
(pcA. vifltieh is dii9,ta ^op^ijy : andrmen couJd not 
be fure of eBJoyiag whac they a^fcwally poflefledy 0lr 
what tkcf t^i^ht: in futufet acquire^ > but .in as -anich 
^s they had; agreed not . to^ Doup]| V^hao ^longi^d ^4^ 
another. . ■..•.• .^ • .. . ■• (• . 

He who has nothing miift therefore reflgn hictt* 
fclf to die of mifery, if nothing is- given him h ■ 

Whoever has hands, and ftrength, may do fomc* 
thing, becawfeihc has the means of labouring^ and 
if he habituates h^imfelf to labour^ he is c^ nam t^ 
^n^ng a iubfiftence byit : but the rich a^i^ft. fjiA^ 
;fift, by. their, property,, which jbeym^ylofo by* 
thoufand accidents^ .-' .:' 

: What difference ^is there bets^fcen the labchlrer 
and the rich perfon by whom he is employed f'^-.<» 

There is no difference between them when.they 
are equally virtuous and juft : the. onic fcilsiiis Ja* 
boviTj and tjie other pays for it# If the poof tiavie 
.. . . ^ occaiion 

A patriate Cihcbifiii 4^$^ 

\tec4fe>ii'fof the rich i thfe rich haveftitl morc'ic- 
Wllteil^ftlr the poofV *rtd if all ihe'^oor^ivertftcrf 
relbltfe tgaihft rendering tfny fervlce to the richy i\i& 
latter Would be the greatert: fufFcrers: ^ -^ ^' ■^'^ 
What is the labourer bound C6 do for tH4' ^o^ 
jprietor who employs hitti ? ■ ■ •' *' 

-^^gfo^kboUr ifaithfully for hint at the priccf Agreed < 
bettv'een them. v.j.m> 

•^iWha* ttocs the Vafflkl o\^cf t« tfi e tOtti of the do^' 
main on which he refideii ? « - !>-. 

-^ There Are Art Iorige^ vaflfaisj no longer lords? 
but there trill alwS)^^ eikift, in what {s called Hfiefot 
JeigH^ie, a princfpkl pr6pi'ititor', knO'wh liitder'thc 
dficittit title i^ffiigH^n If this princiflal pr<Jprietvif 
hni'had illtiftrious artcfiftor^j regard will be due td 
him as their defcertdant t if he has perfonal virtiieSfi 
tht^ will entitle him to refpeft ; and if heAfts well 
he has a right to the gratitude of thofe aroundhirrti 
*• 'What do parithtoners oWe to their clergyrtiari ? 
■ • -Great veneration to his clerical charadter^ aib the 


teiittfter of religion :' but tHey are bound to aflift 

and*d6hfide in him only in als much J4S thtpy gfteeiA 

4iim fdr his behaviour; and his exaift perfortriance 

of his duties. 

» mHow can the labourer bei^dm^ in his turn a pro- 

prtetor? * 

'^ Byfia^yirig up what hd can fpare' of his falaiy : by 

deamig the land which no perfon has cukivited^ 

and' gathering in its produce; or by pqrchaCng 

t < f; F f 2 ground 

41^ Afafnoti^ CMtttti^ 

iifg 4iis :akht8Jaiuiiii(kiiihy:>tb po^Du^FiA ijsncnf/l . 
-£tfedthdm,vr ia^tfaeDeyejpEitbe ^^joany/sdtfE^^icpfif 
between the proprietor and the labourer ? .t^idiinoi 

Yes, there are fomeimiqr<xirt>6ii)^iQ$dM^ 
IkRQCufe begivestto'i&ciety a pledge fQffiib)gQgMi¥>n-' 
ili36b^^attdidrildsfipunftcidityuiiif^ emru4s jii^ 
pQbtib^eximiGes;^ 1^ . XbduMtthasia liQWa^ttr)dw»Uifie^ 
^dfi^ol^eV'blto4nGrt}4>tl«ticA«^givoslfhmritf dQ(i tteiw^ 

.^noM^^i;^^dj|ie Vtt tfaeimecfuabiiB ri^fii? ignini^^ni^rn 
c?ji!I%ieyr:^pjp ^(^ iin\diat:Vthdy ifaaynx^ %^ii>sf^i 

right <W[jii^voeit^iiliey aimij^alr^j betcftofttjo^ Ipaf' 
*i^bS4l(l^iifith&i!abi]»9^imd^ fol^any 

profeffion whatever, they may attain to riB^^-ciepoifc 
' idff : it. - i:B tdt i until tlpey: ha^a^ a^ai^3di rtfa6fc ictlint s^ 
(4fld tlkoic V faci^tiei^' they are igi&tiob.itdikiecejii^o 
'4iav& gh^en'pfdoiof Trtfadr:poireffing:4^ 

-^^yotiihy a»^tbi^auth'tOi ai^foHn(ediinaaKK>j 
iit^:^vAre they' obtig^lio^pay anyriii^^^ 

^^"1 >Yesy>dTery'mk»ii£6o«n^^ 

iEjfelitedt^' 1 1^' d»&^repne<ienca(iwb:of. thfe;^o6pb/iiD 

l<tli^^dp^Hibh vfioced* by- tbom^^. lender pmd <^ i^eimg 

deemed a rebel to the will of the commiuvicyyaiidic^ 
ohavkig:^^ oxpdnce txcafioded \ fay .bkian^aftij^fi^ 

ance fall upon himfelf. >jUiu^^ uihn^i^ 

^^Pi^^lS^t^ *f :ly to their Utr TE^i^^j- chebdiM^ 
ii?Rieh^«h«y»require'in vtttac of^h«rtidw> r> rflild 
'^Tif^oif thefe dries hsrre been - cbnfidiied hf ihe 
National Aflembiy: becaiufech^ confiimatioift jspni 
I^M^^bac -Aothuilg ift r^iihrod> but <wlMt is ifet« 
fonable. •^■'.-^."■•- .-• ^'U v ^ •. ■ - , ■ -.. ... ■• -'i^v/rjd 

"^ii^iitc^iDdioas tia^iq noW) effitccd* v .9ut ; asf coadft 
iBLtt^ksMms ^i3Qf]pniu]uc^cin7iW|htd[ii£ttctitte^ 
iCypditntknii^mmd itIiciaie<o6ifciirchand»f^ uUr |rt^ 
^prftotrs ought: 'without dtftiQftiokn> iuidiift^prop9l> 
tion to the extent ^o£ their grinindy/ 
maintaining theini i aocoircling: ta ihc jnesguUfions 
'ise^ol^ied upon in 0ie dinSQms df xlt^ departoa^nts, 
iMi4 notified by tbe4i£kri&s ortnunicipalitie^^ i n 
Y-iiAre men obliged tsomrdl, themfelves in ichfOuU* 
■4ary-fcrvice?i .;! -j-j. V- ■I- V-;)' . - .\v -c^ 

. : iThe inhabitants o£ a country mufti for their fOim 
.&kes de£end thegrcKind on which they ^cxvft : ;iall 
3dught cootribuce^to the.fofce^ of/.^he 
^army^inftituted fonipseterring thcxpoffi^ffioii o^ ^he 
coaamunityiat/large.^ And=in;?irJiiiii:dVier mano^rthis 
£ontributi£Hiis itoibCiiKi^q, ^wUery diioey klhei^ A)een 
-^decreed iiby/fthe .National Aflembly^' rtheir decree 
: imu&jbeilibnuttrdxo,. under pain ^ Mng;d^]^ 
^vAt^ a bad. citizen^ ^and/UAWor^fay of the^rmapi^lpf 
i'J?ren(;hcnan#r:r..;. -j '■ t. ,li.v •,,'•; cj l^i'-'i / ;..i-)^ 
- j jirMay, a. xnan, >^1i0:has :recetyed)c^ DfTe^cCi^do 

fcjfnfclf juflice? :. .:;ri .! aoj:; ijj.i r^j/ic 

Jii.]/ Ffj He 

Hd muft not do himfelf j'uftice but whcftfhrliaa 
ifo other ipeans of obtainkig it^' b^c hf ^hiti£t)i^ 
5tiftic€f thus rendered is ^inoft s^waya* iiijuftipe j 
becaufe the fame pe]:;foo is lipch j^dge ^d'^p^^rt^;^ 
The yil which i man does xx9^4AOfttu9r wiUi nncpr 
fepkir his own, *i . v.; itui 

If an en^my burps your houfe^ and you %\sxm 9^4 
bul'n ht«, there ^re two holies burnt; ^fiAikdk>^^ 
fished and dfitlnder are involved iii\tbe f^c^iiiuir 
f<irtune': if/ on the cocurar^r, juitice condendovi your 
effemy to code you his houfey or to rebuild y^fV^\ 
tefe-real culprit al<>ne will fuffer, ; ' • • -■ .!• '^> \ji\, 
'^-'If yotf grieiyoufly woqud him <?ha Jias renateipcd 
ytiu incapable of laboury you botii becoaaer^nu^pou- 
aHe tcfbciety I but if l^eu^ondein^ditiii^laibouc 
for you Until you are re*eftab|iAi(od^ fociety» puiuft^ea 
the aggrcflbr, v^ithqut being burdened by the.-peiv* 
ion he injured. ;' t . .;l- 

=•Whatarethe duties of chiWreoi towards ih^jir 
Others and mothers ? • *' • jm / -'mU' 

■To obey th^n^-^vhile they live by their cai^ii ;to 
honour them^en tkey ^bfift by their owi^iid^teosit;; 
and to fupport them i^ndev infftrmitiesiaiid« m^o^i 
^e, a3 an acknof^ledgementof ihe fuccoiuo^rMidiich 
they received froni them tt^hile in ^:ftac$ of jiq^ 
fa cy. . ■ ■ ■ vv ■ • \j,\' M. 

'What are the duties of a hufhand to bisrvfifcfi 

' To mak^ h^r life as happ^r as his xxnn :;:< ta ban- 

'fidcf her weakncfs or difeafcs; to require inothing 


£ram 'btrvwlikb is not coofiftent wii,b pfi^pr^efy; 
f:o fet ber an example of juftice in bje domefl^Qcoa* 
(cms jf 'to prated her with all bis {^rength^. wich|^U 
his cqurage ; aiad to pr^erve, a$ far. as it depen4^ 
upon bimrelfy the afie&ions of iove and fnendihip.; 
and all thofe fentiments whjch pan attach h^r to 

What are jbc duties of a wife tQ her bul^and?; ,\ 
-MiTo'^b^- always fakh&iL to the p^th (1>€ 
iov^ijig^Oiikly him V to avoid giving bit» any c§.uf45;9f 
jeaioufy; tO;'Coni:ur wifb ^U her.^erjgtbf with,ai| 
^er faculties to fupport the burden of fp^tr^moni^) 
fociety; ta preferv^. that g^ntl^nef* ^^hich fo well 

{^Qcom^a a wQtnaia ^> to msike hef houTt appear th9 
(oeiife-of happiiQe& tba$ l>c;r hyfb^nd may aJLwaysr^;« 
jurn ta it widi pleafw^.: to exhpjrt Jiinotp virtjup 
withlii^ tcndcineft of friendihip : to bear with pa* 
tience tbg defeds (he cannof cprreft:, to talk fre- 
quently- with, hitifi 9f: their children ^b^ft (he f^nds 
him di(]^pated of indolent: to.fpftew hiffufiferings 
in illnefs^ tQponfql^bitn^under.cbagrine.; rp.imkc 
tfoidiwr, to him, ^n4. to pKefejtv^.iiyas iwg.a&T.its . 
;jjrcfervsatip^ dep^iid^ upw herin . : * i ,. . ; • v . .. 

i..Ia- tbejpe in tbo tivilprckr^^ja^y ;4ififcypnce Uft- 
tweea theiixii^abitant.of tb^^aiiyrand th^-i^liab^i^HH 
of the country ? ■ j s » 

. -Noy.tbey ai*^ equally. JRrepchmenj equally parts 

ctf that great jcommuni?y,<>f, the :kingd(3^pr>VrliJLc;h is 
divided in(o municipaUti^i;canti>n$i fVAr>^^ and 

F f 4 depart- 

< -' «. 

themfelves through the plains ia^OTdilM;()nm(iltff4j»> 
the Att^(i£lttMft0poi9ffa4ijxl^ 
the money of thofe who inhabit the towns. ^. ouh 
dQfiith(^T]sw9aiefei]i|'odai:;aid^ri!Arh oAmr SiodT 
Uiidotibteidly thtyrdbzr^ifoi bcAditfln tbuFilmni^) 
fc;^owof itfBdalii ti)!e»^ jnkiajat>iAtiTeft^)in»|iti0cb pep 

fiddfli pEodixtipaiidk>fxhcei?ihg;tii0ieowfan^ huila^o 
hour : and the more hufbandmen there are, the<;ttlotJeD 
fepun^^edtitisdD findqiBQD(elf5i6Jaemg^adipi9){{^- 
plied with f»ocha&>D«L aJiTiiqroaiabiitlifaFefoare^rirliopdi 
lh||uld:^di^«fititbr jdlisgeoDwcftildlDe (goUqgof attfiM- 
ditfi^ boimfekiiHdukLbQ &dpifiiB[giiKni>b]^wUoai^ttri 
was fuftained 2 and the villager jviKydboiildbdiCd3 
flain the inhabitant of the ckp^oldnhe. okocle&n^* 

money he was enabled to procure hbiiBBprteipdntiBrfafio 
hu{1$agndrisr^piA]0(ik&!(^le^ Badupikjitbo tsdpeii jrjH 
Wdiprart thftJi^hkdvhQAi^Miirim^ijlid^yidjB^ 
/Tbofi^lwhteitbovigh^die^iaretHiUieiiR^ pitfcy^q 

thjQjflitaip0io6JD«g^^yitK)Ldic^ pcodw 

feffidiR tbvfejvho Qifitm^^hefn&hn^sxipio'drm^^ 
ilidkafxdbcqMimidiliyiifii^'m^ intolx^^^qofriof ^oUyrioiDD 
frenzy: thc^iiibp Iconfitm&sd deb^dd^^ 
wandl ofj^eio lbboLm;j»td ^by^tdIfiit^4lbr&^dlB9rldSl^• 

id¥i«Mtrfothe/mtanrtodifa9n.p^ isii 

due? .fnv/m -^rfi ^irj^Hnr oHw rpY^rhlc v'^n-"" ^ffj 

Thoft iviio dtfi^ac^iiwuho|qicibkyv«ixd'(jnftQe 
rijf^ifil-aad miiicdijr dntiesdkr, ihc good( bf fodi- 
ty^ dieiflvnneriai^agettteo^theei^ifla^iiiiei 
tfadkttcrof thi$}execiitive?^lia ffiU; cdnoor forefhdiiT 
liAitetgitodpr iited iecvikjrrUL tke diJfttentfdiyifioiiBm 
ofxfluuf grind'vcoixutiiinitf;^ ivhioh. conftktitesrtkbibf^ 

ttQDri^oiB:'tel^^fuci^compliiintsi9eanadol n.-iv/ boilq 

-ifTtiietagoixts oof iihfenaDraidi:^ xdJfai8C(ddfe£)tHifri 

iieiis«ohi«f^vtOiiliie^n>q'hid ^miu^ i^xib 

^EiilBF/mtinkipaHtjr] i ithd.> idiftri&^o^ ^theidiMftoiyiq 
But ifxsber oomplaiiikaift is>Rtfi»&drjaftiQetfti6rd]^' i^^^ 

cocDfdbMDtr ^rela^es^: to juiy^ dmppft ;^ oi^ €o^1eui^ otbcfrol 

commiiiEiicie fdtiq)ldyedconi ^^^ibolaFiOl99£bix>4Ua 

ceniii^; winch be Jmls beenid^med^jiiftioetpii^ ; yxnoii 

AK^rbn hsMFrehdimtor/ds idetenninodi tcoi^piki Siisw 

THKVr ^ with 

with litm fail, property^ and feciicing himftlf frdrii^aU 
»pprehienfioiis on his journey f i . 

. JAp inuil declare bis inteotioa to:th9'o}iitf <»f'hi& 
ipunicipality ; mho isflfaliged to gim him a.pi&rport 
tor leaving the kingdom^ if his departure betsot 
oppofed by his credicon^ oo^ the pica* of thetr being 
yi> danger of fuffcring^ uniefs he ika¥e»iirci}ri^jfi>r 
the. acquittal pf. hbe ci^agemem^; V' .v;- .^^v- >i 
. When, a m^n W difpofed lamakrhia^ thoughts 
public by meana of! printings si^ht w iibtiv^ tOt 

do fo? . . .v:-:t;:.v -J.-i.' ;ici i^'. 

Yes if he figns what heintcntsto print;»or^ifthe^ 
prittcer gtws fecurity hyhis fignaturo. > > . ^ : i 
n To what does he. tupoSt. himfelf dn^ cinsuladng 
hischoughta by means of tho profs ^ '^ .i»t^\ > i^< ^ 

To . be attacked. b}ir j^ifticc^ and condetnoed c« 
make pecuniary and public reparation, if by unjuft 
abufe he injures any ones honour. : : • • ' 

\ If the abufe be juft^ is the author {bill in danger ? 

Yes, if he cannot prove what he has jsdVAnced. 

Are nnenApern^ittcd ta writ/?, agatnft tfacf:.eil$bUni- 
edrcligion? :.. j : . . ;'.' xm;'-^'! 

( Nevier ; . becaufe idiea a jeligion is, in«iy «jMn- 
t9y> admitted as the true religion, it ought tx^htx^ 
fpefted or abjured , and. «5ren' aficer AbjuraWKL' it 
iBbvSi noii«be openly coxnbatted ; for though a man 
may be at iibtenyrwkbir^^dio hi&o^ faaa 

no >righD^O' attack that . :o]t vthichodier .citizens 
build theii^ happixiefs and their hopev-^^u-^a.Mr; i , 


i:sWh«t'h«irefitciiaTrfufe from the ttbewyiof'^ 

'i;IQbef£usiilef)ht)f expoiing aU ^iifes; of pfDpagkt* 
jn^'gttKl'iprinciplos; }af>iAUfnidaiifig thd viie^;'<^' 
i^ggf^U^ gwd l^ws i of combacmg falfe fyftem^l 
wM^cfucoefs;:. aad;Qf icTX^nding^^ human knowledge* 
lc)ieif^gii»i: ^ ildflnmtagei couat^rpoife fo fully the 
inconvenience wlucbmaf anfp from the'HfientioiiiP 
Aa^0£(liie:pi«fci9 that diqrihi»ibnot^be» fft6riffted 
tb tiifiitraj: of &mng tooif^any publications 'pradiic- 
od by that liberty* '. : ^ 

«fjs!the cbace^rpennittedK^ 

The chace is.permittedztO'ali proprietoiK on^ tlidijr 
Qwa poficffions; becaufir its job^d): ^is- to extirpate 
the ankiia|s which d(:ftroy the ^arvefb} ^lad thdfil 
viio::CoH^; and Sow xiie ground, ihould be ati li- 
berty, to ^ prevcat the lofs of the fruit of their cofl: 
and labour. * 

: 3Ehe:excrcx(b of the <:hac& v% forbidden thedf^ to, 
every man. who has no territorial pofleffioite? 

ii]fes^j«aicfs:be be authorized by a proprietor 
Is the (hooting of pigeons allowed ? "i ^> 

- tili^> Iwuiiiouiy tathe propcicCQPwho fees tbetillon 
hit ^eki^ and at the feafon.wkeniit «is (forbidden '^m 
leM^mxrangecbc coufKry. : < . < j/r^^,) 

ii.Aoe tb^re any circumftances ;under which itnfXk 
«e an Ijilaorfiyito dfo juitieQi on th^? wbocn the ptb* 
lioycdceiiasiiprodaiined to faety^antsi^ eictorqK^nev^ 
or monoplizersL^ ;.i' ■;■. ■ i -■ r a-jii'-^-Mv^i ^i'^Hi ouuriw 

- ' ^' Such 

^^ISodlrffrlibdirtjr would brthe<«a6ri^tght!bleMfaH 
isBitlsr)i£iie€^ for oncroiitninai pjiinHhetl hj haiiiAmxmi 
mrtfaoiAfiuicl'iiihocbiir) pestfcnto wDiddifa61exiiio£Dditd 
4iiettfasm lit i would- 7fpreadrrtooubloi and 'diibrdct 
cfafo»gb(hdietj^ i^jtfjwo^d render (tnono&Bgnbw^ 
:Uidqfe«f>dm)s\9i«nd< Jte'^wo^uidi contkAiaUjddQesriof 
Uiac^tt^tlKitrtbiiBldsf bhurged^ wuftbjJi^rpmUbiDoift 

It ought to attia»>eaivf!fe»jJMt^riy>fiigftid>lii^^ 
dwelling, and to thafi^owlao gira ^qptpa^lJ^Qirnc 
plddgeitD diet law; Unle& jt.bc iiiti^elHOifi^Wary 

'j[t3fticfc.«6: all ; : itountefjr^ €6t dits> equaAs^i^nQitfiliQsiM 
his fitperiors ; compaffioo : iox tb^ wd^k ;3Midj0li^ 
lity for the poor. r -i q n o? .n/i:.^ 

Is the monopoliziog of /corn alwai]^ ijis^r bt €K)n^ 
fideced as an offence ? • o r.i n^v^ knui^ 

Yes, always when the'objed io viciiir<i$ ^itMflMe 
a fcarcity of t^at moft neceffiiry artidieirfitti IQjteke 
advanta^t^f :therfiR^tapei!tvQf all waiil^^jf^ lh«|fur- 
pofe-ofiobtaining nchosw*-!"^' ^ .» r\'^ w.-onorfiib ya-^ir^ 
b; Ait>>alllmen who coUe^ much com/ it^tj lie -ctpAfi^ 
disredfas:dionop(>lizerscf.";ni/' ^ -. .■ 'v* ilijjffiib t)i£ 
^ .Na; I for : the i»aa who buys up largo .i|il»)ticm 
<if. cora,! and ke^p$ iithy blm> only ufes fbc iilbrsiiy 
4Einjpyed by every proprietor; . He is^infeelingiSAd 
, u*- li*.'. cruel. 

AfiUrMkCateshifiiU 44|f 

«DU«l,irir^r!re^rB}efs of tM #hnts of tM ttlultiltiae, 
herefiiics to feillris griin ^ 'bot^^Iie is oottHctiiMl 
farf)vid|lioldhig it in the eye; of tbe la^r^^ whikftiie 
iaKndbfes iiot require him to]feILiitw v; Hd majr^dcb 
lerreithenioiitQnipt; th£ ^Ha/ry'crd • df bis fidloifwcrtk^ 
tQre99bbdt^*d)UMtrit5^ r<ebii/reaffojiii -why < ibis prdptoj^ 
flioisldlbefin^Miedvi ^^' l?)fi^i «rhiy 'ftdp to be- taken»^ 
the people, isMiMpfefent^tlre ^li&ilr #o <ho(riECisgU 
fin^ii^toi^ dl2a(g<Hi¥i||i^|iff)vidkg*pnotJ^)for 
tiic85y^thin^<heii«^tcifp^^dfc^ ^J ?fiT]no :1 

^n4s^ Jt4fegdo«> n-^lB inI'^oriSr?'!' '»• f ^'i .^:/nljov;b 
ci^WlieBrjitesfibtivecisiputeii'this tti^id^Iis'of^^fit; 
to hu(baAdha^;^ibe£^(k^!^5Dtds^'^emr anroppdfi^ 
tunity V)f MJJidklt^ft^flhei jlfwiucerxrf^ their grdiiWd : 
md«tilsItoe^MhIfihltifllie'df 4^anh^ bdoAufeiiiier- 
f<tf^like>me^^0f fifbtfift^ndeiikty plac^ wMdp'^e^ 

taihs to regulate the exportation of comfj b^t/7f« 
lOdg M tll( 4d^|^ft2ition l$>ifpt'pc<s>hjibited, ^ii$>iri» 
minal even to ftop the circUUtion bP atk w-fiolo- A 

9:>MA.ieMi|>r^«ffieiV^e^»jdty^editaftld^ 7^'o-i£>) i; 

ciety difhonour the cii\ztn%kiif^^\9mt\tiSf^Tt'^cioc^ 

are difficult in the attaiDm^f]^^g(|ttorbe4ibMqh 
4»ai%nribfedS^(^>lA]4ibeml ^pMtSk&a ii' (w^ritstHo a 
f«my 0fl(4:^Hhiai9^rmbl(toHi&t<yKu1iltto'^f^^ 
^ I«wtfimiwriiw<;ft-tti5l of^^darqr^fp^^^^ h^tfti^fe 

jIorrL> painter; 

44^ Apdtriottc ddtechtfmi 

pinitti a flatuaiy than a ftdne rmfdiii aiidd ^\rfM 
tickb. than a vefiider of medicineij. ' - - j . 
• is not the ptofefliDii of an executioner dlfgriicc- 

^jj- ... ... ■■■■^^^■'■■■;-^ '^ 

Although the executioner performs one of 'fh* 
fundions of juftice^^a^ heis the in(ti*ument> thbugU 
Ihe legal one, of the deftttidi^ji biE bis^'f^QW.. 
creatures, no man of fenftbility wciuld' Chiife fit^lji a 
JjrofeffiOn, and confcquently it isi&cojtnpatiblc i^ith 
the public efteerp; , .. :: \. _w 

Is inequality of fortoitie an injiillicer ' • 

i^b ;- becaiife as irten do not all libour^ irid rxf 
ert their ihduftry in the fa&ac degree, their fcxr^ 
tubes cannot be the fameit If a general equaliza^ 
tion;of property were at this liiomeht to take placed 
We fliould, in ten years time> find the fame inequaf 
lity exifting which we now behold : ill conduft and , 
Mleilcfs Would infallibly lead to it. tiarge for- 
tunes are therefore the confequence of labour, of 
l^ius, and of oeconomy : and thefe caufes are tod 
f efpeftable to admit of our deftroying their effeft. 
' ©y whatlrefleft ions can the poof confofe them^ 
fdVe^ tinder their tnifery ? ' 

By faying to thcmfelves, *' My parent left m^ 
^^ nothing: I have gained nothing: it i^ for me 
*' therefore to experience poverty, and to mitigate 
** that poverty by labour* If I make fome favings, 
^^ and if my children increafe what I ihall leave 
^^ them> it will be their turn to become rich^ and 

^ '' to 

A palriotu: CaUchifm. 44^ 

•* to be r^rved by^ and <;ommand others : tbcy wiU 
^^ be only men like me, but they will haye moi^ 
•* leifure, and be more independent; But if they 
•^ make an ill ufe of what they may inherit /roc|^ 
*^Vme^ they will fall into indigence: if they;. arc 
** difhon^fl, they will be defpifed; and he fro^ 
•'^ whoni they will bluih at being defccnded, is nov 
** kfs unhappy than they touft then be found/' , , 

What (hould a juft man confider a$ the circle 0/ 
tis duties? 

To obey his father, and mother \Vhile he is under 
^eir protet£tipn : to endeavour as early as poffible 
to fubfift by his own labour and. honeft induftry:,tfif 
contribute to the harnxony of fociety by his jiiftijicQ 
and courage : to render tp others the treatment hflr 
would receive: to return the kindhefs he has ci« 
perlenced : to honour his king, cherilh his cou^^ 
tryi and refpedt the law : to bear no envy towan^ 
the rich; no contempt for the poor ; to qoiufort thij 
unhappy : to praftice fobrif ty^^, that he ipaj, ?^:.^i9fti 
As ^pqffible preferye his life ; and -to iee^r^^k^^ 
prej^ared to behold death without jfegrjejij^-^.a^^htf 

event which' muft put an , end to sho^^ wfeffliH^p't'fil 
old age* 

-nn ;■. 


• • 

>•;£ )-i 





X. i 





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,^jjp fi,.i^,-i} /4cr' 

-•'1 tJEdJARATrON 6»- HlGSTS" 

:i([j."nor,v/Ti'.i"'-,-^ , ■•■•.?■.-■ ,:..-.:.■ '..< r ■ • .. :> . :., .«. -^ i 
. OR TBI , , ' ■ 

' J,. HE good people of thefevcral colonics of N9.W 
Kampftiire, ' Maffachufett's Bay, RKode Idand 
and Providence Plantations, Connefticut, New 
"Tork,, New ' Jcrfey^ Pennlylvania, Neft'caftle Kent 
and 'Suir?x on Delaware, Maryland, Virgini^, 
Wor^h, Carolina, and South Carolina, alarmed a: the 
grifltraiy proceedings of the BritiHi parliament arid 
adminiftraiion, having feverally eledled deputies vo 
ipeet and (it in con^refs in the city of Philadelphia ; 
and'thofe deputies,, fo chofen, being afTembled dn 
tfie' 5th day of Septernber," after fettling feveral. ne- 
ccflary preliminaries, proceeded to taKe into tncit 
mofl ferious confideratioo the beft means of attain'* 
ing redrefs of grievances< In the firfl place, thejrj 
M ^glifhmen their ancefttH's in like cafes hid 
done, for aflerting aqd vindicating their rights and 

That the iob^itftotB ^ the EagUQt ccdonies ia 
Vtt^.U. Gg Nsnli 

4 jO JEfecld^atioH of Rights. 

Nortjbt Anftcrtca, by the immwable laws lUfcit^AtUte^ 
tbc prificiples of the Engliih co]ij[lkutioQ^:and{|&<: 
{cfvier»l charter^ or compafts h^v^ the .fol^tming 
R|[x»HTS.: Refolyed netn^amj, . . . :;,: rj :^Tiiqo2:.^ 
vii. That they arecmitledto Mife, liberty, a^dipiiaj 
petty: and bwe fiev^ .^i^dt^d tQAo^/.^fot^^ whatever, 9^ righ? tp difpofe Qf ekh^xmth)* 
out their confent. : ^>:i. ? 

..-2. TJtiat <?4jir ASC«ftorik ^€tf:ei at tb^ Jiirofti^tf t^cir 
emigrating from. the iBQther qojwlryi entitle^itPiftU 
Ifee ri|hUi liberties, ftpd irofmj«ttie3> . ^6 fw^ %SI^ 
^uraUBDni fybjfc<3;s ^ittthiay rfi^ f e$lm -erf; l^oglltf^^^ 

3. That byfuch emigration they neitheicliprfeas^ 
ferripnd«ed,-»Qr Ipft^ny.o^Jth^ o 

all free gwernment^ is a pigHt, in thq-|>«opl^[<tQ 
{Kirticipiate in their legiflative' edqnci) ^ ^^nd'i^itbe 
Englilh colonies are npt reprefentedi;«li4> frocm 
their Iqcal and other circwmftances^ €iftnQti 5>i:Qper- 
lybe-repr^fetued in the Britifh parliament^ th^j^^ 
«ititJ[ed :tQ-:a:.ffce an^ excl^five po^^erof iegiflatoofi^ 
in thefr>:f€rxf jf^J-.pfpvincialJcg;i^ l^h^efcthgif 

tight ojffejpr^feftj&Bition e4QalQnebep?«ferVjrtif iQall 
cafes of ftaacatiOBi ttr>d iaWrBal polk^fij^f^jeftimrfy 
to the. negative; oi their . fov^reigni - in ifuchcfftaiUnar 
as has beenJieretofore afttJ-aiHl-^HiCieMftctaafid,^nbW 
fronv the neceffity of ;tbi8-€|ife,',^od aireigar^Uyfthe 
mutual intereft of both countries^MWiqi^cia^feHy 
i-onfent to:th€i>pftratiQn of T^rth-n^ftss^f tlie-]^ifa& 

jMi4&mait ^^ ^aiv k^fidi reftt-dfied Id ^^^teguti;! 
fk)liio6 our^xciMtl toltiftk^^e^ for the^^fpoCb^^^ 
£i$€tifitig^' thei commerci ji[l '^^n tage^ of Yhe 'Wh^ 
empire to the mother coontty, knd'tlMricommidf<:iS 
benpBcs of ittirefp^ive ineoibcirfty^cladibg every 
ix^a'oftaxocion, imeniiil olr esttemal^ for Taifing^i 
itlvenue hti the fisjyefts In America M'iihotit theft 

confent* ^' .: • ' a.'> 

.n^^ iTbat «hd r^ff)«aive cdoirffe are ^iti^cld td'^the 
4Sdrflfti6n U«^ o^ Bttglaridi Sfnd,' Hififfe i^eJtialfy e* 
^ gf^t 'and ine^ifiliiifele'privit^g^ idf being ti^di 
bS^^ci* peer^i(tf:?vkiriagfei 'flt«!cdrdittg' tb the ct>Ufft 

- 6. That they ariS'eiititkdto the benefit dffueb<tf 

'^i>®ngli(h 'ftatutcd as = erift^d it th^itime ^ if tbeit 

^bldtflz^ioti) ^nd Which they hare'y by experieiid^ 

«fj«9ftivdiy found to 4>e^ap^kable to their fevertl 

icfcd and ^tber ci«:\irttftance3. " « '» 

^ ^^i' ^Thattbefe his majefties coldnies are likcWife 

^mi^^ to all the immunities and |)rivilegfel, grants. 

udaande^nftrmed ro thtjm by ^dyat-'feWaftft^s; oi* fe^ 

^ftWd by; their kv^^X codes of provkdaMaw^r • ^* ^ 

•*'^8/ 'jMt'tbey haire alright peaceably to a^erilWi^, 

icbttfider'of their grievances, and petitl6fi the kiii^; 

ttttd3^«hac all prqfecutfons, prohibirtry ;:|>V6cld^^ 

^ifCfri^,! afid cdrtiiftitments for the femfe srfe i^ii^l. 

• ^^1 Wi2k"i\l& keipittg a. Ifeanding^ axrty itf^ thefe *b6^ 

i'lBftfeif iifir tititfes &f p«ice, without the cohfent' of the 

i^giflitQrd df thacicoloiiy itt which <kh- arrtjy i^ 


G g 2 ic. That 

45 ^ tfetlaration of Ri^ bts. 

10. That it is indi{peniibly neceflkry to good gCN 
ivrnment, and rendered efiential bj the Englifli con^ 
ftitution, that thje conftituent branches of the Iq^iki*^ 
curefl^ idfdepen^en^df esich ^ther^; tl^t dkerMorey 
the exercife of legiflative power in feveral colonies^ 
liy a council appointed^/ dlfring pleafure^ by the 
crown, is unconilitucional, dangerous, and deftruc« 
tive to tfie Irfeehdini oP Anicl-icati iSiglilSti^* 

All and each of which^ the aforefaid deputies, 
in behalf of themfelves and their conlHtuents, do 

tbdm-;^ %i^^(^/ w inffife o&^ a^tiiSii Hiaiii^ai>% 

rights, ai4 Uj^^mes, whii^^n^^pjc ^^ Ipg^Uy takeik 
from them, altered or abridged by any power what* 
ever, without theif 'oWii fcbixfent, by their repre* 
ientatives in their feveral provincial legiflatu|^ 
.«/R<erolYi8d5.nenK :Goi\. ^^^trXhefc^^lqw^^Apl^ 
jPa/liameataffo mfrin^^eaieQt^^ ^lOjO^tj^^ 
. jsigh W of the Colpnifts. y ^^^M^t tbe.rppe^ pf j5|h|S|i^|s 


8 Geo. pi. ch. 22. — 12 Geo. III^^^^i^^j^|q^ 

feffion; and the bill f9L;?ftabli^^ 
,^^wh9i»c<pHgis9,w^e^P^p^^ qf p^^^pc^^^erc 

.#ati4;fc t^^.orig}5ial.fl^^^i^^ 
reader. ,..')-».. r^.^^^^ \^ -^idinn r^Ji bn^ ^Y'^^^ %^^ 

M3in ' c§i> - ^^^ 

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\ . .■ fl 

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.,kO-E ,C L A R A T I O Nji 


*^ OP 

,...,,: . -. . I ^ 

T(Hi;ji«.?>fITEP S.T.ATE;S OF AM£R,Jig{4 

* I f t - 

.IJ-SJIJ /. ^^ 0£HklL AL iJ'birGiCfSS ^ASSEMBLED.- ' ^*ci' • 

— "t f f I ^fl ■'■'1 '!'.'•■ *r *•» V''> .'*^ *f ••.' »-» »i '•«■'■ v.-.i'- r ».'^.•^ ♦ 

-yirp-i t; ■'. v.' ,: i5^^^rft>/"*- J ;.■. .'.■ . -..v-j. 

'^^n^HEN'iik the cdi^e 6f huittah eTtefttS, ii- be, 
^^t^istotSkr^ for oiie {>ed|>!e to di£R>lV<!'ibe'Q«6%- 
^tiiBd'%^<b' Wliicli' hare coaneaed th(it^ Witli^. 
^^99^'itnd'tb sifiumeaktanjs the ^\(rth df'thbe^)^ 
tai^%^ite and '<^i)tii^ ^tioit i6 ^Meh' ihtr'}^v^1>f 
'^^e]'^hcl of Ksrafcb'i'Gc^ eiia'llfcthtfm; iiii^xnc 

-Ih% l^^tka^declare ^6^ ^td[& - wbkH> Mj^ ^xen^ 
^^ffiSfet^ritibni^i '-'^^ ••--•-- ■'''' "^ •^-"^'^ ?• 

^m^ViitflW'a^ "ffiifchsftf t^feiiP^aeatr'^'Iritt 

^■•^^l&t't^Hey'a^e tttdd^'B^-axKt^.'.Gtdltb^ - 

Vf&t liberty, and the purfuit of happinefs. '*'''' 
-•W ^ G g S ' ' That 

ftituted amogg^ .men,^ (Jerivbg ^i^^ J^ft^^^p^r^^ 
fi^^i/^e fionfifnt o^. t^e"^oycrap| j,^a)j4 >«Meaf3[er 

tJH;ie^n(fei,ilifts _tljc,Tigbit<o(f^the,£eQgf5 t(^.f^]ft^^ ^j: 
f!?<i4i* it,,»nd;tOiyitop,a B?^:&?y£mjn.ent,.Jajj, 
ing its foundation on Cu^^M'^^^hi^^SSmf^:^ 

mfh %iKto efea thw.g%x,.,^e^iji^/^c^^, 

Piu^enc* i^^fed >ydi . dj^afc^, ,^at gpy^^A^^gj,?. 

tranfient caufes; and ac^f^i^gfx,a\J;ej^£5if^f^, 

w^ile evils are ixx^Til^}fi^x^^it,hAa ta^rjgfe tli^em-. 
%^>TS.»:by abolifhing tb^,fofIps.^t5>.,^yhich^^J^^^ w. 
accuilomed ; but when. a long train. , of . Abu 
xifurpations, purfuing invariably the fame pWe^, 
cy iaces , f cjefigii to reduce xhei^^ )i^^/ , ^^f?}^^^ 
defpbtifm, i^ is their right, it is their duty, i^ tJ^pw 
cfFfuch government, and to proyide new; guarcj$'fbr. 
their- future,. fcaijcity. ,,Sijch has bcen„ t6e , patient 
fixlienuvcc of thefe colonies, and fuchis now^thc, 
neceffity ivjiicn confti'iiBa them to' alter . their . fpJ*- 
mtpc^fyftems .pf ^ government;. .The .^iftoryjjf^ t^^^ 
I>refent _- of -~~ ;.— is. a h^iJoqr, o^ r5jgef te^ 
•iryuries aiiu ufurpations; all having in dire£tob- 
jeft the eftablifhment of* an abfoline tyr;^ny pycf 
^V 'thefe ftates. To prove this, let fafts be ftibiiiift^ed 

' *to'a candid world; ■■ * ' 

^ • , ■ * ■ • 1 1 ■■ ■ ' »• ' • ■■ '■•■•■' • ■ » ■ 

■ ■ ■■' : • ' --He 


D^btaH^H of Independem^. 45/ 

_ ' ' •* ' 

^VkrhM fetiifcd hUafTettt to laws the mbfl whdle* 

Ibme and ncceflary for the pijblic good. 

* He has forbidden his governors to pafslaws^pf 

Snnjfcdiattand preffing importance, unlefs fofpchd*' 

ed itt their operation till his aflent ihould bb ob^ 

titeedj and when fo firfpended, he has titterf/ 

nclgfc&cd to attend to them. 

'^He toiTefufed to paft other law^ for fheiaccom- 
m^irtlon of large: difttifts^ of people, unlefs thofe- 
pdbpl'i >^uld reiinquifll the right of reprefcntatitw 
iti' khe k^iflaturc 'i a right itreftiinable to thbm^ and 
fbltoSdaWe to tyrants only;- 
*^He has called to^ethisrrlegiflatiVe bodies at 
placeis unufual, uncomforublei and diftant from 
we depofitory of their public records^ for xkt fole 
jsiU^fe of fatiguing them into compliance with his 

, iHe hfts diffblved reprefcntative hoiufcs repeated- 
ly t for oppofing, with ip^nly firninefs, hjs invafions 
iiti\lic rigihts qf the people. 
^ 'He has refufed for ^ long time after fuch diifQ-' 
^^n to caufe others to be erefted ; whereby the 
legislative powers, incapable of ahnihilatidn, have 

^ttirtfcd to the people at large for ^theif eicrcife'; 

(e^i^^ j^mainir^g in the nieart time expofed to a}l 
tTie'daitgefs of invafion front witltOiitj^'^n(JcqrjvuIr 
A^iA *^ithiiK • 

Helia^ endeavoured to prevent the popnlatiori 
qf iliele ftatesj for thac purpole ob'ftrucling the 
1'.; Gg 4 ' "laws 

others to encourage their aigrttions: M^iefS^ iMd 
|ili)ilig'nth»{coii(iH$^iA<uif "fMr iiippinftoisibm'iof 

lands« * ?'^0!i'>'fto-b5bn^3oiq 

nt Hcrh«i dMlMfteil ttt«^ aiMiiiiftjMiiii^irf^aAKe, 

fortbo ttmf^^^^thMP'bfic^^^widJi^^ 

payment of their falaries. : ?3;noloD af^rii 

fern hittor/ffeimis 4Df :ic>ft^ 

aod eat out their fubfiftence. c ;.vjnrjn-t.«vog 500 lo 
:Hi Jms kept*afiiQK)^ ov ianne^^if'fHBfttfl^ ffaiid^ 
iag^iamiiies, wMiour' the feo^Ktr (^^ixifiof^Ui^gHamh 
He has aifeded to rettdef^UidiiiitHbyyiiBdepftlidll 
f»t of, and fuperibr te>y the">riyil^ow^: ^/d aH 
L.HchasxombHi^ With ^odil^i/aa^rvfc^e^ mr^inea 
jurifdiftion foreign to our conftitution, and unm^ 

]ulowledig€d by ourla^(^>^P9in;^4tii>0oft^:iit[t6Ui^ 
jarctto(ted;ift8fiof4^iflirtto t ujb ,>nwoi wo -^aiud 
For quartering large bodies of 11 11 nil rfilMff 
Rnioag«ias*2^'i£i -^v^^vji'^nm t'.^nu? jfrfrr 3;: ^zl ^H 
*!:> For jwotc&ing:<!h€mv> by a .WC«2fctwa4/ifrtai3|i«^ 
jii(hngLei^fi)F ^uqr jniirdet9yihts7t>(hoiildi ^taiHiA^vli 
the49h4bijOaiKsxtf.thefeflsrf|:i)ui:> U> ?/-)p itflmi/DiiD 

world: ^noiJi-i Ija^J./i... •.■/>:. n.c^^J :;dt^vfIjiow 

3^-''l^> Foe 

prateiided offences : .?hn£l 

Aifaicimry gofernment, uid enlargmg its. bmuid^^ficai 

facB^iibetiamaidubiiig. l^fium^n^iwchfvbfMCd 
die(e colonies : .i":;i!:r' "ir»:[:}o t- jfrvBq 

hhFof^qCiiig'mra^otif bhMteeh tll9l^MS oil^iribft 

of Qur gfyvermnents : j^r.^f):- Nu ii^ii: :nr :r.o baa 
^bficv J&i{f«fding^aiirrowD 4egiA«tiires^rjabdHe« 

ibm^iiimll'cdcsrvbilfQetm^ ^ . !.fr'=r:)x: d^ui -jH 

He has aljdicatrd: gof^cmmfiit -^^ fa|i(deciariiig 
mr^wt f^hiMp^^mu&kM^ :iuui JvagihgoMmlag^iiQft 

msru tnx. ',.";*M r.iiu^.j:) ^isr. .0 iix^.^rrt r.Oiibiblnor 

burnt our towns, and r^kikcqDedi<tbBQr3jaia6^igf:oilf 

He is, at this time, tranfporting large^^irt^iserQDf 
ibqeigmliptectntakfli, BiiDd <w^ of 

jlntirjiikijpl^sioa^'E^i^ raliipidy^£e|p» idQtli 

circumflances of cruelt]n>KidD]»rfi%2&nidl^p^^ 
lAe^di^tb^ KMiftrihiHrbataris a^BsQ^Qi^dmuUy iw« 
worthy the head of a civilized nation. . bhow 

4^ DelflaraftMuif IndependeniiJ 

tipiHttaii thit highfeas^ tcy bear arms agaii^flr tbtir 
cotihtty, to become th6^<XecHtioners of thtirfrleiias 
affd brcthrtti, or to fkU themfclves by their* hah^s.' ' 

He has excited domeftic infilrrcftioiis ilAbhgft us, 
ttd ha^ cndcaToured to bring. Jxpon th£ i'ntSabltahts 
of our frontiers, the mercilefs Indian favages^ whof? 
known role of warfare is ah lihdiftingtdflied 4(« 
flruftion of all ages, fexes/and conditibns, ' ' '" 

In every ftage of thcfc opprdEBons wo liavei pcti-^ 
tloncd for redrefs in the moft hotnble *teruis ; oiiif' 
repeated petitions have been >iifwere4 ottly by re- ' 
peated injury. — A prince, Whofe" charaftdr is th'uS' 
marked by every ad which can define a* tyrant, Ss 
unfit to be the ruler bf a free people. 

Nor have we been Wanting in attention to our 
Britifh brethren. We have \«^arned them, froiii 
time to time, of attempts, by their Icgiflaturd, to 
extend an unwarrantable jurifdidtion aver us; we 
have reminded them of the circumftances of our 
emigration and fettlement here ; we have appelaled 
to theirnative juft^ce and magnanimity; and wc 
have conjured them, by the ties of oiir comtnoq 
kindred^ to difavow thefe uforpations, which would 
inevitably interrupt our • connexions and 'corrcr 
fpondence. They too have been deaf to the voice 
of juftice and confanguinity. We muft therefore 
:icqiiiefce in the neceflity which denounces our fer 
paration, and hold them, as we hold the reft of 
juankiad, enemies in war^^ in peace friends^ 

Lechratm itf Independent e^ i^ 

Stt^cai <jf >V.tnqdea, in general congrefs affemblea; 
apij^lifl^ tQ the Supreme Ju4ge ,of the .wc)ri4 for 
th^ j^^tude of our intentions, do, in the nanie, 

c^9^jes, fpletnnly puolifl^. arxd declare that thefe 
y^t^ Qplonies jare, and oif right ought. to be, 
FR^E ANP iNj>£PENpENT States, and, that they 

^^t^^^SjUppU^^^^^^ thfiOJ and 

th^^iUw^i^G^^^^ ^^.ought,to be^jo- 

tally^ diflp.lycd i^ aod t^?t, ^ and independent 
fUte^i^ tljey Jiaye full povy^r tp |evy war, cppclude 
peace^ con trad aUianfes^^.eft^blifh comme^c^, Jind 
to do all other afts arid things which independent 
fbi,;?p may of right d.Q« And for the fupport of this 
ae.cl2^ration, \yitb a firm reliance on the protcftion 
of Divine Ptovidence, we mutually pledge to catch 
other pur liyes, our fortunes, and our facred Hq^. 

Smied py order and hi 
Jpehalf of the Conrrefs^ 

[,iii..., i. JoHN.IiANc<JCK, Prc£dent^^ 

- 3 ; ivJf^^*. .Charles Thpmsqn, Secr^ei^ary^ 

' « ' ^ . . • * . 

••' « s 

.'ij ■- 

rJi ." ■ ^ ..t;.,':. ^- ■».*i.' J- •.■ •« ^ 

,1 4^ .'.Jb .>■« i I \ y.'J '' 

fe ' ART!- 

ic^ >' -^^xtt-...*:^ 


AND • f ■ ' -v 

T'Jl'j'.* V..I.!. f.'.'-i c »•; ./- r-iv^ 

their mutual mdt^9ai'^ifmf-ik^&i'm&. 

'iiii^t&AfmA(iik>M\^mamTM'^^i to, 

cs* *-- ^ count 

> X 

Articles of Confidiraticn. 4jSi( 

pretence whatever. 

!¥• The better to feQurc and perpetuate muT;tial 
friendflup and intercourfe among the people of the 
differeiu &^^^^i^ f his|Uj)i^|^^ r th|s .fr^ iphabitants 
of each oTthere (tates, paupers, vagabonds^ and 
fugitives from ju{;cq^p$^d^ (hall be entitled to 
mil privileges and Immunities of free citizens in the 
qfo»^«9t4ttsi' WA^ th!e* 'pw^i dF eidt i&te 1H& 
jkwr« ftt«<ia^i6^ad ^fe& tb-ithd ihkb arf/^^r 
iltte^iiid4KaU enjt^ therein all the prMigU oC 
^Mde^And^^^mmerdey' riib|ea:' to rht iktno 
jiBttpofiikmsi^ atvd' teftiia^onfs; lis -tht" mhi 
thereof refpedivdy^ *^fbV)dtfd that ruch^jttftttc^ 
tiotts (hall not extend fo far_as^t9 prevenit the re« 
movAl of propetty itnported Into any ftate to juy' 
, ^^}ft»te 4)f , which thti. o.*aer;.ia ioa, inhf ^a|t { 
protided alfo that no imj^fitiDif, ditfi^§,^^ij|qft{^^ 
tb^ ^Qk9\\ he laid by any 3t^. pathe pr/qperty of 
'^)t^gitedS»te8>, or. cither^ h , 

QJC pthec high:t»iGtem^a*pufi^ 
flee from juftice^ and be found m aA](j9fl^ 

Ji^%Wl,3f»tef>, he ^^ .upon. j|p«iapd,pf thqgo- 

j^%pr,<;i}epuiye powex. oi the ftate frotca.iK^tM^ 

ot t#^^»* wd wd^ f ft#^»V^ : » wh«C 


ywr, with ri'power^«ftrwd^w*eacfc^^ 

thei yeor^ ' aifdj to feiid tfihks Itiitkc^ir- ft«^^ ^P4i 
reniairidei^'of theycftru.' ?o ,-3:/rtio .j.Tirnuiomo .tnil 

iMo:ftat«'(bsH be tieprefoimdvJil^t<!)Mgr^^^t)]i*4^ 

ibaq > t#6y nik^ hum dian f ftv^i^^ ^ihe^bti^; ^ iih#4f8 

perfon (hall beiCa^)d:^ of^stktg^^defggtfe^^i^toVM 

my ^perfon, beihg sl^ckiegaie^-^^^bte x^t9^l!P 
ing^ any office underdid Uiik^ States, fo? whtefe 
he,' or^anyostber foir hi* beneik^' i%cfe}itcs fefl^ 
fe^$y 6r emolument^ of any feiAd;^/^ ■ ' ' 'djr.q luq 
Each (lace (hall lil^ii«aitl''icb owii^d^l^^«3>i!ri!r« 
meetings of thr6ciei»^> - and^ wbile:tliey ^^^ as>bksn- 
bers'ofidie committee ^ the ^ftates;v* o >n uni yi:fn 

dfiii deterftiining ' qMdki6iU m 4^^ UYltt^diiS^AMf 
miooiigrdsr iaffi»aibl(Sd, eacb ftate^i^AH 4^aye-l^ 

Freedom of fpe^h and^ <leba^ ii^ ^6^d^ri^^fl«A 
not be impeachc^d=<>^kj*€ftidftfcd^iniabyv^^ 

place . out xficongfefe^ ^ind'-tiie ^fehiJ»»#<iP«^flq 
Srefs ibflilibe^pMt^iSted in'(i&tif*|» 

. '-■''- and 

|ttkJ::imprifoamepts during the ciruf^^r^^cori^og 

to and from and attendance of congroTs^fjeS^i^^ 

r^ rWI# \ ^o fibtev ovitbout !tlwi ccjnfei* o^ libc <\^m<^ 

fgijfc^pyHkaftg^ prince,. or.fliatiei »or; (hall any pw;^ 

fofli^oWmg «iy <>fficeiOjf^^fMi or truftiBg^ter tte 
Ijl^icfi^ StoiiE^,: Qiff^any of theto^ iiccepr of afity^prd** 
fisnt, emolument^ ofEce, or titlc^ofany ktiidiwlitl^ 
j^r^(froiiira#y king, pjrmcai PC foraignfftacr;oii!Dr 
gjfiljtl^e TJAited gtateis. ih.icongiyfs aflGaQbted^uar 
*%yf pf' tbemjf rglPtoi s^ title of notoUity. - v..''-M 
llfSi. $^9 xy^Qor moi^i&axcs ihall oncfr into any 
tt^KSf "^i^fydQmiQti, ,Qr alliance whatever betwecsGi 
fh^f)^ wkhout :ihe <^oofcht of db^ ; United Stacca 
1^ i icpngrefs^ aifcmbled , fpecjfy ing accmrately tbd 
purpofes for which the famtis tQ be entered into^ 
i^ I^W; l^pg it JflbaU (cwtiijiue. ' . m i ,/. 

. rig^i iJ^fei fta^e ihall lay any. inap^ftsriof . diiti^ ^iurit 
may interfere witK^XDetotios^on^ 
*M«!^rtl9* J?y tli«. lUntted ;Scates:: m ;:«ongrcfs iaj&hi- 
ble^j-^wtth ftBjjrkingjt prkee, ?qj: ftattfJii^'pi^rfiDincc 
of any treaties already propofed by congrefs to^tiwr 
f fjj^Sc^ F^^nce and%tin..M; •« Vi,;; lo /aotno^/d 
io44 jM5>> v^iTipls of warlliaH be kftpt;;^|ni.tiaaje.o£ 
pfla^l<t>y^ftJ?y ft^>».arFirpt jCucl^mmdoenrjon^idig 

■ba,; eongreft 

464 ArticUi of Confederaiiatu 

Goopefi afiembled for the defence of fuch (Ute^ or 
its trade; nor (hall any body of forces be kept u^ 
by any ftate, in time of peace, except fuch numbdF 
Only as in the judgment of the United Stat^ iivcon* 
|p:c(» idembled Ihall be deemed requifite to gfirrt« 
ion the fort9 neceflary for the defence of fuch ilatej 
but crery date Ihall always keep up a well-rega^ 
lated and difciplined militia, fufficientiy armed toA 
accoutred, and Ihall provide and conftaatly baW 
ready for ufe, in public ftores, a due number ol 
fidd-pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of 
anns^ aiBmunitk>n, and camp equipage* 

5» No ftate (hall engage in any war veithout thv 
confent of the United States in congrefs alTemble^ 
unlefs fuch State be adually invaded by e&$;aues^ 
or fliall have recaived certain advice of a refolutim 
being formed by fome nation of Indians to invade 
fuch fbte, and the danger is fo imminent as not tQ 
admit of a delay to the United Sutes in congreis 
afiembled can be confulted: nor jQiall any fUtc 
grant conoxniffions to any fhips or veiTels of war, 
nor letters of marque or reprifal, except it be aftof 
a declaration of war by the United States in con-* 
grefs affembled, and then only againft the king' 
dom or Hate and the fubjeds thereof againft which 
war has been fo declared^ and under fuch regulations 
as (hall be eliabliihed by the United States in con- 
grefs aflembled, unlefs fuch date be infefled by 
pirates ; in wliich cafe vefiels of war may be fittod 


Articles bf Confederation. 4% 

out for that occaiion^ and kept fo long'as-tHedaa- 
et^r Ifaall continue^ or until the United States \t^ 
congfefs aflemblcd (hall determine otherwife. '- v 

:^Vir; When land forces are raifed by anf ftate- 
f6r Iht common defence, all officers of or uridcrth^ 
tank of colonel (hall be appointed by th? legifla*'^ 
Xfxrt of each flate rcfpcftively by whom fuch f&rcei' 
fliall be raifed, or in fuch manner as fuch ftate ftiatt- 
^vtt^^ and all vacancies fliall be filled up by th* 
pate which firft made the appointment. 

' VIIT/ All charges of war, and all other expen(ie$' 
that (hall be incurred for the common defence or 
gjincral welfare, and allowed by the 'United States 
te congrefs aflcmbled, fliall be defrayed out of a 
t&tnnldn treafury, which fliall be fupplied by the 
jfe^ral ftates, in proportion to the value of all land 
within each ftate, granted to or furvcyed for any 
perfon, as fuch land and the buildings and im«- 
provements thereon fliall be eftimated, according 
to fuch mode as the United States in congrefs af- 
fembled fliall from time to time dire<3: and appoint. 
The taxes for paying that proportion ihall be laid 
and levied by the authority and dircftion of th« le^ 
filatures of the feveral ftates within the time agreed 
tipon by the United States in congrefs affembled..* 

IX. The United States in congrefs aflemblcd 

fliall have the folc and exclufive right and power 

of determining on peace and war, exciept in the cafes 

xnentiohed in the fixth article-; of-feinding and re-. 

'Vol.. II. H h ceiving 

466 ArSkks^ Pf Q^A^^i^^^y * 

ceiring amba^adors ; entering into treaties ^ui^^^f 
liances^ provided that no treaty of commeripe^^^^^ 
be niadc, whereby the legiflatiye power .pfd>^(r|C|5 
ipe&iye ftates (hall be ren:raii>efi from ixnpc^gtC^^ 
iqipofts and duties oa forcignWj^ as their ^wn.p[^j^ 
pie are fubjcAcd to^ or froiii prohibiting 4^ie,.ex^ 
partation or importation of a^y .fpecies erf ggqd§^ 
commodities whacfoever : of eftabliihing.ritie^^for 
deciding in all cafes, wliat f^pTW'esonlandjCxrjTgaQ 
tcr (hall b« legal, and in what manner pfW?s ^^lft?if^ 
by land. or naval fprcea^inthefgrjjwie-e^pfe^^^ 
States fhall be divided or appropriated, j^^rjuuigg 
letters of marque ^ml repfifal in tiojcs of^ge,a»f^J 
apppinting courts for tli^ tr^al^^f.piifa^iqs a^n^l^eloj^ 
xiies committed on the high fci9 i ^and ^abUf^^^ 
courts for receiving and dctermining^finally ajptpeaJ|& 
in all cafes of captiiresy proyiided thaj no. menibc^ 
of con^refs fliall be appoinjred a^judgq^^of any of the 
faid courts. ■ . . . ., 

.2. The United.States ip congrefsaflS^gible^^^ 
alfobe the Im refort on .appeal iaal}. c^i^viteso^i^' 
cjiffereaces^n^w fubfifting, qx x\\^l^\it^^^ly^^ 
arife, betiwe.ea twoor mpreftate^cof][cernkg;l^ 
dary, j^irifdiftion, or any other cayfe.vfljapeycii^ 
which,amhorityfl>all always be ex^jrcife^j. in^i^tl^ 
planner, following : -^Whenever the legifla^y^- % 
<;:^ecutive authority pj:. lawful agent oi^^-^.S^^^ 
^oatrovcriy wid;i another, fliall prefignt ,a gctift$t^ 
tp cppgrefe^^.flatjing: th« XBattet.ioii q]ii«#kHls^j ^ 
b:.; .: ;; H praying 

pAjrifig fbr t hearing, notice thereof Ihall be giVdiil 
IJ^ ordti: of congrcfs to the legiflative dr txe<?utiw 
atkthdrity of the othefffaitc in eontrovcrfy, and a Aif 
i^gned f6r the appedhince of the* patties by theii^ 
hMtM agents, who (hall then b* direded to appoifrt 
bj^^oiifit eonfcrttcomttliffiohers or judges to cohfti-i 
tSte-it court for hearing ahd determining the matte* 
itf cfuellioh ; b\ir if they trantiot agree, congreft 
Ihifll name three pcribns Otit of each of the United 
St*tes,'ahd iroiti' the lift of fuch peffbns each 
^Sfty (h4H alternately ftrike out one, the ped-» 
fitihet^ bteginning, Uhtil the number ffiiAir'4j» 
icdtjcod to thirteen ; knd from that nlimbel* ndt 
Mi^'thiti fevch n6r iriore than nine names, an 
ebhgridrs ttiall dircft, (hall in the prefence of 
tfohgi'efs be drawn' out by lot; and the perfoni 
^hbfe hames (hall be fo drawn, or any five of 
them, (hall be commiffioners or judgeis, to heaf 
and finally determine the controverfy, fo always as 
a'maJ6f part of the judged, who (hall hear tlie 
elittfc; Ihill agree in the deterihinatioflt and if 
dthcr party (hall negleft to attend at the daiy 
a^periiittfd, \vithout (hewing reafons which cmi* 
g^lhall judge fufficienr, or being prefent (haH 
ftSfefe '' to ftrike, the cortgrefs (haill proceed W 
Agnominate three perfonis out of each ftate, MA 
Are Ifetrecary of congre(s (hall ftrike in behalf of 
ftftfe' jpfefcrry abfeftt or refufing j and the judgment 
^UiS^feMehie^ of the tot»^ te> be -appointed w this 
^-{^^- Hh a manner 


468 Articles of Cmfedetatm. 

manner before prefcribcd, (hall be finaJ ^4 ;?<W?r : 
jclufive.; and if any of the parties (hall^ rcjiiie tb» ' 
fijbiuit to th^ authority of fuch cpurt^ or to appei^y . 
or defend: their, claim or qaufe, the court fliall nc- 
vprtbclefs proceed to pronouiKeT^ntencp^ or judjS 
men% which 0)aUJaUk<qi^anfterJ?e final and de^ 
cifive; t;be Mgment. oc /^'nt^nc?, and "other, ^pror^! 
ceeqings bev) eithtc.cjue K^nvWi^ti^d. to cpn- 
greis, a^ lodged amPRg^ tb? >^i^^^^ 
the fecurity of the ,parti?s,;Conedii?ci,:.Jpyw^ 
that every comnuffipner. before he fits ^n judgmegt*, 
Ihall take an.oatbj^,to be adminiftered by.oneof the. 
judges of the fupr?ni!B. of fyBsnor .court of th|e'^a|e 
Mjbere the caufe ilwli b,!E5trj.e^, .** weii'ap^truiifj.^qs 
V. bear, and deterrpi^e the ^iriatter ii> queftion, ac*^. 
^f cording to^thebeft of his judgment,. without &^^^ 
^^Youf, affedioD, or hop^ pf reward :". provided, 
alfo, that no ftate fball be deprived of territory for, 
the benefit of the United States. 
. 3.; All cpntroverfies <0Qcerning the private ligh^^, 
of foil chimed under different grants 
more, ftates, , whgfe jurifdiftions^ ^s, they may .re-, 
fpeft fuch lands, and the ftates which pa(I(?4 fqch 
grants, axe adjufted ; the faid grants, or either o£ 
them, being; at the fame time claimed to have ori* 
iuted antecedent to fuch fettlement of jurifdidtipn^ 
(hall on the petition of either party to the cojigrels 
of the Ujaited States, be finally determined, as near 
4s may be^ in the fame manner as is before pre- 


Articles of Confederation i 460 

fcribed for deciding difput^s refpcfting territorial 
jun?didion between different ftates. ' ^ ' ; 

"^ 4. The United States in congreft affemtsiedYhall; 
atlo Wve the fole and exciiifiVe right' and pciwfer'o?^ 
regulating the alloy ind value 6f cdiii ftt*ac^ by* 
thft'f own authority,' or by that 6f the riipfe&ive' 
ftatesV fixing the ftaM^rd of weights and niea-' 
fiires throughout the' United States V tegulating the ' 
trade ihd managing a;lr affairs' with • the Indians^ 
nprmenifaers^orany of the'ffcatfes, pr^d^dtnat the> 
Idgittativc right of any ftate >^ithinits own limits bc,^ 
Hot infringed or violated i eftablillh'in^ and regtl-' 
latm^ poft^fficeV frbm" one ^ fe^ anotheV,* 

throughout all the 'ttirfited Srate^^ exadirig 

(iich poftagfe oh the 'pitptifi' p&ffing through the' 
(atne^ as may be fequifite to defray the expcnces 
c^thcfaid office ; appioiriting all officers of the land 
forces in the fervice of the United States; except- 
iiig regimental officers; appoihting all the;(jfiiceirtr 
of the naval forces, and cbnimiffidhing airbfficcrs 
whatever in the fervice 6f the United States ; tnkking 
riiles for the gdvernmeht and reflation of the^ faid" 
lahd arid naval fbrccs, and direAing their opfetiitibns* 

""jj. the United States in corigfeft altfembldd fhali 
Kivfe autliority to a|>p6int a committee;>'*to fit in the 
f^efeis of congrefs, to l^e denominated, a Committee 
if thi States y and to cdnfift of one delegate front 
eiclMatc ; and to appoint fuch otiier committees 
aiid ciVirbfficers as may be necefikry foir nvmaging 

. :->^n ^'^'- - ■ — nh'i' ' ' -. -- '-tht 

•. ' ^ n i, r' ' 

4'jo . Articles of Cnhfiiir^mi. 

the general affatrs of the United States undfer th^ 
dircftion ; to appoint one- of their namber-td:|Mts«^ 
fide; provided that no pcrfon be ttUowed tO'len^''$^ 
tfie office of prefidcnt more thait one yeai^^iia tt^ 
term of threr years ; to afccrtairrthe-necefla^TuttS 
of fnbtiey to be tarftd forthe-fervicc of the UiiSid 
^ates, and to app6priatc!mid ap]f)ljr-tfid&teefb^ 
filffrayingthe pubKtr ^xpenccS ^ tO'bom*^*HiofSirf)i' 
brcmit biHi on- the credit 6rtKc-tJmtcd?'Btt<fe^ 
tranfmitting^ every half year ttr'tbc fefpeftlve^ffeitcS 

an account of the fums of montf fb borro^ritt' 0^ 

*■ ^ . - . ... 

crtrntcrf I to btjild aindeqftfip^A* mvy ; to' agree Up- 
oiV tfte nunirf^ of land ferfeci j land ^6 make r^fe . 
fltions from each -ftate fbi ib q\iot4/-in piNi^^ortS^ft 
to the number cf ^hitc-^i«fcib«ahij* itt (bclS^fta»J 
tfhich reqvrifition fhall be feirtdifag MWf 'ther eeip«4 . 
"the Icgiflature of each ft^tc ihall appiSnt^the rdjgfc 
mental' officer5> raifc th^ men, and doith, arm^ and 
<5quip them in a foldier-^like manni^^ at Ihe expentt 
of the United States,* and the "ofliceri^ and ^nteft 
fo ctoathed, armed, and equipped, fhalif march ti 
the place ap{)ointed, and within the tiol© »«agi*li4 
on by the United States in congwfe ^afle^dfbtoi. 
Bnt if the United States irt- TOngrdft ttffetfitiittd 
(hall, on donfideration of circnailllaiicef/ Jtldgc 
proper that any ftate fliould ■ not raife - Diefi>odir 
fho\3!d raife a fmaller number thaii it5^quMa,^ahd 
that any other ftate (hould raife a greater ^^tfttbor 
df meA than the <juota thereof^ facb extra^ nuAiber 


9^1 be raiCed^ officered, cloathe4i ltrm^». a^^ 
ectujppied in the fame manner as the quota of fuqlpi^ 
ftaic^ anlefs the legislature of fuch ftate (hall judgt 
|}iat fuch extra number cannot be fafely . i{>arc4 
p\i€ of the fame: ia which cafe they, (hall raife^.^o^t 
ficer^ cloathi arnii and equip, as many of fuch .f%^. 
XX9{ aiHnber as they judge can be fafely fpaced ; and 
^.officers and men fo cloathed^ s»:med» and 
<;quippedy fhail march to the place,,a,ppoiotedt; a^d 
within the time agreed oa >y the United States i^t 
coiigrefs i^embled*. . - .. .^, . ... 

.^ 6.^7he United States in co^grefs affembled (hall 
Oj^yer eagage in a war^ apt gr^t letdlrs of juarqu^ 
9Ad: n^ilal in time of^ peace^ nor eater into. As^ 
^f^riespr alliances^ nor coin moaey, nor regulate 
ik^ value thereof^ nor. afcercaia the fums andieacf 
peaces neceflary for the defeiice and welfare of th^ 
jUniced Stacesp or any of them, nor emit bills, uof 
iwroy money oa the credit of the United .Sta(i^ 
IMC- appropriate mon^y, Qor agree upon the pvixur 
isier of.veflels of war to be built or purchafed^ or 
Sh«: Bomber of land or fea forces. to be xtjSsA^ aw 
^pfiOwt a commander, in chief of the army^^ 
j[unlefs nipe dates afient to the iame % nor ifaali a 
:^ilsitioa on any other pointy e^cpt £os adjourning 
iropfiday today, be determined, th^e vot^ 
foftia Quyority of the United States in jcoogreTs ^f* 

-firmb.lpd^ •: >•• 

-0(^.4 The congrefs of thej United States (hall hay^ 
i-M/ft Hh 4 : power 

4J.* ArtieUi iifCeHfideraiUm. 

to any place within the United St^ei*) fe diacifo 
p«Hbd ^ adjoAMment br&r:^ )M|gdfMurU£on 
thttn" ftje Tftoee of fijs^nfKXufav^d^ln^ |>ablifii>tln 
jbutrial of tii^ip'i^rGMt^edingS'incs^ 
p4H» ^hbr^^ stating to: treatieisi alliances;8Qr'4iiiiU 
fSLXj o|>ei^k>o$'^s!in{heirjtid^edt require &ofec^ 
llHd tbd'JWtt^anid ifi^tiQf4fae::ddegate&.of sadilgfl^ 
on arrjiL c^efUoh fliidl be'aiteri»i~»iF.the3diftiBaQ 
when it is deikied by aii3f:idd[cgate;3«idHtkeL><kflBi 
gacesxif jafilatb^ or any:o£idikiV'^ his ot t\tAi^t^ 
(puffltrfbetll; blJ^i^iftied with;g thHilccipt 6f th&fidd 
jsaornalV'^xb^ciuGk: parts as are al!we;efcd{ited9 
WJaTebefdretke-tegifldtiiresfiof th&iievcml&BMBrij'l 
-r^'Sb '|}hd^commd:t«rebfaheifta^s;iMfraa^aiigEflto^ 
iktffti,ifiiaU/be aqthQrhdsdUGrteaeimte^^&n-tfae ireceft 
6f €6ngfefs; futJ^of-thc-pDwqcsiofxongrcfsjas the 
United .^at«* li^'Wngrefi-affeHiblcd, iby^the J co^ 
{tat of h inc St«e»^,^ (h^U front ti me tO:. time:: thinft 
expedient to ^veft- them with ; provided: .thai ina 
p05#eir bcf Arf^gktefi to the :faid commitcefc^^ fiar/the 
ibk-erfeiifeof \rtii6h^ 'by the articles ofixonfccKraiiDk^ 
tht-t\>iec»/*of' nitte ftates, in the? jcongiie&a3£7di« 
Uftited S^tesallembled, isxequifite.i: .^Jb'i; or Lj-ri; 
''XT.' Canada acttediaig to this confederation^: -^nd 
joining in fhe meafures erf xhe ^United States;. jihall 
\ft admitted iffivto^ and entided to all the: advantages 
of this union : .but no other colony (hall .be:admki 

t ^ ' ' ' ' '. I ■••■,r''^"'- .-« ^ t\^i 1 

' ' • -^ - 

ited intO'tbetame, tinle&fttch «agrce6|| 
to: byitaifD^ fUtes* * -. v - ?t 

noXJLrAU bills of trrcdit emuc^df monies ;.bor<7 
nhrod^i^nd idefats contxided hf^ 6r under the ^4 
dioiitf>fxfw eongrefir, be^xre.ihe aflembliag .of iiho 
UhiiiedrSiatesy in purfmnoe-c^-tbe prnfent^ €0»ff^ 
dcratio&p^fhdU ^e deemed and xonfideved^- as (2| 
efaaigi^«gataft'dlr UBttdd States, for^ paymenft tsA 
$teb£i^oii * whereof the* faid United States and tha 
piibliolaithi^sH'e her<Ebfibleml]r pfedged^ ' v 

-'^iJCiBh: Every flate Chair abide by the determsoa^i^ 
iioks^bf the^Uniced States in congrefs aflembhxl; 
Qhf^aJ^b qndtions which bj. this xonfbdtratioa are 
fubasimd^tD '^on: * And the. article of tbis^i:OiH 
TedersftiofB r Iball be : in^iokbiy obferved by etiS^ry 
ftatoy ^uiiid<i!he^uniQn:>lhaU be prepetnal ; nor ihall 
any iteration at any time^^ hereafter be made iqi 
any of them ^ unlefs Tucb- akeration be, agreed; t9 
in >a congrefs of the United States^ and be aS^jean- 
wardsrbonfirmed by the IcgiiUtures of ^vecy .ftate^. ^ 
^/! And vdiereas it hath pleafed the Great Qoyernof 
pfcthc! World toincline tbeihearts of the leg^tur^ 
wfa rd^effliTCly reprefent in congrefs, to.approyex)f} 
and to authorifeus to ratify ^e faid^artidl^ of tCQttf 
fisderation and perpetiialnjnion r^ thaitl^c, 
UMfiunderfigncd delegates, by virtue of the power 
andautHoarity'to us given for diat purpofe, do, by 
thefii)prBfehti&,' in the name and behalf of our xt* 
Ipcftive conftituents, fully and entirely ratify and 


474 Articles of Cmfederation. 

confirm each aad every 6f the faid articles of coji« 
federation and perpetual union, and all and fingu- 
lar the ^tters and thing$ therein coutai|ied*.^ And 
we do further folemnlj plight and engage the faith 
of our refpedive conftituents, that they.fhall abide 
by the determinations 9f. the United States in coAt 
grefs afiembied, on all quellions which by the faid 
confederation are fubmitted to them ; and that the 
mrticles thereof (hall be inviciaiily observed' B/ the 
ftates we refpe&ively reprefent ; and that the union 
ihall be perpetual* -h»^ fpi mefo -whereof^ we have 
hereunto fet our hands in congrefs* 

Dam ml Pmadelpkia, U fbe SMi af Ptnnfytu^a 


U . : . - ■ . .... . ■ . 

ikv-'-- .x.'l..~L.^ .^..■. .« .- ... . I-. 

,1 J ■■• ■.«-*.• 


. 1 . . . . ■» 

'»r '* . *. •. .-..■.....■ . - • I ■ J. 1 • . . , t .•€ 



-•^ T: *' ■'..■ THE." . i J :..: : ..• J.; 

C O N S T I T U T I on' 

*■' • •' •■ • . - ■ ■■ .-^ 

•'V ' or THK ■ ^. ' .. .ii 

yi^(iTED,"StATES pF AM.EklCiC''' 

.-'-•J -•* -Mi ... . :. I.?;. . , < ■ , , J. ,./- ■ . . ..,\-^ 

W^E^ Ttoa FEOPUE c^r thr Ukiteh Statm^ 
im erdie^ (0 form a xmoj^ ^£g<% vinipx^y eilsiJt;>)i(h!^ii-^ 
l^ce, infiircfdameftio ^iwkquittky,^^;prqyikic%<^ci 
conunon defence^ promote the general >yelfare^ and 
fecure the bleffings of liberty to ourfelves and our 
pofterity, do ordain and eflabliih this conftitutioa 
of the United States of America. 


Se£t. I . All legiilative powers herein granted 
(hall . be vefted in a con^refs of the United States^ 
\vhich fliall coniift of a fenate and houfe of repre-* 

Sed. 2. The houfe of reprefentatives (hall bo 
compofed of members chofen every fecond year by 
tb^ t)epplG'of the feveral dates, and the dedors in 


4 7 6 The Conjliiution of America. 


each ftatc (hall have the qualifications requifite for 
cteftors of the moft numerous branch of the ftate 
legiflattire. , 

No perfon fiiall be a reprcfentative who (Jiall not " 
have'attaihed to the age of twenty-five yiears, add 
been (even years a citizen of the United States, 'aft'd^' 
who 0iall not, when elefted, be an inKabifahi of* 
tluu ftaie in which he fhallbe chofeii/ ' / . 

Keprefthtativcs and direflf taxes lhaUl)eapri5f-'^ 
tioncd among the fe vera! ftates which may;' be in* 

» ■■ ^- J -^ . . . « : ' T . ■ -^ . ' 'i 

mg t9 the whole number of free penons, incTudufe* 
thole bound to fervice for a term of years, and^Xr 

J • " 'j ^ ■ » ^. . . ' \ ■■ '. . • '^■'- ; ■ ' . * . ,..'»-♦, 

within three years after the firft meeting of the" con* 
grefs'^of tlie'Xynit'ed States, andwithin every TuKfc'-; 
qbcnt'tefm of ten years, iri fuch mahiicr as ^ they' 
(hall bylaw direft; The nutiiber ofreprefehta- 
tivesfhall not exceed one for every thirty thoufand, 
but each (late thall have at leaft one reprcfentative; 
anJuriuI fuch ehiimeratiori (hall be niade," thefEate- 

•^-.- i- i^ 

of Ncw-Ha»mp(liire (hall be entitled to ch'u(e thriee, 
MaffacnuTetts'eight, Rhbde-lfland and Providence 
Plantations one; Coniledticut five, Ncw-^ York' 'fix, 
New-Jer(^y*''teiiri Pcnn{ylvania eight, Delaware 
one, Maryland Tix, Virginia ten, North-Carolina 
five, South-Carolina five, and Georgia three. 


T'be Cori/iitution of America, 47 jf^ 

■ * 
' When vacancies happen in the reprefentation 

firom any date, the executive authority therepf (ball , ' 

iffge writs of eledion. to fill fuch vacancies. "\., 

The houfe of reprefentatives fhall choofe their , 
foeaker and other x>fficers ; and (hall have the folc ' 
power of impeachment* - ; ' 

Sed. q. The feqatc of the United States (haU be. 
compofed of two fenators from each flatej^^. chofqn 
by the legiflature thereof, fpr (ix years ; and each 
(enator (hall haye one vote. .' / , 

Immediately after they (hall be a(rembled in con* 
feouence of the iirft election, they (hall be divided 
ai equally as may be into three clafles. The .(eats 
olTthe feAators of the ,firft clafs (hall be .vacated ac 
tHp expir^tlpn^of the fecond year, of tte fecohd 
clails at the expiration of ^the fourth year^ and of tjie^ 
third clafs at the expiration of die (ixjth yqir, fo^ 
that, one third may be chofen every fecond ycar^ 
and if vacancies happen by refig^nation, qr ofher- 
wiTcj during the recefs of the legiflature of apy ftate^ 
the, executive thereof may make temporary ap-*. 
ppjti^tments until the next meeting of the legj(la- 
turc. which (hall then fill fuch .vacancies. , , ... 
[ No perfon (hall be a fenator who (hall ncjt h^vp^ 
attained tp the age of thirty years, and been nine ^ 
y'lpars axitizen of the United. States, apdy^rhcj (haij[. 
not, when cleded, be an inhabitant of tliat (late 
for which he (hall be chofen. , , 

.•,."• the 

478 TbeCm^huiiM^AiM&i. 

Hie vice-preiidcnt of the United Sest^ IffakfT^ 
prcfidcnt of the fenate, but Ihall havc^fe'tftWy^^&ifi 
left thefbi equally divided. " -t - -^ '^- 

The fettate (hall chufc their other dffieeirs,'afid 
alfo a prefident^rd tempore^ in the abfeh^ 6f ^^ 
yice-prefident, or when he (hall ekercifd' the bffiiS 
ofprdidentofthe United States; ^ / ir-iU 

V The fenare (hall have <he fole^powei^lb^tSfa^ 
impeachments. Whea.fittirtgi -for that pul^^SfiS? 
they (hall be on oath or affirmation. Whttk 'tlSS 
pcefideiit of the United Sttttfe-iitriedythcJJdScf 
yjS&zt (hall prdfide^ aMdnm ))eKb^-'(liall b^^<^dtt«> 
tided DHthout the concurreiiee df tviftaitfakiS^ ef tS)^ 
members prcfent. ij Jn:3ii; f iaq 

Jtidgment in diteief knpea^Hosc^t^^^ ilofifix* 
tend further than to* removal frbrft ofiice, -aikl <Hf^ 
Qualification to hold and enjoy any office of hbtidtjf/ 
truft, or profit under the United States? but fhlB) 
party convidted (hall neverthelefs be liable and ftib^ 
jeft to indidtment^ trials judgment^ aiid puiiidvf* 
ment, according to law. - -^ ; 

. Sea.' 4. The timcsy places^ and manner >>fKo!!d*» 
ing cleftions for fenators and reprefentativisi (hslf* 
be prcfcribed in each (late by the Icgidature^thMii^e^ 
of ; but the congrefs may at any time by few tki\^ 
or alter fuch regulations, except as to the pkc^s'fof 
chafing fenators. -^^ ^"^ 

The congrefs (hall affeitiblc at leaft ottcc'itt' Weif^ 
year^ and fuch meeting (ball be on the firft^Moft^ - 

i day 

fbe Canfiimm ff AmerUa. 479 

4^ i|viDl€G^mber^ unleTs they (hall by law apfyoint 
a.<Iifrei^en€ day« * * - 

SeA. 5* Each houfe ChaU be the judge of eleo^ 
^Bs, . returns and qualiticactonst of its own ifiem- 
becsy and a majority of ^achihall conlUtutc a qad^ 
mm to do budnefs ; but a Smaller number may 
ad^urn from day to day, and may be autborifed to 
ci^mpel^he att<^ndance of abfent melnberjy ift'fuch 
manncrj and under ru$:h penalties, a^ each hou^ 
n^y provide. .. -■ •...»-, .-r- -. / • .• ■/ 

^ Each houfe may detomine the rules of its {ilFo-i[ 
Cfitdings, pynifh its. m^mibers for diforderly hehoi-i 
y^ur» and with the con^«u;rence of ;two^4ihirdfi>>ex^ 
pel a member. - * ; 

..Each houfe fliall keepajouraal of its prpoeed- 
Ang$9 and from time to time publifh the famc^ er*^ 
<^epting fqctv parts as may in their judgmenLtequire 
ftcrecy : and the yeas and nays of the members of 
ekher koufe on any queftion fhall^ at the defirc( 
of one-fifth of thofe prefent, be entered on the* 
journal. • r 

.'Neither houfe, during the fcflEbadf oongrtfsy 
Qiall^ without the confent of the othe^, «djo^m fipirt 
more than three days, nor %o any <%her place thai^^ 
tlifit in which the two houfcs fliaU be iittirig.! / ^v 

vSed. 6. The fenators antd reprefentitiiires (ball 
receive a compenfation for their fervices, ta be af- 
cfrtained by law^ and paid ottt tdf the treafory. of 
the United Statest Thcy'lbaUkJAJtllcafeb^:expep» 

v.r treafon,. 

486 TTfe CoHfiituitoH of America. 

treafon^ felony, and breach of the peace, be ptirt*" 
leged from arrefl, during the attendance at the 
feffion of their relpedtive houfes, and in gbmg to" 
and returning fcoax the fame ; and for any fpeech 
or debate In either houfe, they fhall not 6e qudT' . 
tioned in any other place. 

No fenator or reprefentative fhall, during the 
time for which he was elefted, be appointed to an]r' 
civil office under the authority of the United States, 
which fhall have been created, or the emoluments 
whereof fhall have been encreafed during fuch 
time; and no perfon holding any office under the 
United States, fhall be a member of either houfe, 
during his continuance in office. 

Seft. 7. All bills for railing revenue (hall brigi- 
nate in the houfe of reprefentatives ; but the fenate ' 
may propofe or concur wich amendments as on ' 
other bills. 

Every bill which fliall have paflTcd the houfe of 
reprefentatives and the fenate, fhall, before it be- 
come a law, be prefented to the prefident of the 
United States ; if he approve, he fhall fign it, but 
if not, he fhall return it, with his objeftions, to "that 
houfe in which it fhall have originated, who Ihall 
enter the objeftions at large on their journal, and 
pj;ojceed to reconfider it. If after fuch reconfider- " 
ation, two-thirds of that houfe fliall agree to pafs 
the. bill, it fhall be feht,. together with the oBjec-' 
tions, to the other houfe, by which it fhalT likewife 

3 be 

The CcnfiittaiM of America. 48^ 

bejtcoofidered, and if approved by twQ- thirds of 

that houfe. it (hall become a law* But in all fuch 

• - ■ - "^ ■ • ■.. ^ .•»■.. ^ 

calts. the vo'tes of both houfes fliall be determined 

* ' .-■■■..»■«. 

hf yeas and nays, and the names of the perfons vot- 
ing for and againft the bill Ihall be entered on the 
journal of each houfe refpeftively. If any bill (hair 
opt be returned by the prelident within ten days ' 
(Sundays excepted) after it fliall have been prefent- 
ed to him, the fame (hall be a law^ in like manner 
as. if be bad figned it, unlefs the congrefs, by their 
adjournment, prevent its return, in wliich cafe it 
^all not be a law. 

Every order, refolution, or vote to which the 
concurrence of the fenate and houfe of reprefenta* 
tives may be neceiTary (except on a queftion of ad- 
journment) (hall be prefented to the pre(ident of 
the United States ; and before the fame fliall take 
tSeSij (hall be approved by him, or, being difap- 
proved by him, fliall be re-pa(red by two-thirds of 
the fenate and lioufe of reprefentatives, according 
to the rules and limitations prefcribed in the caft 
of a bill. 
: ..Sedt. 8. The congrefs (hall have power 

• To lay and colled taxes, duties, impofts, and 
cycKes^ to pay the debts, and provide for the com* 

'ItaOin defence and the general welfare of the United 
States ; but all duties^ impods and excifes, /hall be 
uniform throughout the United States ; 
Vot.iL li To 

;¥^ ^^{llfnJiifH^ 

■ :i. / v;v^3 liiiii: 

: To borrow mofiey:i>D tbeQri?di 

H V — • « V — 

To rcgiilatc cdmmcarc^ wld;i foff?iga ^i^^t^ 
taioxig the 'fevcial iJjttes land. w^itU^^ /^^^ 
bribes* ^ -. :;: .,;: i.:rr. ^ ,1,1 ^-rh t^^ xtoi^ 

■ITo eftablilh: ad uniform: TjLile of ji^u/^izfjt^onj 
^tid uniform laws ;on the /\*ljj«;^ f>f Jajiflkyjijptfjjci 
throughout the United States; ^ .::OiiLrn: ic^n^i bni^ 

Tdiroin moncy^ tc>f^ukteithei^l^P;ith«yof, jind 
6f fortign cx)iii,.ani^fwifei^:i(laB 

. . T^ FQiwdcibrthe panig^in^ll*^ countcy^ftng 
the >feourities and iCui*fi«dcQin ;,pf ,;i|^€;,.]LJfii$f4 

To eftabliOi poft ofEces an4c|^ft;*)cw^H ^'.^^:»•l;l 

To promote: the^fcieiiice.aB^ lUffbt 

;irts, J3y: Cbcuring for litxlitpd, times to. authors and 

inyentors^ the exclufiv6 right ^p thoir . je%e£fcry:(^ 

Writings and. difcoycries;. ■ . - ., i !)rj5 

Td coiiftitute tribunals,: ihftnor , t^ , !th€ ^ftf j^^g 

To^d^fine and puni(hipiradba$ and f^loi^^^s^i^fwn}^ 
micted .oft^ithe iiigh feas;:and. offc^nf e%^figiy#P;jf^pj 

lawof-Bfatiofts^v. ,:. ,-,-.. {. ..^- ,.l-.,, :^,ob ;ckn:j"h£ 

To declare war, grarit letters of taatque andj^g^ 

^ri&I^ aiid ixSakecrales: concerning ci^ufgi^j^p J^d 

afid'wiit^;^-- .;r:;jji-x- -*..i. i,-y;:;:j 30^ -sqoTq 

To- railfe and iHj^iXiarxtiies^- bvt J4fi>MBPf#®i5i?<tj 

. .: ^ tion 

■feKfa'cf ni&hey to th^^^ irfc, ftftU btt^-feradowgerSrm 
than two years ; ., . ;^ r^: v^' 

^'^To "-(frbtidc aihd th^htatipi ft'tidftyi ^^'^r ;r >: oT 
''^^'l^^mlllte rules for the 'g6Vebfihetit and J33gul» 
tion df the land itnd naval fortes} , )r^.^ 

^ ^'^^r^^irbvitfe f6r i?i!l}rig:f<>l^fh the rafllkiai to 4*xe. 
Htttf^'ttie-lat^s df tWmiofif fuppreft infiirtedfeioiK^ 
and repicl invafions; ^-- ■'- ;^^ :' ? "!* *: r/i; r- :vi^ 
'^^^I'o ' ^rbvide 4t)r orgs^i^iKgj ^ aTming,-! aiwl ' 4if- 
cfplrrilitg 'the^itif3?fia(' -aiSdi^for^^wruiiiig fjajch paict 
of theni as may be employed in the fervicc of tJbe 
iJVritta -States, tcfe'rvitig tA th«; .Ifcaces /rciTpc^i Vfpiy^ 
4fie^%ppoihtmeht bf thtrV^^fficers^-and the lautbbrifly 
of training the militia, accordirig to the difpiplioS 
prefcribeft^^tohpefei^ :.r:v ;;: . ^.i; C,;;,: ;> 
^^^c %ttrfeift- eictefiT«j'iegiflatioa;w ntrafc^ 
lMfttfi5e^r, ovd^- fticK ditoift . (notcxc^ddin^ 
flShrtf'ftj[T5krd j^Ss miyV fey c<*ffiori of ^particukrftareai 
tnd the acceptance of congr^j become, the ^f^ 
fiPg6Sttf)rattient of t^r United iStace8}:.aiid to exer- 
cifc like authority over all places purchafed \>jilhfi, 
cSiffinf^ilf%\i^\Qgii^ (lltC: i& :wMcb the 

fitiicftRaJ%e^,"for -tbc »e<Stiott o^.fart5^i^iiagazin^$4 
arfcnals^ dock-yards> and other ncedfui.jjttik^ags r 

-» > 

'^i^/.-jb ^/r 

.-^^qftafti^'iaa^- iiHrft whidi ihall be iifit4flHry;^nd 

proper for carrying into execution the .^r^goitig 

pin&^fi^ all other pov^er^^^Oed Ibf; thi& cdnili- 

^*^;^^ ... I i ^ tutiori 

484 i'he ConJIitution of America. '- 

ihall hold his office during the term of folsir'y«ftrij,i 
and, together with the vicei^prefidont, chdfecP'fot? 
the fame term, be eleded as follows : ■ '-'■'•! -"'■;: 

Each ftate diall appoim,- in ftich manner as did' 
Icgiilature thereof may direft, a'numbcr'-of «liftdfs;- 
equal to the whole number of fenators 4nd ti^paw 
fentatives to which the ftatc may be entitled" in'^Iui? 
congrefs : bat no fcnator or repreferitati*d,- ttf p«ft'- 
fon holding any office of ttuft or prdfk und«r-tl«r 
United States, (hall be appointed an elcftor. ■ '^- 

The eleAors fliall meet in their refpe^itfC-ftatM, 
and rote by ballot for two perfons, of whom one *{■ 
leaft (hall not be an inhabitant of the '^dme' ftace 
with ihemfelvcs. And they-fliaU mtfko a lift of aU 
the perfons voted for, and of illenmilbetirf "votes' 
for each j whjch lift they ftiall fign aiid'c6rtify, and 
tranfmic fealed to the feat of government of the 
United States, directed tq the piefidem of tbefa- 
nate. The prcfident of the fenat« fhall, in the pre- 
fence of die fenate and houfe of rcprefe.ntativ^y 
open all the certificates, and the votes Ihall ;(h£ft 
be counted. Tht; perfon having the gteateftigiMttiJ 
her of voles fhall- be tlie prefidou, if fiidV-ininifefe* 
be a majority of the whole number o.f eleiftcrs-ap- 
pointed ; and' if there be more than one *¥ho l^Ave 
fuch majority, and haye ari equal number of vptwp 
then the houfq of rgprefentatives fhall immediaceljit 
chufe by h^ot <one-6f-^tftnr'-for' prefidem ;■ ^siA if 
nc^ cc:i^'b^Ke^^|j|jtftt|ttMfM& ch^fttMilii^liv 
■ '' ' eft 

fl^ on th^. lift the laid Uqufp Oiall in like n^^nuej^. 
chufe tUe prefident, Bup in f hqfing the., prefident^^ 
the votes (hall be t^kei) by %ti?s, the repref^.^ta.^^ 
tion from each ftate having one vQtp ; a. qupri^tn 
fpr. this purpofe fl)all ponftf^ of ft member or niem- 
bcr5.froni.|:wo thirds pfthe dates, and ^ majority, of^ 
thjB ftates fbAll be npcpflary to a choice^ . Jn every 
cafe'* aft<?r the choice oi tl^e .pre^dept, . the perforj 
hwing the greateft numbcf,of vot?s of the pledors^ 
fliall be the vice-priefidpn^ . But if there fhould re-r 
xpain two qt more who h^ye e^iial votes, the fen^te 
ft^ll chufe from. them^. Ijy ballot, the vice-prefident, 
• Xhecongrefs may determine the.tia>p.of chufjag 
the dehors, and th? day, on which tlxey (h^ll give 
their VQt^s ; \vhich4ay fliall be the fame throughout 
the United Sw^s,. :.: ...;. 

No perfon, except- a natural born citizen, pr ^. 
citizen of jthe U aited. States, at the time of the 
adoption qf this conditution^ Ihallbe eligible to (he. 
i^fficc of prefident ; neither flull.any.perfonibe.elir 
gible to. that Qgic^- who fliall n9t have .attained . tc^ 
the age of thirty-five y^aps, and been fourteen yeajfs 
ai^ftdent within the Unit<:d States* . > ^ 

-;^la cafe.of the retnoyal of the prpGdffltfrom of- 
^Wf-or of his death, refign^tion, or i mobility, to diC- 
^bMge the powers and duties of (h; f^id oiEce, the 
ijiin/e flbaU devolve on the vic^-ipr^fident,. and the 
ioigfi^ik may by Jaw provide foe the pafe. of rcmor 
yj(^id§Wb, xefignation, or inabiUty^-bioch pf the pre- 
fix) I i 4 (idem 

tSttj ''tint -i^S^^^^^at-y' 'aw**ft«iFEoffl€«r:<haHlt«a? 

ffffcfidHit'Aanbfe'iilleaed. •-•" -"■ tnrinini -.iki.'rr 

ti-'Th^ ^d&i^nt Khali, wrffetcd'tftttdi? fccaeivcffor 

liKf feivk)^;- ^-eofh|)toratl6n; ft^hldl '(hsibq^hivinr 

IMiireat^ j^i- - di^ diihetf ^{fuViHgiiA^^chsa iftiv' 

iil^hktif-fl6'ftraaihaive' b^ein eled:e^;^«Bd'te'AKm ndl 

r^feeiVe-.'^ItTtUi <HJrt pa*io3, ' anf -&Aer wilbhiiriont 

^ftf tlife' t^mted States, ot «ny <rf them. • * ■ o -vj ?■- > 

Before he enter on the execution 43f tiif Cffitl^^ fte 

•IfaffJt^fc tfefollowit%oii*'d*.«ffiwn«teTr: ?nT 

9ri>*i| dS 'Mcfiinty rweai^'<WiifRrffly^«!at f txHIl 

^tiKftiit^'^yeiJtite ■ t^-!<«fee- ^-^ptwMtfW 4tftel»t 

United States, and wniytb'iilWbeft^b^TSfitoiHtjr, 

^eRrrVe, =pp6t«a:, aftd<iefeifid,'^tlfe l:WifthufiOft of 

^bUnited'Statw.""-- ••'' '■ •'-- •^'- ^ -■■ ^-'- ^ 

■' Sea.* 2V Th^ ^jftiefiaferit'IRall be' e6rfiflS4tta*f in 

^'&iM <k the army 'aftd' naty* of • the tJftiteii'«fe«li, 

»Stid of die -maitia'iSf- the feveral fttt€s>'^«h«ff called 

■flito the-a5«al'fervi<ife of' Afe^ United "Stic^ f lie 

niay reiquft'c tKe'o^hrdni'inTJfHtihg, of'tHfc pt^cK 

' pal officer ih>xach- of 'ftiifel5&(f Stive-: -d&pii^ideMS, 

■tipon any'Ribjeft ■relating to'thedutie*'^'th<?if'^-. 

rpedivc' offices, and he ■ -Ihair fiavfe! 'Itotfriftr- «> "g^fit 

i-'epricves and pardons forofFetim'tt^din^fllfe-Utrf- 

ted States, except in cafes of irtijl^hfii^iitv' -•'?' ■'•'"- 

• He fliallhave ^otvef, by aiwl wltH'tfec aldvklS^and 

' coiVreht of ^h^'feiifate, to mak^' trtttties; "^tDVidad 

' • two» 

two^tbircter^f the fenators pfefei^ eoncuf ; n^dt^it 
fhall 'Bbminatty and by ^and with the adriee mA pdn?* 
fenc of the fenate^ 0i^tt Ap^iflP ^baflado»^ ^fia^t 
public minifters and confu&j^ judges of the- Aiprecnc 
cdtiit/.and all other offitors of the Umced Stages, 
t^ofef appointments are noi; bereia otherwife provif 
ded foc^* and which (h^U be eftabUihed 4>]r bvf . Qu^ 
Ae c&agrefe* may by law veft* thje appointment qf 
faohiifi^fiTicrofficeFSy . as*th^ think propcr^^m.^c 
prefident alonej mthe coortsof law^ or in theheacfat 
#1? dff^fttnieh'w. .^ • ' : •■ 

The prefident (hall l^ve powef'to fill up all ^v^ 
iJamrip^SMChat m^ haj>ptni during the rcceia of th« 
fcbaH, by granting cooSEBiiffions whiQh ihall cj^pire 
^^tbcf .end of their ncait feffian. ; .' ! : 

»> Scft* 4i- He (hall ^ jSrom* jciuie to time give to the 
congrefs information of the ftace c^ die union^ an^ 
recommend to their confidcra^a Cuch meafures as 
jbe^fllali judge neceflary^afid. expedient; ihema;^ 
foit- extraordinary' qccafionSy' conveme rboph hox&f, 
:f3f eitJier of them^^ andia cafi: of di^^igrf en^ent i>e- 
t!Wiei^ :theni> with reTptd to the time ^o£. adjourfj* 
^IQiifiUfi h^e may adjotirp them to fuck tinie as he ih^Jl 
ihink \^roper : he. ihaU jreceiye a^vbafladpr^ and 
7Qi^r public minifters^ /he ^(ball take, care that the 
. i4ta^ be fiiithfully executed^ and ihaU xomizuiEoa 
all the officers of the United States, 
f, Se<9:.i4» The prefidenti vice-prefidcntj^j and all 
L^lyH oncers of the United States^ (hall be renaoved 


49R fhi C^^^uiimtf Jmrkd. 

i^om office on impeuhmcsit jfQr, 4^4 ^^i^^ ^% 


treafoiij bribery^ cur otbori^igh ciFimes-aiidci^rde 

Scift. I, The judioal go^Bm^th^yn^4^'S>fiatt?ik^ 
fball be veiled ii> one fupreme courc^ at^dAmifiidDd 
inferior courts as tbc;,:congcti(aMa3ai]jfi i^o|i|. tincItQ 
time ord^ aii4efl4bl2flil ^7blr^iudgc8>^b(6(H)Q^cb«rj: 
fopreme ^nd i^iferior courts j^fkUI bold thmrTbiilces: 
^I'u^g^ood behaviour^ ^smd&aUyai (Utc^.times^: 
receive for their fervicesyi:axbmp^n£itio%iwbiofa(^ 
Cball not b?; digt^^ibed ddriaag cfeeii; ^canfaitgpiyoe inr 

•. ^Se&. &t .TJi^e. )ju<^ici^> powqr ^^i^il ^eo^xeiyi 4^ai^ 
cafes^ iin law and eqistf^yv^^rifiAgAUsdep^hisXQnftiH^ 
t^ioo^^hc lawis ^ the Uiiic^ States/ ^d treaties: 
m^e^ or which (h^U be made^; under their-authb-il 
ricy ; to all caCesaffcding aunbafiadors^ othct public 
miivflers a^d consuls • .in ^U cafes of adgidralcy^and 
jiiaritime joi?ifdiftiottt to cpiitroveriies i;o:wbxcb:tbe; 
Unitedi Stites IbaU bp -a party^^ to ^xywrpverfies-be-f ' 
tween two or more ftates^- be^we^i? > ftate^and citin 
zens of another Hate, between citizens of different 
ftates, between citizei^-6f >tha fkme ftate claiming 
lands^uadfiT grants x)lf.difFferfiptiifete?,,j^d fbgfi^pjen 
a ftatey toi>the xaiti^cos l^xmU^, ^^ if9«»gn.i ^^%h, 
chiz'ens,or;lfiab}efts. -,-» t.:." i;>,.j.:- /r^v;^ i.. -xjiii.o.ijr.ou; 
r? la aU caifi&.affQ<Slingxitfpbftfl^ |*^%. 

minift^rs ^nd confuls, and ^hof? in which a ftatp 

2 ' (hall 

ginal; -jurifdiftion* 3 .Ijl .aUb the :othet:::cafcB bcfeoQ: 
mentioned, the fupreme cqurt ihall have ap|)clU6Ci 
jurifdidion, both-as t^l^^smd fit(9E, with fuch ex- 
ceptions;: aiidamdtriuckrcgi^ as fl^e,^oi2gfie(s 

IFiasnarial^xxE a^.cqfB£%j(xceptiin ^fe.tif impcadlifli 

ii»dDtV)fll^l'be.l^]Ljfryi(iand |uch^^ kjal (hiEiV bP^ 1^<^> 
iB^tlM^ihltCi \*^»faid :?«inKa fliali iJaavc. bcqqii 
pcusm^itc^ :; . but, Ssditox . npt goinmuti^ ya^^i^xqfb 
ftaifi^^hc^irialjlbaltcbe^at focH place. or pla0c»:,i«|i 
tjicaarngre^may by:;|aw:bavfixliiict^pd^ \.j :.\. . ili 
SeA. 3. Treafon againft the United States fh^ 
panlift D0iy>in JjEB^ng; wa^ agwaft thecnj, or ijn dd- 
bewng, ta tbcincnegrwf^sy ^giving ,tbem ;aid.^tv4 cc^teo^ 
fca-tv.- No.peffQuJhtJijli^^CQnvidcd of/jtreftfp5iiiim*r) 
Icfs on.the.teflim9,ay c>f 4WQ wimc/fts.ta tbe .fesu^ 
qy txt ^(St^/or, qa coftfdfioB jp opcr^, coyf 1. 1 [^ ci ■; ,^ m 
jihc iXDng;fef5: fhalLbavi? povy^ |q 4^c(iftce .^$l4fj*ii 
pifbnacat of jrcafpjo, bur nQ ajt2^i«^$^;efiiif^a^ 0%!!; 


ingitlte^UfcTcf tbf per^a^^^ 10 c^^. .: :,-..: 

^ ^-^^i^ P^Fuli - fftfth.iftndn«^ 
|sa8b lta€^ ro^ ih^^blic ^ad:^, record^ ^d^jydkikl 
proceedings of every other ftate. <^ Atad diexengre&^ 
0iiy"by Wiier^t^ la^^^prefcrjt^ th$ ftiaiauaf inJ^hifc^ 

.« * i* 

. i r ri 


"fiidi adh^Tccords; and' proceedings ini^N tte^d^t^ii, 
and the'cffbathercof.v -J - ** .-.yni^'f^/D^na J ^.'5 
*!> fiedk-^T;. .The citKteiiS nof back ft«e' ftaiL fefc^cn- 
tii;kdta all' privileges ^and iiiMimmid^s of ^0idfee|ls 
in:rfxefeverai ftates*-- ':i*''r: !:;,rr' :;r.r j.^'^mrn^v 
T. A peribn charged in any ft^oe \^h^n«af(mjilirhi. 
ity, or other crime^ whoihaltfl^^ froaijoftscet^ahd 
be found in another ilar^'-fliaif; hnxs^M^^tGixx^hCtit 
executive authority of tBe^lffitfiffom which he fled, 
kc delivered up, to be rcmdwd td^tj^*fl3lteMting 
jUrifdiftion of. thevCtime.- :r--~ -* *: rrr-jh MiTf^pviiiort 
No perfonheld to fervioe orlaboiirlil aiieibtcr, 
vnder die laws therebf, efcaping intoaabt^^'fliaH, 
in confequence of any law br T^^btfcandbisreiii/ tffe 
difcharged from fucb (!»^cedr ldboor^obvrf:lh3ll 
be delivered up on claini of lihe/psn^ W^ 5^^ 
foch forvice tar labour may be doe,. < ;:^ :"• ' 

; Sefti 3. Ncwftatesmay be admitted by the fcdij- 
grefs into this \inidn;' but tnb iiew^ftftte flxaffi be 
formed or ci-cded within^ the jorifdiftlod^iofT any 
other i^te; ^dot: any ilate be formed' bpdibijmBS^ 
xiQTi pf iw^ or OTore: ftatea, . or ■purtsj x>b flakes jlvodi^ 
jpMt ^tibe.coirdrent.of the ie^ftati^es of:i|^ftaiMxoai&- 
ceined, as well as of thejcbi^efi, '^- .cift^l xi^nin; 
/ : The .co»gtc6 ;<baU heve^ jlowfcf m odifpofefofiwid 
make all needful rules and rcgubiitioifs^:fef|fe<%li^ 
the territory qt- otfterl pir(%>¥rty belonging to the 
U^Mtt^d 3tfttestii iBtii^r«]^thtfi^iii^^^ 

. ,».,..-♦ .-. -" %..f--»*^;t tIviiI 

Ibtllb^ ifo iC^^lftnicd. fts tor prejudice anf claims oi 
the United States^ or of any panicular fiate. 
.,;:^S$ift.:4*, The United S^uassihallgaaarantee to ere* 
Hfy ftMe in thb tttuocn, a xepiiblican form of p^ 
yemment, and (hall protect each of them againft 
Jbq|^fi9&;.imd on sppiication of the legiilature, or 
^itlje exocotive (when the : legiilature cannot bo 
iTOfdiceile^ii^inft ^ai^fljcvioleacc*' :: ay 

,bt>ftM(.;>^^• iiA;R:I;.b(i;rIk£:V^/;:j- x',v:>.>>^ 
j,>nfI3ife.vG<)n^efs,i whenwer two^thirdsv/of Ib^ 
houfes (hall deem it necefTarjr^ ifaall piiopoftaitieadr 
^eAt^lso idaisiCdnftituuon^ >bry (^^lihedpf^icatioa 

r^tti jCftUjaf isomf er^on forrpr^ pofing amrnidmentii^ 

liidDAcli^cli^ iei(d3icif Qafe>>diafl be^ifahd toiaU ina^nte 

iaodvpiapq6:iify^|ttitL^f ftbk>^ t^ 

tilled by the legjAalDufest)fthi!ee:^^iiJasr(if^t^ fevd^ 

-niibliesy drtbjr coiiv^adomiia tltfoe^btlrtlis theriof^ 

^ t&erdneief^ the other mcfdc of rjcifickiottiftiapl% 

pcopkrfedoiff J iiho Gangrc;jrs; /' PibTidi^^' lih^f^ fib 

4flKfidibe^ M^idbbitna;!! be ma^lfi^priar m^e^^pi^ 

xteMtHefiMd ' eighit ihun^red Sind* i^gto flitf H liti^aiii^ 

'iioQAasftjiii^Sk^^he^ifirflii wd fMiith'^lJMii£»s^4h J«ltt 

ninth feftion of the ^&ib artible ; and that nb^ftitd^ 

noiAittii|^is^^6i»itiaa)(d(i^^ togageiMfitsJ^iiif^ 
lioftt^ bcjfore the adoption of this conftitution, (hall 




i: To honrow moaeyiim thfe Qrffdk of^.j^ 
States; r ... , ..,,;. 

To rcgiilatc ccJmmca:c^:Wtfii,foreiga<na*i96^^T^ 
taiQfig the fevewl i^ites land.' winU /J^c^j^I^^ari 
^ribesi ^ . .:■■:;...,;: 1-:./: :,,.,^-,h j:^ noi- 

^i'To eftabliflii ad ubi^prmi rMlte of ti^K^r^^pfj^^i 
And ttiitform. laws jon i tbjB Jwljj«l^ f>f 4?jiflkf jijptgjci 
throughout the United States; ^ .,0.,/; ra: ir>q^T bnr 

Tdcoinxxiottcjr, tc>fcgvikt^tbe[^lgp.^J>cp^of, jind 

<;T<>^t)r<piridcibrithe:piteig)in^fl*^ cowntc|"^p4ig 
tho-^feoumies i and <iurl!!ci«il.icQin j,<)f ,|tl^€;,JWpi5f4 

To eftabliOi poll ofEces an4o$^ft;rP?f^H-j'^ 

To promote: thc/^pri^;^ i^ffut 

arts^ Jbf : Cbcuriag for Utxlitpd authors and 

inyentors^ the exclufiv6 right ^p thoir: je%e£fcpf:|^ 

Writings andvdifcoycries;. ; * .♦ , .,j ;,.,^ 

Td coitftitute tribunals,: ihftnor, t^ . the ^f^j^ppiKg 

To^d^fine and punifhipiracks and f^loi^^s^i^fwn}^ 
piitted x>(^' the ^fgh firas^and-olTQnfe^^figiy^jil^jp^^ 

To declare war, grarit letters of taatque andj^g^ 
pri&I^ aiid^akej-ules: concerning c^|u$g|;i9pj^d 
afid'Wiit^;^--i .;c-.j-:- .:..;. ^-^u-.:, loi ■:3qo7Q 

To- railfe and -fuj^pcteiarxnies^- bvt itiiPiAgpf^i^ 
■•^^ ; • tion 


TOh-bf nfohey to th« ilfir; ftliillb^-fet«do«geraerm 
than two years ; , . :> vr -rl 

^''^'l^^mliltb rules for the gdVebfthetit and J33gul» 
tion df the land ind naval fortes} , -.ib^ 

v^^l^^ftmdd fdf eallinf f<ii^rti the irillitiai-todxe. 
Htft?H*(r''rat^s df tWxitiiohf fnppreft infiirbeflrioaai 
and repicl invafions; "- * - '^^ I'J ^r!" ^ r,:; r- t v 
'^'■I'o |)rbvide^^f orga^l^ 

c!][^lrrifi^^^thc^ii*a?fiaf'aiSd-^^ fisjcii pairt 

of theni as may be employed in the fervicc .q£ thijJ 
Uftit^a ^tate^i ^tft'rviii g^ rd* iteivlfcaces ;rcipc^i vciy ^ 
ifie^%j)^oihtmeht bf thirV5>fficer$pand the rautbdtijtfy 
of training the militia, accorditig to the difcipiioS 
prefcribeft^^toHpe&i^ ::c-:r:v ;;:.■: ,ir.c^^i} />• 
[^^a %ttrfea^ eicfefrrl!j\ieglflatioa',w Ttrafc^ 
iJfiitfotWr/ ovet<'^(bch'dlitoi&-(nQt:cxccddinigjt^ 
fiffitlir'fi^tfirdjpiis niiy V'by'C<*ffi6ri of iparticukriWai 
tnd the acceptance of congne^i; become^ tbe^f^ 
5iP^^)r8liint of ^ tht* United ^^SiDacesp and to exer- 
cifc like authority over all places purchafed hyifh^ 
cffiWc?n<?^)# thfe-fegifl^ ftitc: la :whkh ?hc 

iltiie*featt-be/for ><bc ^e<3tiott: oj^forts^anagazinep^ 
arfcnals^ dock-yards> and other need£iH Jm^^^S^^jT 

proper for carrying into execution the;^r<;go||;)g 
p(*wfift]^iliM all other jiov^er^i^ftcd Uijf? tfai& conili- 
-'^'^ ^^ . . . I i ^ tutioii 

-4^4 ^eCoHjHttftidn bf Mteriiit.' 

tutibfi in the governtncnt trf the United "SfSKes/tlr 
in any depanment or office thereof. • ■ • '^^' n\<.^\^{ 
■ Seft. 9. The migration <* }nJpotiS«tiort if flteh 
pdrfdhs as any of the ffiites liow «cktiAg ftfeU'tih^ 
proper to admit, fhall inotbeprtohibked-by^fjdi^ttifs 
prior to the year one thowfahfl etgfit btitidi^^d 
ci^t; but a tiJc or duty may be- i*poftfd «»J*Mg|i 

fmportation, not exceeding t^h'doJk^iTdl' te^ 
•pirfbn; ' ^■- '.^ '" ■ ^■'''^^. i^^ '^^^^ 

The privilege of the Vrit of^ ^iifUs » W>^>^lhall 
not be fofpend*dy unlfeft >Vheh in tikfc*^ r^»i£Uk»ft^ 
or invafion (fhc pitblicfafctyriiaj^it^uiWr iH-^r/anoo 
Ko bill of ^Mndtrj 6t'i^'pdji f^ lai^teifi be 
-paffed. ""■'■■' -^ ^'>n''"' v<i£ Y^i 

No capitation, or other diWWi ffi^ WVM^ 
tmlcfs 1h i^opbrtron to thc'ctStftfs ot* ^fthi^nBRfa 
herein befbfe direfled to be taken. ■ • •" ' '■ * • -' 
^ No tax or duty Ihall be Iftid on ^mcles ciic|jiSrt8d 
fcdm any ftate. Nb pfieferince (haH \y^ gi*fett % 
any rcgulatron of ci^n*eirb of revfentiet^^^tte^ pkifts 
dfontf ftate otl^r tWofe df ahdthef : hta' (hatf ^fif. 
ftls boiitiaW), 'ctf^'frttn, dhteftite> be dMiged «d tt- 
Wf, cleat; brp^y-dtttreis^tn 4%(«hel': ^- '- v'>^^^-^q io 
^ Nti^tndciey fitill hi^^ A^wh Iroih the^i^ki^^ftbt 
in toilfeqilehce of appropriations,* iiiad<i^'by%W; 
and a regular flatefMM aiid'aced\ltit bf tife ¥tlfi!it^ 
and expendittirea rX all ^vfblic m<^ey (hall be puE^ 
Vrfhted fnWh tStte '** tt^ •:::}. .x ,i?.o?. . 

(i^t ttI«<>f^t3Kd)ifit7 ibali Ite'-granted b^^^tt^lft^- 


• ■ V 

Tb/: Otffiitution of the 4mmca. 4^ 

led $t»M$t Aod no perfan holding aay office of 

profit or triifl: under tben^^ (haU^ without the con- 

/ftn^ 0f cangr<fej accept of any prcfent, emohimentj 

pj^Pil^f, title, of any/kind whatever^ from Any 

^^f^^lnce, or foreign fiatc* 

[v»j3ft9twi i:9* ' No ftatc ihail enter into any treaty, 

llttifaf^ey>Qr x:oi)federau;ion; grant letters of masque 

:j8a4 f^pri^;Jcoia money; emit bills of cr^i^; 

makfC* any thing but gold and filver coin a, tender 

■teKp^^yw^pt of debts; pafs any bill of attainder, e» 

.fifffljfif^ l^Wy or iaw. impairing ^be.ojbjigatioa pf 

contrafts, or grant any/tiitlc> of nobility* . , , ; . ,^ 

-ri f)^ftate^ flu^l, without, the conCeni of congrefs, 

lay any impolls or duties on imports or e&ppm, 

4^fl^epii<^ ^ay.i)ft^folute necefTaryfiqi: e;i^ut>- 

.iifg.4^HA^^^Qalfiws; and the^ce^^pf ;|U 

duties and impofts^ laid by anyftate on . imports , or 

^lEpoQCft, flMil; be for the ufe of the tceai^cy^oj^ the 

•^IJQiciBdScatca^faad^ruch h(ws flxajiibaJTubJe^lo 

j^r^fiQn.and.coittroul ja£.%hfi, e/ongc?^'. j^p fl^e 

-Tlfeattr/fritjfcw^t tb^-cftiifent o£,pongf:f/^,,ljjr"f,oj5 1^- 

./0r «»f §Q8n?jgP,.keeg.troops,,^,ih^s,9f |5K^,4y jj^e 

of peace, enter infQfayragreeni^i^ pi;, poojjg^ vc^^h 

ja»9^il^*ej or with a fofiWgM' BftW ^ttJ^F^^^ "» 

-duq 3d IL;i; vc^^.^-Xi? 9^^^ ?l^s?If;n3r;z; Lt^. 
Sea. I. The executive -f^w^41)ftU;JU^Y^iin 

ahd-''toijgftther witfc th'e 'vitefiprefid^^ '<(th«ifetf tfi>^ 
the fame Temi, be elfefted-ai'feJHoH'fl ?i^-'iJ sa^o/ sxji 
'Each' ffate 'ikall'appehit'/in ftih -hirtihn^tdi fto-* 
l^^iftature thereof thaycfir^d:/ :i>tiutnbd«ldP«liaJ«i«;) 
e'quiil to the Vhoie iiunibef? 6i i^tr^h^'-iMoskpedd 
ftoifatiVfcS to Avhfch the ftat<^ tna^ l^fc* ct»tidM> WklMl^ 
cViW^refs':' borritf fenator Wie^eftiits*l*dpti* p^:> 
fbh holding irty tffHce 'bf'tt^sft>WJ^^afiE ttftdSPJChw^ 
United- Stk^e^,'fl4^1 t(^apf^wM'^=^l«adf. 'd JiiicQ 

irh^ didSk6f$ftin ibeiiif 5fi A«lir-irefped|ive'*at«r' 
arid ^rbte/by iftdWt felr^^ 'flii.fSftiy «tf <whtiifl'btto«ilii 

^)iruii'.th^eMF^rfes. --And' the^iliArti til«lj»«4fft5oif att: 
the perfbn'S ybted for,4hfe!tiif{tkei««ttbefQOfwt»to*^ 
for each ; wh^ch lift they fhall fign^ai»d'i:4iFtlfy.>%ad' 
tranfmit ftaled to tlie (eatT 6f^\gQ!*6txMtt€l*t of -flie 
United States, dircded tQ the^^eTidfcivt 6f tb«>r«i. 
nate, Th^ prcfident of the ftnatefhaH," in 4!he'^ei>^ 
fence of the 'Seriate -and hdtife of-replefi^ntacryiSvi 
6'peh all'Htfee -Certificate^/ uhd tlve'^^t^fhfitUhii^ 
be coatiti^tf. ' Tljel^per fonMying- tli({-g^e&^efts^^ 
ber of votes IhaH"lA?*the-pi^i5ciSHt,^1f%l>^w[ifite 
be a majority ^ die- u'l:ible irambfcr-of ^le^twsfiip- 
pomtcfd"^; aiiS^if thcTebe Brtore-tUan on^f tvto^l45^?^ 
fiich majority^ and have arv'eij^aknumbeptirf^VPWii 
tlicn the houfq pf rgprcferitativcs (hall ita^n^iatd^ 
chiift by haHot bne of them fot preiideiit '{^isja^^i 
no perfon have a majorhy, thep from tbf,flVf hi^kv 

i. - eft 

the votes fhajl b^itS^,-, ftgt§s.^o^^?i '^^^fifeV'^ffli 
two fro®, , ej^plii , &^ .^ay^,pae (y^9tp ; ^^^(jv^ 

thUjflitt^S.JbaU',i^?i rjgfif fl^fy. tcx,* Kf^i9er^ . U ^^\kt 
fliali be. jhf .yJQenpr^^q^. , ^ BiUt ^. ^i^eje ihoi^l^,r^-<, 

■J ;IIi»e«pe^re.f5 may. 4efi^fflH»e .t|e,;;iq^§,oif . 9l>pf|fi8; ; 

the/rUwt*4.5tJH«Si;o.t iixri;v'>i'j •• . .i..,,;y. ..;.,.? m/j 

cjjijseft ttf j^hA ;iy4t«-4? §^f(ss,^at,i4ie tiiu^ P.^j^^H 
a^Qf taQH ftf thii?,!?<>oftitji?tiqni,ihaljjl3p,^J^gij)j? to.;|^^^j 
<jficeji»£ipr?f»deniii ggitJjpr ^^^^11, ftffjfj i)ef^9n|^e^^)I?, 
giblc to.ith»t;Qfiq?,,wbQ,iHaijjP5M),litftve .f^f^t^j^ 
tlic.'*gc of jHftyrfiweryf aR5,; aft^^j^eir^fouf^^^ y^eay^ 

-;qi«r.c»fe,0f the ?gi3acwiiljR^, ^lej^fir^^i^fftt^frg;!;^©!, 

9baiige'jth« powprs. j.n,43dvHi§§i?f jl?;? fa^d^c^^.the 

^PUgsers inay;jbj:ilaw,pc<>yi<iet^c,ti>9(^afe, gfirf/xi.o-; 
v^lixdwh, jreTigoa^icw,, or fR%^%^^h pf^l^^ pi^^, 
'^ ■ n 4 lident 

rtPfti 'kdt "iiS^ipte^ikty *a!«t^ffi*iF-ol!te«r:!fh«I|[bff? 

)whk&'1ii^ Ardl hsiv^' b^A ele&e^;'-«sd1{e:flKm ndi 
r«^eivei^#Ifhtti il^ ip&i6ii 'any -aifeer '«itHbIunl«ii 
#6i«! ^ tJmtttd States, -or *riy of ttem. " *- .>M?-'q 
Before he enter on the execution Oflii*^ tfffict^* le 
•ilaffJliH4tfeefollbtn%DiaA'dr.Hffiwnktle«r: ■'nT ' 

^tlHftjit^^ieWrte t^fe^ <j«fed ' <5f^-^it!«MtfBt >dfF«hV 

United States, and Mrmy*b^li«Pb«ft^b'fctiyrtitttJ«i 

'jfn'eftri^^^protx-a:,- af«l<l^ifjd,'^ttfe «bbftttutio^ of 

•^fe Uiiited'Statesr -• - * ■"'' '■ ^••'- ■ ■^■- • - ' "-> 

'■■ Seft;' f;' Tki 'tJrefiden't'flMill b6" c6rfi«f4tta*r Ih 

<<fh%f o5f tWt arhiy 'aiid ■ natjr of ~ fhe Vftited'^tktwl, 

»&hd of t^e -majtia'iSf' tfee feveral ftttcfry'«h«fi' tailed 

■ftito the-ailual^rervfefe'of' tibfr: United ^^ta«^ ? Ise 

itiay reiquTrc tlrt" opihfon/ iii \<^ritihg, of'ttifc pf^€i'> 

' pal officer in "%acK' of 'flid-fejteii&titev'depa^tifteftSS, 

lipon anyWjea i-danng tdthe dutiei'Sf 1!h<!iri<«^ 

fpeiaive' offices j and h'&'{h&\lhA>r^'p6iiiitrti>^^fit 

reprieves and pardons for offetiteis'tt^AtH^ flife-^lrf- 

ted States, except in cafes of imfJeKchlft^iitC ■^■''' ^'f^ 

■ He fhairhavfe^o*?er, by tlvA witB'tfec ddvkV^and 

' coMeht of ^W'ferifate, to makc^' trttitie*', "^^^idad 


_ - r r 

two tbirctertjf the fcnators prdei^copcuf Mii^^e 
fiiall' nofitmac^/ and by tod with tl^( adrice and coo? 
fenc of the fenate^ OiaJJ ^JiQiflP ^baffadorfi^ :^yher 
public miniflers and confu&y JMdges of the- Aipxemc 
cx>tirt/.and alt other offitecs of die Uaited fitsites^ 
i^iiofe appohitments are net; l^eieia otherwiib provif- 
d^ for y and which ihaU be eftabbihed 4>]r taw^ Qut 
Ac CJwigrefe ' Hwiy by law vcft* thf? appomtibent of 
fach•ifi^erk)^officeFS9^ as they ^lunk proper^^Mi.thc 
prefident alone; iatfae ccrarcs of law, or in the heads^ 

The prefidenc : ihall fcftvc powcr^to ^ up all ^w 
i2aiK:fes i$hat m^ ha^[>en during the recpfs of the 
Aftiale, bf granting c^spw^ffions wbiqh ihatl empire 
^rtbtf.end of ^heif neait fefficm. ; ; \ ... 

\r. S<:ft* ^; He (hall [j^om^jtioie to tio^e give to tihe 
congrefs information of the ftate oi t)ie union, an^ 
4recoiluiiend to their amfid^a^oa fuch meafares as 
Jh^»{(bajl jwdge ^Hcceffaiy^afid.expc4iept; itie^may, 
asm' pxtfadrdinary'qccafrMSjf conyme 4>qph houie^, 
r^ either^ them,? aodia cafe^pfdi^igrfen^ent Jbe- 
tW^Jif theittr with refpt^t<i the tiaie3,o£;a^^ 
^l9^fUij he may adjourn them to fuch tioie as he Q^^l 
. ihif^H .proper : he^ ,ihaU vrec^ive ati^bafladgr^ and 
iQ]^r pmblk Hiinifters ^ (^he ?(baU take, c^re that the 
. 14^ be &ithfuliy executed, and ihall xonuniffiou 
all the oifHcers of the United States, . .^ 
l, Scd.4» The prcfidenti vice-prefident,.} and all 
tl^iyijLoiBcers of the United Stat^,:(haU be rcOiioyed 


jlf^ Tig €p^imm^4!imrikL 

firom office co impeachmesit fqrj 
treafoo, bribery^ or otbdr.i^igh 

Sedt* I, The judicial Boipm^tfa^'yh^ 
0iall be veiled ii) one fupreme courts a^d/OAinidDO: 
inferior courts, as tbc^coongpe&^aiijp^.^oli^)^ 
time ofd^^ aa4eft4bl]ih4;i .>Tii^^iudges>^ljo(UiQ^ idi«rj[ 
fopreme 4^2id i^s^ior CQiaiic$jr^ fbail bold theirrbffiicefli: 
^pxiag ^gpod l>ehaviour^ 4 aad&ally at fbited times^ 
receive for their fervices, ^la^cbmp^h&tioiii^iwbicfap 
fliall oQt b? {iimmiilied ddriing ifeeii; /CoimtTOttnai inr 

r. ^Se&. &t .7]iie.)judici^> powq- i^itdl -es^Tciyi 4^at^ 
cafeis^ in law and eqtjjtyy .:^rifiAg Awdep 4his cj^nfttnl 
t^ioBy^he law^s ^^^b^ Uiiit^ $tai6s> mjtid treatiei; 
m^e^ or which (h^ be made^ ; under their auth64> 
rity ; to all caies^Scding aimbafiadors^ other public 
pHH^flers aiid confuls • iq ^1 cafes o£ adgidral cy ^and 
juaritime jo^fdidioii^i to cpritrOYerii(es xo:whicb: ther. 
UhitediStites ftaU bp 'a- party j to ^Qiitrpveriies^beY^ 
tvveen two or more ftftt^s^* b€^we^H> ftate'and citi^ : 
zcas of another ftate, between citizens of different 
dates, between drizeflfs^f >the fkme ftate claitning 
lands^uodfior grants x)if:>diff&rfint,ftaje|,ja|id bei%P!en 
a ftateytorfjtbe /aitizcos ;iicr^9f#Ji?^4ift>tflign,iJ&%??^, 
ckizens or.S&xbgi^ifts. ..^.t;-; x-mk^ - (V-vv i,; e^j;i;rj,>.i:>D'A-; 
r' In all caiisc.affe4ling i^iPfbftff^ m\^ pP^fe 
minift^rs ^nd confuls, and ^hof? in which a ftatf 

2 (hall 

giniil: rfadfcticSion^ :. .1^ .aUb the .otl^et::.cafes ,bef(U)Q 
mentioned, the fupreme cqurt fliall have ajqwlUtm 
jurifdidtion, both-as t^luSKf^A fea, with fuch ex- 
cppdoBspapdoinddri^ M^cxonpck 

.l9€tQtV)lhftlhI^ci^j^ryi^ iand iu^ iidal iha^Jt>p. hd4 ^ 
iaatlafeilatCz ;vj[hcrc.thie'f^id_^in«a fliaU Jaavc. vbcq^i 

ftictfi^vthe trial :{^IL(be^ at ibcH pUce^or. {^lacesi. ^i 

SeA. 3. Treafon ^gainft the United States flwyft; 
ponfift pnl3r>in Jjes^jSngj mi^ againft: .thetoi, or ijft ad- 
bering to tbcirL€oeawf©ii igi,ying ^ibeoi jaid^ivJ cc«»r; 
lortv;... No.p^ffoaJh4U% -^onwftcd oLtir^ff>Q:^^^9tfi 
Icfs on. the . teftimftpy c>£ i, ya^q Jvitaeiftsi;ta tbe , feiSM^ 
<iyert: ^4 -or/ qa «iafcffiQiE jp opcq. cou^t. l • ^ oi ^ . ;i . 
. p Ihc congref?. fhalLbaY^ pp>y$rf4P: dfcflnine ^f^is^t 
pifhmcut of ocrcafftDy but. a9 M^\f^9SiQiMf^^ ft»U; 
^vodfe 5:«TVipu<:^,<jf:blop4^,^5/Qr/qi|«^ 

lAgijlteJifcicf tbf pei#lf ^tiCa}pjp4.0;f; -o ow; .- -,v. : 

i^cia*4P^FuU -fai'thiamfnoedkcih^^^ tttLgiyeiiiBj 
pagfe ftae#;r<3f ?h*>fubJiIi!-^ft^ recwik^ ^dyudkb.1 
proceedings of every other ftate. <■ aAikI Aexeogrd&» 
piS^^by gtfiler^it la<¥s:^fefcq5>^^tb§ ftiaiaw^ ih^hifc^ 

I ri • 

tidt aifb^Tecords^aRd'prdceediivgs (k^H tle^d^wi, 

and the'rcffea thereof. v^-f .''^^ v- .^ot^tS hojia J ^tU 

. ^S^.-^T^^Hh^ citeu&M rci badf ^ft^e flia&l %l^«n« 
ttdedtaall'privilie^es and immRimsis of ^dvdlkeils^ 
in-thefeverai ftates*"' v-'t: !;:,rr» :;rr j "=imn*i3v 
1 . Apcrfon chargedin any^ft^oe with^treafcns/iiirhi^ 
try, or other crime^ who fliali ile$ finom^joftsce^iaiiid 
be found in anoth^ ftare^^'flialfj bntjd^^rumdiucyftfafe 
executive authority of i tBefffiitt?f/6m which he fied, 
he delivered up^ to berenK)lwd.i63t(irr(E2ltei!&¥ing 
jurifdiftionofthc-xkdincwit-.". ,r *: rrr-jh 'n-ff^r-jiuort 

No perfonheld tofemos orlabbur&i eneibtf^ 
under ifac laws theret^/efcdping intoao&t^^'fliatt^ 
ui confequenceof anylaw brT^ubtom^t&isreiii/Jb^ 
difcharged from fuch £»rMce^)nr laibocn-yib^:lha|l 
be delivered up on daini <)f ifcC'psniy i^ 
foch fcrvicc or labour may be doe. v: -^ o^^\:: 

Sedt; 3» New ftates niay be admitted by thrfctm- 
grefs into this union ^! but no new ' date flialS^ be 
formed or c^e&ed wityn^tbe jarifdr&io<i3trf:«iqr 
other fhat^e; imr any ftate be^ fomxeid' bpckbijtsiR^ 
\MQn pf .(w4i Qi! jnH>re:fiit£fi9ior -paits^^^ 
jQMt .tbe.coitfent.of the Ic^flktiires oftfa^ft^t»^ODS^ 
cerned> as.wellas ofthKXdii^efi. ^^^ ..iji^i r::nin 
/. Xbccox^teftiihaU hevis jjowef* t0iHfpo&fofiiKfid 
make all needful rules and ngulktioufs^sfefpe^SUi^ 
the territory q^ otiicri pJ^d^lrty belonging to thp 

r.- : ■ -...v,- -.-.;:•,,...:.-.■:;.■ ..: r^>^ .flail 

i^lbf i^ icoft&iaedjis to prejiidice any claims of 
the United States^ or of any. particular State 
.n:>S^«:4*. The United Scatesihall guarantee to ere- 
ygf>&9iit in ihb umoDiy a cepjkiUican form of go«^ 
yemment, and (hall protect each of then:i againfi: 
ijal^Qon; xnd on appiication of the legiikture, or 
Kif^ljc 7exa;ative (s^hen the^^Legiflature cannot bd 

j>niT4ife>^Gbiigre{s,i :5rhmwcr twa+third$v^^lb(3lk 
houies (hall deem it neceflfaryt ifaall p^pfi>fc'aitii^df 
^tit^t^ tkniCdn&xXMUon^ibtfi cM^iihedp^^icitioii 
.dSstftqifgiibtureixqf'iswo^thi^'C^^ (bsb»^^ 

liidAcliidin, (d((baf Qafe^>jQfifd[l bteitaKd tolali^ mceiiis 
iaodvp\Hpq6:%^|ArIi^f rtl^CQn(^ f#. 

tified by the legjAiyDufcsfifrthiTee^lla^iiks^o^^ &vd^ 
^ jhliesy tfrlhy coitveadottiimf htK 
^ t9kfir&ns)of^ the other mddeof raci&kioftifnaf be 
^j^ptofedoiiy ^&ei Qdngr^9{vr Pisdtidedfp litmf' fib 
^aflKfiidilK^^likiibiia^ be>iiia^ pvksr m^e^f^ 
jmMk&sUki ' eighn ihun^kediind* «igto flyrH iiili^4My 
4i»Qa»ftiiS;^'^4he^ ifirflliwd q^Mith'^clMa^'^^ifi ^fltt 
ninth feftion of tEte^fi^ article; anid^riiac ^b^ftate^ 

noijMii^dbis >«teitia^bfKi(|^i^ tagageitteii^8Jejhifi«i^ 
IbMfib.^ before the adoption of this conftitution, (hali 


v^4 ^^ t^^umt^r^^'^ 

fee is^alid' igiinft the trnitca'St^&?; ifti3^-thi* 
conftitution, as tinder the^ confederation.' -'^^ ' * 

''TK«|'c6ftfKcutic)n,'and'thfc' laws" of the United " 
l^«'vhich fliall Bemstdein purfuance thereof,- 
and all tireitleS made, or which flxall h^ pfiadf Kin- 
der the authority pf the United States, Qx^^ is -^^ 
ftiprerficjaw of the kn(J; and the ji]dgG&\^vti:!Sde^ 
ftate fliall bc^und thereby ; 9:trfiiiin^M'iAMcon^ 
ftitution or laiirs of ahyft^tc to the^fcOttt^ary^»{^ 
withftandlrtg,'^^^ " '• .^j-fA c.i\^5i 

The W)£tbfi9Hd repi:eferitati^es1>ef6?e ^^^^^ 
ed, aftd Adanefiibers pf the feve^a^ ftate "legitfa,^ 
tures, "and all eieeutivc and judicial officcfs, both 
of the Uo ited ^t^tes and off the feycwi fti|tesi .,flii9# 
be bound by oath; o*v?ifErmati6i^^Jjp?(upff<>rt this 
conftitution;5^biit'iia-rc!igious teft flisiH^^evdr faeVrc^^ 
quired:ata.>qtialifTcacionto any office or^btk'tmft 
under the Uhkei States/ .^f- .*^A rv :. .^u 

The ratincatiqa. ^f the conventions of,.j(iu)igt ft^^'^ 
lh|U,|)ft3f^a^ eftablilhment flf^^;^ 

ftitution betwe^ir thi^ |l9Ces fo ratifying ^ha^>^ftiif^^^O 

i)ONE inCONFEIfTIOH, by the tOdfiilfiimt^hpil. 
cf the^ates pti^r,ll^JeventeeHtb day if^^tiimf 
in theyeirifWrTjofdme thmfaid Jish'iiLmVd'^i 
ti^tyJeutnyOid^of tffe htdipendince^^^nUed 


Tift Gi)0itutifin of.4mmc^. 4^| 

we have bcrJ^^^Q fj^fcriked mr^i^^ 

^'^KkW^HXiJfpsifife- -^ ^' -■ - ' 'fiktAWAik. '' '^^^ 

Rufus King'* jfiKob Brtwn^ , . . j~ ^ , r > ,i , , ^ 

ffulliam Samuel ^ohnforu yames At Henry^ , 

Roger Sherman. Oanielof SuXhrnaiJenifiri 

'^ ■' l*fe^v^:Y0RK: '^'^ ""''' baMei&^roi' -' ''"^^^^ 
MbimJir'm?^lton/ ' '* ^^^ ■-'^' '• V^kcikiA. ^ -'^^'^ 

Wiiliam hivin]gstMH^ : ^oMs Madifon^jun:' >' "CO 

^ifptd Brforifi h, . NoR5rH-CA&aMl*jD!'jp 

iVtlliam Paterfin^ IKUu^ Bhrnty ) ,. i: F^biit; 

fonathan Dayton. Rubsrd Dobbs Spatgbtf 

P£NNSYLVAN(A4 ^^ ^ ^¥gb^ fKUian^on. 

ienjamn Franklin^ , SouTH-CAROiXNiW^ 

Thomas Fiixlhnontt Pierce Butler. 

V'^ V'i<^vXf¥£b.^ • ^^ •>' -^ Wl\iX^ %^^r^eh-e^fP ' 
xv.axi ■ • . ■ * 


496 ^e C^iJHiitihn of Jmerscd^^ 

In CONVENTION, Monday, Scptcmbar sjth, 


RefrhtJ^ THAT the preceding conflitution be 
laid before the United States in congrefs aflembkd, 
and that it is the opinion of this conventipn^ that it 
fhould afterwards be fubmitted to a convention oS, 
delegates, chofcn in eacli ilate by the people there- 
of) under the recommendation of its legiilature, for 
their afient and ratification ; and chat each con- 
vention aflenting to, and ratifying the fame, (hould 
give notice tJiereof to the United States in congrefs 

Refslvedy That it is the opinion of this conven- 
tion, that as foon as the conventions of nine ftatcs 
ihall have ratified this conftitution, the United 
States in congrefs aflembled fhould fix a day ob 
which eledors fibould be appointed by the ftates 
which (hall have ratified the fame, and a day on 
which the eleftors Ihould afiemble to vote io/t the 
prefident, and the time and place for commencing 
proceedings under this conilitution. That after 
fuch publication the eledors fhould be appointedt 
ai&d the fenators and reprefentati ves ele&ed : . that' 
the eleffcors (bould meet on the day fijted for tho 
ele&ion of the prefident, and fhould tranfout their 
votes certified, figned, fealed, and dire6kcd,.as the 
conflitution requires, to the fecretary of the Umixd 
^taces in congrefs afiembled- ; that the fenators and 
teprcfcntarives ihould convene at the time and place 

The ConJltUiiidn of America. 49^? 

iifeghecl ;' Aat the fenarors fhould appoint a preff^' 
dent of the fcnate, for the fole purpofe of receiving, 
opening and counting the votes for prefident; and, 
that after he'lhould bechbfen, the congrcfs, toge- 
ther with the prelident, Ihould, without delay, pro- 
ved to execute this conftitution. 

- - lly the unanimous order of the Convention^ 


ff^iiliam- Jack/on, Secretary. 

• Ift -CONVENTION, September lythj 1787. 

WE have now the honour to fubniit the cohfi- 
dtMCioR of the United States in congrefs aflemblcd, 
tb^^'oonditutioA which has appeared to us the moft 

-The friends of our country have Idng feen and' 
defined; that the power of making war, peace, and 
tWati«s, that of levying nioney and regulating com- 
n|0rcei--ind the correfpondent, executire, and jit ^^ 
didni Authorities, (hould be fully and cfFeift-uaHyi 
Sotfftod in the general government of -the union ; Buf - 
ttaeiimpropriety of delegating fuch extenfive^tnTft'^ 
to. one body, of men is evident— Hence reftilts tHi- 
nBoeflity. of a different organizaiioni .•-— .3*5 

tJx is. obrionfly impracticable in the- fobddral g**^ 
^atxnment of tirefe ftates, to fecure ^l Tights bffS^' 
dependeBC fovereignty to each, and-yeji'f^rovid^'I^J!^ 

tbc.iptejsef): and fafety of ali-^IndiyJdkiBl y oK t <^Tgg 

^zibxtixull'^ K k inso 

ci4fi* .^MjQ>H/iitutm of Jir^ma. 

JQto focicty, muft give up a (hare of liberty «o. ji^rf- 

. fery.e the reft* The magaitude. q£ the iacpifice.isiiJijfl: 

^d^p^d as .well oa fuu^tion-andcircuniftance, 9i^n 

^l^e objedtto be obta,inedw: -It is at all ticnesdiffg- 

,icplt to draw with pre^ifion the line betw^e# x^^ 

^rights which muft be furEeixdered,.and ^(pfe wht^ 

may be relerved ; and on thi^prefcnt occajR^^^i^s 

difiiculty was increafedj by a/dift^rtinop/Btnong the 

feveral. ftates as to their . fituation, extentj; habits, 

and particular. iDLerefts*...:. .^^,;^ ... . .. . ., \^ .v\ 

In all our deliberations dn this fubjeft, we kept 

fteadily in our view, that which appears to us thp 

greateft intereft of every true American, the con- 

aiblidation of our union, -irt • which 4^- ihvolVed"^^ 

-j^fpemy, felicity; Tifetr, ^€t)ii^% du^ nitlo^il 

^ifiifteAce. This importkiit confideratipn, jTeHoiiify 

^and deeply impreired on our minds,, led each- ftate 

.ifi the convei^on to be l^.fs rigid on poim6v4)f in- 

ifcrior magnitude, than might have beei^otht^rvrMe 

^expeded; and thus the coriftitutiorr; '^ich^^c 

iiow prefenti isthe refult of a fpiritof ■aihity'/'^nJi 

i^ojTthat mut;ual defe^ and conceifion v^Jbich.)^^^^^ 

peculiarity of our political fituation rendered i»4it- 


That it will meet the full and entire approbation 
of every ftate is not perhaps to be expedted ; but 
e^ch ^ill doubtlefs confider,, that had her interefts 
been alone confuked, the confequences might have 
been particularly dilagreeable or injurious to others; 



The CmfiiiuHon tfAmmta. 


tittt ft Is liable to as few exceptions as c'otild rci- 
'libtebiy have been expefted, we hope and believe; 
*:flM -k-may promote' the lafting welfare of that 

iibtfntty ft deai^to us' all, artd fecure her freedom 
■>klft fttfi^pihefsV is' ourtiioft ardent wifli.— VVith 
^^tieit ^erpfea; W have tlie honour to be, Sir, your 
-Kkceileficjrs mdft obecfierif ^h'd hiihible fervants:^ 

''f' ■••"• •^-GEORGE' WASHINGTON, Pyeftdenh 

^1.rj; r' Jiyfi^^'^yianimius order trf the Convention,' ' "' ^^ 
His Excellency the Prejident of Congrefs *. "^ 

* f'T '"' 'i ■* ■ • " • ' . 

I .It 


> *■ . > 

» «. 


i;. .. :;.= '';>^'o 

fL\'*{ WAea J for|ncd the defign of giving iq^ei Ap{>eiidijc^>jdl 

rjli,e^dqCjUm?rjts neceflary ,^o ^a j>eife<J^ kngjvje^e of ^^.ppefeat 
ffpvernnxent of America, \ was fenfible that r^m Could not btf 
^aflowecf for'inrerting at length the conftitutions of all the fe- 
'fitfiti' ftk'tfesV I ther^fort deteirfilned to abridge them, andhkd 
'iMildt Ibiri^' prpgfcfs in the taflt, when an AttieH^aii work, by 
JHr^L .J^idiab .Morfe, ; fell intor mxhands,^ in v^icb I found idl. 
ntbcfe. conilitutions abridged, with: fo raiich'aocur^cy and p?n- 

■koti^- ' 

I . .( 

K k t 

A D£. 

. r 

• » 4 

' yj. 

- V 

( 500 ). 

<■ « 

, ■ \ 1 



' . . 

• • , 

-' J f 

or THE . ~ 


' 1 i 

O ^ THE 

COMMOkff^^ALTHof MASSACtltlSEi;^, 

t J J * 

"• •• -ili- 

1. xVlL men are born free and ediial';''afid 
have certain natural, eflential, atid unalienable? 
rights, among which miaybe reckoned the right of 
enjoying and defending their lives and libertiei; 
that of acquiring, profeffing, tod protefting pro* 
perty ; in fine, that of feeking and obtaining tlieii* 
fafcty and happinefs. 
J I. It is the right as well as-the duty of all'men 

?* As the declaration of rights of the other flatcs^are exadljp 
fimilar in fenfe to this of the commonweahh of Maflachqfett^j 
though in. fome of them the articles are diflferently axrangecl 
and divided, its being her6 given at length renders their ia-^ 
fertion^ even in an abridged ilate, wholly unneceflary ; they 
will therefore be omitted in the accounts of the conftitutibns/ 


Conftitutlon of Maffachufetts. 50 1 

in fociety, publicly, and at Hated feafons, to wor- 
Ihip the Supreme Being, the Great Creator and 
Preferver of the univerfe. And no fubjeft fliall be 
hurt, molefted, or reftrained in his perfon, liberty, 
or teftate, for worlhippkig God in the manncsr 
and feafon moft agreeable to the dictates of his 
bwn confcience ; or for his religious profeffion or 
fentiments ; provided he doth not difturb the 
public peace, or obftruft others in their religious 

III. As the happinefs of a people, and the good 
order and prefervatiQa of civil government, eflei^* 
tially depend upon piety, religion, and morality; 
an-d as thefe cannot be generally diffufed through 
a community, but by the inftitution of the^ public 
^orlbip of God, an4 of public inftruftions in piety, 
Kligion, and morality ; therefore, to promote their 
happinefs, and to fecqre the good order and pre- 
fervatiou of their government, the people of this 
comriionvvealth have a right to inveft their legif- 
lature with po\yer to authorife and require, and the 
legiflature (hall, from time to time^ iiuthorifc and 
require the feveral towns, pariflies, precinds, and 
other bodies politic, or religious, focieties, to .make 
fiihabte'provifion, 2tt: their own estpence, for the 
iHftitution of the public Worfhip of God, and for 
the fupport and maintenance of public Proteflar^t 
teachers of piety, religion, and morality, in all 

K k 3 cafe^ 

joi tmjtiiutlon bf Majachnfetts. 

■• ■^.•k-' «^ •■♦ ■ ■ 

eifcs where fuch provifion ihall not be madts ^* 
luntarily. . - iM^'jiTi. 

*'* And the people of this commonwealth^ 'have^aifo 
i' right to, and do, inveft their legillatiirc >irtth iibv 
fhbrity to enjoin upon all the - fobje^ts^, i(n -ati^ehti** 
iii'ce upon the inftruftions of tlie public twfclitit 
ds'-aforeTaid, at ftated times and fiialbns^^f theifd'-'Bd 
artyt)n 5^rhofe inftrndions they ti^n cortftJertfidufly 
ittci conveniently attend- '^ ' j'lVJ v:i3 ..; b r,-; 
Provided notwithftanding, that the fevei^^ticywiii'j 
parifties, and precind:^, attd mliter^^febdicS-^polin 
oi^^teligioiis focieties', niali;'at! a'lFtiitid>,^?^^lfc'<h<j 
cistclaflvc right of* tledtthg' iih^r puW^^^^^ «eaefW*r^i 
atfd of contraeihg with thdiii^fb?^th'dV (uj)pd^ md 
tri^nteriance/^ -' .--^^— -^-'-^^''^''^^i^-t -^ir:.).. 

And all monies paid by theTii^jdff #^ll« fi<is 
|jort of public worfhip, and of the public 'teachers 
ftifbrefaid, thall, if he require it,' ber' unifoAhly ap-i 
piied to the fupport of the public teacher or teachers 
Bf his own religious feftor denomination, pr6vided 
there be any on whofe inftrudions he att^tid^i 
Mher^ift it tnay be paid towards the fupptrt-t'of 
ffie teacher or teachers of the parifti or frftfiihijl^^irt 
\«rfifch the faid' monies are raifed, • ' ^'-^-'^-^ 

~''*Aiid every denomination of Chriftiaris^denieSSihg 
thcmfelves peaceably, and as good fubjefts'bf'tfee 
tSWttibriwfealthi (hall be equally under* th^^pro- 
rclStionof ^he law ; and no fiibordinatioii o^dhy 


o;f)e %<S:^r -denomination to .another flijll cyer, bc^ 

eftabliihed by law. ' 

V . r^y • ThjB peaple of this commonwealth have the 
^Je and. e^scclufiye right: of governing themfelves.a5 
4:6:€ei,foverqign^. and independent ftate; and dq^ 
afidf jfo^ ever hrpeafter. (hail^ cxercife and enjjpjr 
i5>5ei;y -power, jurifdi(3iion,apd righr^ whifh is not^ 
Of: may ik>c here^fte;i:,.[be by.thepi exprefsly deler 
gated to the United States ojf Acaerica, in Congrefe 

^ ,y f. ; AU^p^wer j^p&d j^x^ origin^^j? in the peppk^ 

3^Jd toeing defive4 fron^i»tl?<^nv, the^f^^ Wgj^5 
• (ira^§ ..and officexSj pf jgoy prm^ijqi t^^ veljted ?f i th aji^ 
fJjQrity, ^ wjieth<yr iegi%tiye* rcpcecutiv^,' or judicialji 
are their fubftitutes and agents, and are at all f iaif^ 
accountable to. thepVj, ,,, ; , , , : ;:. i ^ 
,; ,yjr No nwiJ^^^jpncofrporation, . or aflbciatioa qf 
(npn.,[baye any, other ^i tie to obtam advantages^ 9^ 
|)a^tip4lar.an4.e;xclufi,ve privileges^ 4ii^j^i)(^, frpm , 

tji?fc of the cQowwity, thaa, >yjwi_.w(c^ 
cpofideratig)^ of fervipes r^d^ed^;Q,^^he.,pul?li^^ 

ffxdihW title. bei/>g i^.ftat^.r^^cijhWpJjierpdjf;^^ 
ffiapf^iffiUe tQ.childr^>,,o^ 5{j- 

, lations by blood, the idcf qf :a fPA^^borp, a« ,^3^; 
g^^t,?ft lawgiver, or .iadg©.,;,is ,abfui;4v^i?d; ./^n- 

o.yiL, Government i^ inftituted foi] . the xommpn 
^pdj for the prote<^ion,.fafety^ prpfperity, a^ 

K k 4 happincft 

504 ^ Con^itutioft of Ma£i»chfffiiis\ 

happinefs of the people ; and not for tk^ JwtJfif, 
honour, or private intereft 6f any one man, familjr;. 
or clafs of men ; therefore, thie people, aicjao 
have an inconteftible^ unalienable, and; ir^en 
feafible right to inftitiue government; fthd \pjt^^ 
form, alter, or totally change the fame, when thdc 
protcdlion, fafety, profperity, and happinefe.. re^. 
quire it. . :. 

VIIL In order to. ptevent thofe who ate v^fted 
with authority from becoming oppreflbts, ^ the 
people have a right, at fuch periods, and in fuch 
manner as they fhall eftablifh by their franpie <^ 
government, to caiife th^ir public officers to 
return to private life ; and to. fill up svaican^ 
places by certain and regular ei^ions and iipn 

IX, All eleftions ought to be free, and all the 
inhabitants of this commonwealth, having fuch 
qualifications as they (hall eftablifti by their frame 
of government, have an equal right to eleft officers, 
and to be elefted fqr public ^mploymcAts^ 

X. Each individual of the fociety has a right to 
be protedted by it, in $he enjoyment of his life^ 
liberty, and property, according to {landing la vvsv 
He is obliged, confeqviently, to contribute his 
fliare to the expence of this protection j to give 
his . perfonal fervice, or an equivalent^ when ncr 
ceflary: but no part of the property of any andij- 
vidual can, with juftice, be taken from him, or 


Conflituthn ^f Majfachnfetts, 50 ^ 

apptied to' public ufes, without his own confcnt, or 
that of the reprefentative body of the people : 
iirfiae, th'e people of this commonwealth are not 
cofeiX)ulable by any other laws than thofe to which 
their conftitutional reprefentative body have given 
thejr copfenr. And whenever the public exigences 
^require that the property of any individual (hoiild 
be appropriated to public ufes, he (hall receive a 
iteafOfTable conipenfation * therefor. 
- XL Every fubjeft of the commonwealth ought 
t6 find a cefrtain remedy, by having recourfe to the 
laws for ^11 injuries or wrongs which he may receive 
m his pdtfon, property, of charafter. Hcf ought 
to-obtainrighf and juftice freely, and >!vith6ut being 
oWiged to purchafe it; conipleatly, and without 
iany denial ; promptly, and withoOt delay ; con- 
formably to the laws, 

^^'"XII. No fubjeft fliall be held to anfwer for any 
crime or offence, until the fame is fully^ahdplainly, 
fubftantially and formally, defcribed to' him ; or 
be compelled to accufe, or fumifli evident^ dgainfl 
liimfeif. An4 every fubjed: (hali have a right to 
produce all proofs that may be favourable to hifii ; 
t-o meet the witneffes ag^inft him face to face, arid 
io^ be fully heard in his defence by himfelf or his 
counfel, at his eledibn. And no fubjeft fhail be 
•itt^refted, imprifoned, defpoiled, or deprived df his 
-property, immunities, or privileges, put out of the 
|«-oted:ion of the law, exiled, or deprived of his 

2 life. 

life, liberty, or cft«e, but by jtbc jwigf^m pf hif 
peers, or the law of th^ land. . . : ,i .w,;;^ 

Ajad tbq.logiflaturq.ibftU not m^ke aiqtMw^: thaf 
fliall fubjeft any perfon to a capital or infanj4»jj5 
punifhiuent, excepting jfpf ihe. gqgfarnjai^nt, jqf >thc 
ari!ay apd MVy, wi|hout;.fml,byrjurx>j:; t(. / .-lov 

XIIL Jrfi crifftiijiftj i^oftQiitipriB, . jth^pi ^lerificatiftO 
of fa<^ in. the vi^jiahyi. wbi?«Jejt|iv<^yf^i^g^niiiB^nc 
of the^reateft:.&<5Ui:itiea !f>i:;tbe Jifie,jJib?^y5, iSk%i 
property ..ofthc citiz^f^a^i,-. ju, .-.v.riiK .?j/j:;fj ; . -.j/r.^js 
r / XI Y; Ewry ibbje& I jba&:^ixighi^i tOj hp. fef^ffS 
&pm:all.uiirea{Qnab}cjiearahm) ^^ f<^»Df;4i^^Qf kl^ 
pedbn, his jhoufes,. ibis ;papekfi^;anKi4l| .his* pQfiigff 
fions. All warrants, tber^fbtc>fi^^.C9mi!fary:$o.tfeK 
rtghCy.if the eaufc or foundation: ftf tXernib^/POt 
pffevioully fupporicd by oath or .aiffiurmftUoix^T.^^^^ 
if the order in a warrant to a civil- officer, po^mafco 
Ifearch in all fufpeded places^, qx, CQ^.arreft one 
6r mora fbfpeded peffons, or tosftize their pro,- 
perty, be -not accompanied with.a fpecial defig- 
uiationiof the perfons jor.Qbjefts:of fearch, arxeft^i 
or feizdre; :and no xyarrant ought' .to. be sSmd^ 
but in cafes and with the formalities prefcribedi^jjii 
the^laws*".^ .,.■.-, i-.-.., j. 

XV. In all controvearfies concerning property^ 
and in all foits between two or more perfons, excepfe 
in cafes in which it has heretofore been odicnwky^ 
ufed and praftifed, the parties have a right to n 
trial by jury; and this method of procedure ftiall 


Cf^nflitutim 4f Maffacbufeiti. jja; 

bfr field (acred, iinlcfi, in caufes arifing oft th« 
high feas, and fuch as relate to niariners wages^ 
thsi' legiAature (hall hereafter find ' if neceffary to 
iltei* it. 

^' XVI. The' liberty of the prefs is effentiai to the 
fecurity of freedom in a ftate ; it ought not, there- 
fore, to be reftrained in this ^commonwealth. 
'^-XVII. The people have a right to keep and to 
fecfar irmsfor the conimon* defence. Aqd as in 
time of peace armies are dangerous to liberty, they 
Aught not to be maintained without the confent of 
f life legiilatuie ; and the military power (hall always 
ber held in exact fubordin^tion to the civil aucbo^ 
#lty, and be governed by it." 
" XVIII. A ^frequent recurrence to the funda* 
taental principles of the conftituti<^ and a con- ' 
ftant adherence to thofe of piety, juftice, mode- . 
ration, temperance, induftry, and frugality, are 
abfolutely neceffary to preferve the:, advantages of 
lit>6rty, and to uuintain^ a free government. The 
people ought, confequently, to have a particular 
git^idon |o all thofe principles, in the choice of 
their officers and reprefentatives : and they have 
a right to require of their lawgivers and magi- 
ftrate?, an exad and conflant obfervance of them, 
iiH the formation and execution of all laws ne- 
ceffary for the good adminiftration of the com- 

XIX, The 

^"S Conpttili4n iff Mtjfiithujim. 

XiX. The people have a right, in in ' brdefirljr 
and peaceable manner, to affemble to confillt \ipbn 
the conrmon good; give inftruftions^ W their re- 
prefentatlves ; and to requeft of the legifI5tive 
body, by the way of addrefles^' petitions 6f * r^* 
monftrances, redrcfs of the wrongs dbnethem>' and 
of the grievances they fiifTer* • 

XX. The power of fufpending th^'liw^, dr'the* 
execution of the laws," ought newr to bTe ek'i^rtifed 
but by the legillaturc^ or by autliority d&fited frott 
it, ;o be exciircifcd ifi foth ^particuto eafe^ only^iV- 
the legiflature ftiall expWftfy provide foV. ' ' "-"^ '*■ >'- 
' XXI. The freedtim' of delfbefratidn, fpfeedh; an* 
debate, in either- Houfe - erf the Legiflature', is W 
. eflential to the rights of die' people; khat it ca.AnbtT 
be the foundation of any acctifetion'or profeatcion', 
' aftion or complaint, in any other $obrt or pUce 
whatfoever. ' •■ ■ .. 

XXII. The legiflature ought frequently to af^ . 
femble for the redrefs of grievances, for correding, . 
{Irengthening, and cOnflfming the laws, an'd fot-' 
making new laws, as the common gocrd -^nfay 
require. ''- 

XXm. No fubfidy, charge, tax, impoft, or.; 
duties, ought to be eftablifhed, fixed, laid, or 
levied, iinder any pretext whatfoever, without ^thc 
confent of the people, or their reprcfentativies "ia ' 

the legiflature. ■■ ' " ' ' ' **' 

XXIV. Lawa 

CoHjlitUtiOH of MaJfachuptiSi, §dg 

XXIV. Laws made to punifti for adions d^ne 
before the exiftence of fuch lavs^ afid which hsM^e 
not been declared crimes by preceding laws, art 
upjtift^ oppreffive, and inconfiftent with the fun* 
damei\tal principles of a free gov^rnmeht. * ' • • 

XXV. No fubjeft ought, in any cafe, or in any . 
time, to be declared guilty of treafon or felony^^ • 

' by the legiflature. 

" ' XXVI. No magiftrate' or tourt of law ftall de- 
mand exceffive bail or furetics, iitipofe exG^ffivd 
fines, or ihflift cruel and unufvi^l pviniflintent^. ^ -. 
XXVII. In time of poace> 'nb foldier ought to 
be; quartered in any hii^iafe wji^J^pyiH: the ^confe^t'of 
tl|e owner; and in time of \Var, fuch quarters oijght be made but by the » civil magiftrate; tntk 
rrianner ordained by tfee legiflature* 

., XXVIIK No perfon can in iny cafe be fub* 
jefted to law-martial, or to any penalties or pains 
by virtue, of that law, except th9fe employed m 
tberarmy or navy, and eicept the militia in aftual 
farvice, but by authority of the legiflature* 

yXXIXi It is eflential to the prcftrvation of the^ 
rights of every individual, his life, liberty, pro*.' 
pcfrty, and charafter, that there be an impattial 
interpretation of the laws, and adminiflration of 
juftice. - It is the right of every citizen to be tried; 
by judges as free, impartial, and independent, as 
the lot of humanity will admit. It is, therefore, • 
not only- the beft policy, but for the fecurity of 


5 i o Conftitutm "of Majfaebufetis. 

thte'rights of tljc peoplc> iind of every citizeiiy that 
tKc Judges of the fupreme judicial court fhbtild 
hold their offices as long as they behave tb^ni- 
felvcs well; and that they (hould have "honour- 
able falaries tifcertained and eilablilhed by.:ftand- 

. /=ing laws. ■ .^..^v ■• '^'^'i - "^ . ^•'!^:i., 

-*i XXX. In the government" *dF this ^fcolrimoif- 
wealth, . the legifldtiv^ de{>Ai^tmerlt fliall' tetf^fe* ^^ 
Cifcife tht executive-^bnd ■judidal^dvvefrS, dreirfi^'r 
* of •tKfehi';r the ekeciHivti fh^lP tiever eixercife'^tSc 
fcgiflativfc and judirtali pfofwefi,- or iefither* df tlto&P; 

• ^ Ihe judicial (hall tieV^r 6x^yife the legiflitlvt dfii: 
txeitldve povvrers, (#'eitlie!^' ^if^thetti ; to -'ffi^^feM 
,k n\ay be a governrntht o^H%»,' dAid^tr6t'i6f iSifenl^''' 

t * r * 
s J J .1 J 

Abridgment of the Constitu.tioj^ of thz 

.* - ' ' ' ■.■"... .-■..■ 

SAME SxATiE. ■ . i 

* , • , ..-■,««■■ 

The power of legiflation is lodged in a general 
court, confining of two branches, viz, a lenate 
and a houfe of reprefentatives, each having 'a ne- 
gative upon the' other. They meet 'ahhuall\f 6d 
the laft Tuefday in May. No ad caii be pafled 
without the approbation of the governor, unlets 
two-thirds of both branches are in favour of it. 
Either branch, or the governor and council, may 
require the opinion of the juftices of the lupfeme 
judicial court, upon important queftions. Sena^ 
tors are Chofetl 'by dlftrifts, of which tficre caiinot 

I be 

v.* •• 

(!fiifiUuti0t. of Majfacbufins. oi J i 

nhp ^^fs .?h^^ thirteen. The number of qouAfellors 

tsodrr fenators, for thp whole commonwealth j : is 

fioijty; the number of each diftrid is in proportion 

jff> their public taxejs ; bat rjo diftrid h to be fo 

4aifg€i^ as ,to fe^v^ mQre tlma fix. Sixtc^en fcna^tors 

make a quorum. The reprefentatives are Chqfen 

\Yr^)^(ty^t1^\ ^own3^.facicarding.t;o their ni>mt)ers 

^9^^ fate^ble poUsvr F.QJ'.i^iP. .ppHs one,,i3 elected; 

^^^ for'cyeiry ^^it^$>j5t'pf :{^s^5,,an additional, on^. 

3'yheir tr^elling-^xif^ceMQ and fronj thfitg^ner^l 

ff^i^ ftre defrayed by, tUq pit^tolic, but their Wftges 

/pip axji^^ancc /ire pw4J>y ^beijr own tjpvy^* loi;- 

j^eachments, for mifpon^qK^ vfk ofRce, are made, by 

thcf ■ repr^fpuativesj^. apid( ti:i^ ;tt>y the> fena^te ; . but 

the judgment can go only to removal -from office 

and future difqualificatipn. Money bills originate 

iii the houfe'of reprerentatives, but may be altered 

by the fenate. Reprefentatives are privileged from 

Arrefts on mefne procefs. Sixty members ma^ke a 

Guoruili. The lupreme executive authority is vef- 

ted in a governor, who is elefteci annually by .the 

people, and has a coupcil confiding of the li^u- 

tenant-governor, and.nme gjentlemM citofcn out 

of th^ forty, who are returned for counfellor? p.n.d 

feriators. Five counfellors makea .qypruti^., Th^ 

governor is commander of all the military fojrce, of 

the commonwealth. He may convene the general 

court,' may adjourn them^ when the^t\ypl br^nph^3 

affa|ree about thqtJB^^^^ 

scl I prorogue 

p i ton/limton of Afapthyf^iih' 

prorogtje them from time to fime^ not *4c^iS^ 
fiinety days*- He may pardon convi<ft5j birt the-Icgift 
latiirc alone can grant pardons before feortVi^loiSi 
He comniiffi6ns all officers, and, with idvice tjSf' 
council, appoints all judicial officers; ;Maftar^ 
officers are thus appointed ; the refpefti^e c6mpa^ 
nies choofe their captain and fubaltems, whcJth^tjft 
their regimental oflicers, who trhoofe Iheir bng^- 
diers. The major-generals are appomt-fed* by flie 
general court* Juftices of the peace -are toxzimif- 
fioned for feven years; all other judicial, and ail 
executive and military ofrices, continue xl^ng 
good behavidur, yefart^TIWiiovcabir by the gover- 
nor, upon addrefs of the legiilature. - The fajaries 
of governor and juftices of the fupreme courts can- 
hot be diminiftled, although they maybe enlarged; 
Official qualifications are as follows— ^for a voter, 
twenty-one year's age, one yearns refidence, a free- 
'liold of three pounds annual value, or fixty pounds 
of any bther eftate^— for a, j^.ioo 
freehold, or ;^.20o other eftate, and one year's rc- 
lidcnce in the town— for a fenator, ^/'.^oo freehold, 
-tDr\;^^6oo other eftate in the commonwealth, arid 
five years refidence in the diftrifc — for governdf, 
or lieutenant-governor, j^.iooo freehold, and fe- 
♦en years refidence. Every governor, lieutcnant- 
'j;overnor, counfellor, fenator, or rep5*efeiiLative, 
muft declare that he believes the Chriftian religioft, 
and has the legal qualifications* A governor, -li^- 

'- tenant- 

tenant-governory or juftice of the fupreme court 
caa hold no other office. No man can hold two 
of thefe offices^ judge of probate^ Iheriff^ regifter. 
No juftices of the fupreme court, fecretary, at* 
Ikimcfr general^ treafurer, judge of probate^ in- 
ftruAor <^ Harvard College, clerk, rcgiiler, (he- 
tiff^ or cuftom-oficer can have a feat in the legif* 
bsare. The privilege of Habeas Corpus cannot 
be fufpended more than a year at one time. In 
1795^ if two^thirds (^ the qualified voters defire it, 
a convention (hall be called to revife the confti* 



THE conftitution of the State of Maffachufetts 
Bay was adopted in this flate in the year 1784, 
with very few alterations, except fuch as were un- 
avoidable from local circumflances. Among thefe 
few however there is one of feme confequence, 
i^ is that in this date the prefident has not the 
power of negativing all bills and refolves of the fc- 
nate and houfe of reprefcntatives, and preventing 
their pafling into laws, unlefs approved of by twp 
^irds of the members prefent. 

The fupreme n^Jigiftrate is ftyled President op 
7H£ State op New Hampshire; he is ho- 
noured with the title of Excellency^ and it is he 
who prefides in the fenate. 


5.14. Ctufiimt^of JlU^,JfiajllJt \ 

• m 

* ■ 

■ *■ - ' "' "i • . • ■ ■ ■ ' . f ' "t « i : ■ J ' * 

, 8: H O P ]E I S.I*.A ,N b. ,: eiiT 

THE conftitjitioa.of this flai« is.foun4c4<>ftrtk^ 
charter granted by Charles 11. in the fourteenth 
year of his reign ; and theframc of government 
was not eflentially altered by the revolution. The 
Icgiflaturc of the ftatc ^ cpnfijGts .^qf, jtwp branches — 
a fenatc or upper houfe, compofed often members, 
called in the charter qffiftanii-^inA, a houfe of re* 
prefentatives, compofed of, deputies jFrom. the f<p[e^al 
towns. The members oi^ fhe legiflaturc are^dtofcO; 
twice a-year: and there are two feffions of this body, 
annually, viz. on the fijrft WednefUay ia Majjr^.aijd, 
the'laft Wednefday in OftobQn . , : 

The fupreme executive power is vefted in a go* 
vernor, or, ih his abfence, in the deputy-governor, 
who are chofen annually in May by the fuffr^^,of. 
the people. The governor prefides in.the qpper.j 
hpufe^^ b\it has only a fingle voice in enabling; 
laws. • '^ • . . . ; ..rr 

Tfhere is one fupreme judicial court,, compq^ejdv 
of five judges, whofe jurifdidion extends ovjejc.thfL- 
whole ftate, and who hold two courts anAU^^llj.-in \ 
c^ch'county. . . / , ;^ . . ^ ,,^ 

Th each county, there, is an inferior court- ofi . 
common pleas and general feffioQs of thc^ PPfP^jv 
held twice a-year for the trial of caufes^atjgapiiial,;^ 


iirifing within the county, from which an appeal 
lies to the fupreme eoiirti 

The juftiees of the peace, is in dtll^r Aatcs, have 
cognizance of fmall caufes ; and fince the revo- 
lbtM'the& pow<rfsliiW bfeeh eEllarge^^^^^ ' ' ' 

.a A... * ' iiii li III n 

— ^^^^^-TkE STATE- W^ON^ -'' 

' ^WE ■' chartrt' gl^iit^ ^(Jf Coh^^ 

tftiftitat by Clitfrie^ 'th^lrr bAT tli^^ '23(1' of April> 
ip6t, by which ihef ' \yt.t^^^ be a body 

dbrf)Orate aAd pblitic^ has been adopted as the bafis 
of their prefent gbverhment. In all points whicH 
were not found incompatible vftth independency; 

•^ ;Thc rtq>reme legiflativc authority of thi^ ftate is, 
conformable to this charter^ vefted in a govcr* 
nor^ deputy- governor^ twelve aflillants or coti'n-^^ 
fcllors, ind the reprefentatives of the people^ ftyled! 
the General AJfembly. , The governor, deputy -go-* 
vW'rior, and afliftants, are annually chofen by the 
freemen in the month of May; The reprefentatives 
(their numbei: not to exceed two froni each town) 
are chofen by the freemen twice a-year/ to attend 
tHfe two annual feflions, on the fecond Thurfdays 
of -Mky and Oftbber.' This affembly lias power. to , 
tft€i judicatories, fbr the trial of caufes civil and' 
--ri'^'^'-'' L 1 2 criminal. 

5i6 C^JHimm ^ Cojtiu&kur. 

criminal, and td ordain and eftabfifh kws fbf Sif^ 
ding the forms and cercmonits of govferftlitittYtJ 
Bythcfc laws the general affcdfibly is dividfetf -fertb 
two branches^ called the tipper and lower &bu(fi^J 
The upper houfe is compofed of die go^e«trf;"iJ^ 
puty-governor, and affiftants. The lower K'btife, 
of the reprefentatives of the p^oplfe. ' No law 8ifii 
pafs without the conctirrehce 6f '^b6tliliotilfe;'^The 
judges of the fuperlor court hold thSr bMcfesHliHilg 
the plcafure of the gener^V aflffe'iiiblyr ' Thei jiid'g§ 
of the county courts/and juffices, ate'artnualiy'kf)- 
pointcd. Sheriffs are appointed by the gbl^fiiS^ 
and council, without limitation of rimfe/^Tftife"gtt^ 
ycrnoris captain-generkl of ciieittilitiai the titpiitV^ 
governor, lieutenant- general. All bther 'ititlxtkiy 
officers are appointed by the aflemblyi and torh* 
miflioned by the governor. * 

The mode of elefting the governor, di^uty- 
govecnor, affiftants, treafurer, and fecrctary, is-ai 
follows : The freemen in the feveral towns' meet 
on the Monday next after the firftTudfday In Aprif^ 
annually, ' and give in their votes for the peribiis 
they choofe for the faid offices refpeftively, with 
their names written on a piece of paper, which' are 
received and fealed up by a conftable in open meet« 
ing, the votes for each office by themfelves, with 
the name of the town and office written on tfte 
outfide. Thefe votes, thus fealed, are fent to the 
general aflembly in May^ and there counti^ by i 


cof^r?^ittee from both boufes. All freemen are 
dLigi}>Ie ^> an^ ofBce lA government. In qhooiiAg 
^ffiftancs^ twenty perfons; are nominated 9 by ! th^ 
vose of each freeman^ at tfe^frpcwan's qxcjetiag for 
cbpofiog reprefentatives in September annually* 
Xb^o votes are fcaled up, and fent to the genera^ 
s^i^m^ly ia Oftober^ and are there counted by a 
^Ofjimittee c^ both houfesji and the twenty perfons 
l^bp have tiie moll votes jR:and in nomination; ouf 
j^ which njambcTi tbci twelve who have the grcate^ 
lUimber pf votes, , gweii by the freemen at their 
tj^tiixfg, i^ A^ 4eclared affiftants 

ii) tKe;iaanner abpve-n^entipned* The qualification^ 
■freemen are, maturity. in yearsr-quiet and peace- 
able behaviouT'-^a civil converfation, and freehold 
eftate 10 the value of forty (hillings per annum, of 
forty pounds perfonal eftate in the lift, cenified by 
the fcleft ;nen of the townj it is neceflary, alfb, 
that thev take the oath of fidelity to the ftate# 
Their pannes are enrolled in the to>yn.clerk*s office, 
and they continue freempn for life, u^lefs disfran'^ 
c|\if?4 by fent.ence of the fujperiqr cpurt, qpi cpn- 

^. .Xhe.rcputt? are as follow : The juftices of the 
Beace,,of whom a jiumbfer are annually appointed 
io: jeachJpwA by the general affijmbly, have au* 
thprky tp bear and determine civil actions, wTiefe 
|)j^ /eij^^^d does not exceed^foW poiixidsl' ; If the 

_. ;. . Ll:3 counfy 


ciS Conjiitutien of Conne^icutj, 

county is allowed. They havacognizancc of fmall 
p^cnccSj^ and may punifli by finc^ not exceeding 
forty (hillings, or whipping, not excipedjB& teq 
^ipes, ,or fitting in the flocks, llierc are eiglit 
county courts in the ftate, hem in the iCever^l 
counties by one judge and four jpftiMs. of the. qu^^ 
Vum, who have mriTdi^lion of all trimmal , catcs, 
anfing wuhin their reipeftiv? coufttie?, whefe tae 
jpuniflimcnt does not cxtep4 '^"^.^^^ limb, pi^t|fc 
niftiment. They have original juriididioh' of *au 
civil actions which eicceea . the jurudidtion of. a, 
juftice. Either party may appeal to the fupchor 
court, if the. demand exceeds twenty pouads, eic«» 
cept on bonds or notes vouched by two witjiefles, "- 

There are feveral coyrts of probate m each 
county, conulting of one juoge,,^ T\}6 jpecuhar 
province of this court, is the probate of wilki 
granting adminiftration on inteftate eftates,' order- 
ing diftribution of them, and appointing guardians 
for minors, &c. An appeal lies froin a^y ^^^^^? 
of this court to the fuperior court. 

The -fuperior court confifts of five judgeji. " It 
has authority in all' criminal cafes extending to lifeg 
Jimb, or baniChment, and other high crirties'^ana 
mifdemeanors ; to gr3.nt divorces, and to hear' arid 
determine ^11 civil actions brought by i^ppearffppi 
the coupty courts, or the court of probate, ancf 'i<i 
correft the errors of all inferior courts, ThisVis a 
circuit cour^, and has two ft^ed fefSbns ;n'each 
.. . . ' CQumy 

. • • I ■ r I < 

Confiitution of ConneSlicut. 5 19 

county annually. The fuperior arid county couKs 
try matters of faft by a jury,' 6r 'without^ if tiie 
part?8s will agree. 

There is a fuprenie court of eribrs, confifting of 
the deputy-governor afid the twelve affiftants. 
Their fole bufinjefs is to deteitnine writs of error. 

■^ /)v 

brought on judgments of the fuperior court, where 
the error compliine4 of a!ppears on the rfecbrd 

two ftated lemons annually^ viz, on the 

have tw6 ftated feflions annually^ 
i^iefdays of the wcelcs^receding the ilatc4, ^^ons 
ot the general aflembly. 

i^Hc; county couhr is a court (if chancery, em- 
powered to near ana determme cafes in equity, 
where the matter in demand does 4iot 

■« r • ■% • ■« 

Iiundred ppunds. The luperior court has coeni- 
zance of all cafes ivhere the demand exceeds that 
% Errp^^^^^brought from t^^ 
the fuperior courts and from the fupenor tourt to 
the fupreme court' 6f errort, oa judgment ih*cat*ejj 
pf equity as well as of U>^. 

, . The general affembly^ only, have power to^ grant 
pa^rdons and reprieves-.- -to grant comfciffions of 
fcankruj5tcy-.-^or. protedt^ the perfons and euat^'s of 
unfortunate debtors, 

. The common law of England, fo far as it is ap- 
plicabje tp this country, is jConfidered as the com- 
mon jAW of this ftate. ^ -T^e .reports of adjudication 
in the courts of kind's bench, cpnim'on pleas, ana 
chancery, are re^d in the courts of this ftate a^ 

L 1 4 autho* 

i«t!ioiridM; .yet the judges do not confidiftitte«|f;i& 
<x>nclu{Ivcly iDioding, unlefs foiiodsd. oi\ JkAfi^ ^9^ 
fons which will apply ia this ftate, or ^iM^o^^^ 
bf concurrent odjudicatioos of tbeif owM coyrf^^ ^ -, 
y- 1 The feudal fyftem of defcents was- never adrtpt^ 
in this ftot^ All the real eftatc of kKtcflate^ H l^^ 
vided equally aniong the ehtkirttni^iiialoei aa^ffa* 
ttlales^ except that the ^IdeRXaa-^ha^ar doMbW ptl> 
ifidn^ And all eftates giveKia'taii/zinitfttbersiiet 
«i= fonic perfon then in beings or to^thc^ immnAUrr 
iffue, and (hall become fee^'fiaElpkL (Sfattc^.M ihfi 
^ffue of thb^rft doace in taii •' The widows ctfiPan 
«&teftate i$ entitled t^ ap third pact of thr perfanul 
kt^tt'for ever^ aadito her.doWcf^rop;thiir4{W%>i)^ 
^e koufes alid lands belonging to. ^is. inoo^^ :IM 
^iht tUtk 'Of his death, during her lifci. . : . ^ > « 


• ■ . ' " 

^ ■ . I . » : . < 



THE fuprcme legiflative powers are veftea ^h^a 
fenate and affembly.' The member^ of the fenate 
are elc(5ted by the freeholders of the ftatei-^^fcrho 
' poflc'fs freehold cftafes't6 the value of one hiJrndTcd 
pounds clear of debts. ' For the purpofc 6f eliaWg 
Tenatdrs; t'lie ftkte is 'dlvicied into fbtif-^eat'^<fi- 
'i&ia's, ekch 'of whith chures* ji dertsiih tititfib^. 


ConJIitutim 4 Ntw Tmh 5«r 

TtofoQtdlierii dHfarift coaipi?!dbefid3 the counuct^fof 
Mi^r/Sfork, Suffolk, Weft Cbdifr»Ki«g^«^^f wi^i 
khd RkhmoDd, wbick tooong them tAtdtrnx^Sp^ 
natdrik ' The middle diftri& iDciudes thcrcowtiek 
of Datcheft^ liUftfir^.snd Oiwig!9i ivbicii: ick^ fix 
feiuitors. /l^ .&me::]iumbcrrare ele&edi liy thf 
weRern dtftti£b,, which contains oafy tbe^Dyo e^iia*' 
tieiB($f' Albanjr^^nd Montgonierjr:: amt:thrce Cer 
fetors, are eie(%ed;l^ the^ »fteni; diftrid;^.)vlHcb|p 
ODoq^pofed: q£ the: counties of W^ihingiiOfi^i^Cuixb* 
bbrldiidy ani^ GioMinsiler; ■. ^ - »: 

:'^Tfaefe^twQityw£g\ir fesftors wedivided l^ lo( into 
fttur chifieji fix intf 2iiB]ptiiarS(9i a4id.«iJMpber84j, $r^ 
ieGXMid/.thirdv';aiid\4bt^ Ilhe fett^ pf tjb^ j ^9; 
^^Itd toenvasttted ^^the)eiq)iratipniQf qaf^yf^ 
the fccond, acaheeikpYmtiDa, 9& ibe .|)(«^ jSlc* 9^4 
their places filled by new elcdions. Thus, a (mail 
change is made in the.lS:aa££l£Kej:;jr yf^ar; but three* 
fourths of the members remaining preferve a kao«6% 
ledge of the buiiirefe,e(f, a iorgafj}, feffion. A ma* 
fority of the fenatc is neceflary to do bufineft, an4 
each branch of the iegiflatiir^ has a negative upon 
the other* - 

,^he legiflatujce. . qa» s^^t any ju^c alter this di- 
vifion of thc.ftate for tho. cl^oice of , fenatoj? $? and 
: aa increafe of.eloStor^ i^ aay diftri^, to tlie amount 
,9f ione tweotyrfQurth, of |h« eli^prs . in. the whole 
iBate, entitles thediftcift tQiaiynher/fena^or. But t^e 
number of .feDa(cir&.cas^i|e^,»c^d ou!»e htuj^reOf 
. . I TEe 

S^t Conftiiution of New Tark. 

The afleinfely of the ftatc is compofcd oFfeprc- 
fentatives from the feveral counties, chofeh ahauU^ 
lyih May, in the following proportion : 

For the city and county of New-York; nine* 
t^or the city and county of Albany, fcycn. 

> ±'- 

For Richmond z 
Montgomery,' 6 
Wafhington i 
and Clinton, J 
Columbia ^ ' 3 
CumSerixnd 3 

Ghucejer . i 

For Dutchefs, . 7 
WeftChcfter 6 
Ulfter 6 

. .. SuflTolk $ 

Qaecn*s 4 

Orange 4 

King's Z 

' By the conffitution, however, it is ordered, that 
•t the end 6f feven years after the termination of 
the late war, a cenfus of the electors and inhabit- 
ants (hall be taken, and theVeprcfehtation a|)por^ 
tioned according to the number of eleAors in each 

Every male inhabitant of full age, who has re- 
fided in the ftate fix months preceding the day of 
elcftion, and pofTefling a freehold to the value of 
twenty jpbunds, in the county where he is to give 
his vote, or has rented a tenement therein of the 
yearly value of forty (hillings, and has been rated 
^d aftually paid taxes, is entitled to vote for repfe- 

fentatives in affembly. The freedom of the cities 

•■ "« _ •' • • ■..-■,...*■.■, 

of New- York and Albany likewife entitles ix per- 
fon to the privilege of voting for members of at-i 
fembly in the city or county where he refides. The 
ti^cthod of voting is' now by ballot, but fubjed to 


Cor^itutigfi of New Tork* S^J ' 

alteration by the Icgiflature. , The hpufe of aifem' 
bl^i^a myority of whicKis nccefl^ry io.proceed to 
bufinefs, cliufes its own fpcaker, and is a liidge cif 
its ownprivi^pges, . ._ _ ^ , .' " 

In aJ|l_;^ebatesijjri great quc^dns, the houff re- 
folyes itlclf into^^JCQtBpiit^e ofthe whple houfe, 
th^ fpealt,ci;~,|qfty;f»; the* ch^r,^and- ft ehairt?«m is 
;ippointed &r;flie/6ccafion.s After the bUjGnefs is 
compWedj the ct^nmittee 'lifts, the {p^cr takes 
the chair, aii^^jSir' chairman feports (o the.houfe 
the proce?(^ingi^^S>i^he committee. ., . 

; , 7he number of reprefent^tiyes is limited (o thre^ 
jiundred. The jrefci^t number is 0ity-five, 

■JThe fupreme executive power of the ftatc isyofti^q 
in agovernor^ (In whole ablenge a deputy -goyernof 
is appointed to ferve) choftn pnce in three years by ■ 
the freemen of the ftate. The lieutenant-governor 
is, by his office, prefident of tlic feoate ; and, upon 
an equal diyifipn of voices, has a Catyng ^pte ; hut ' 
|ic has no voice on other occafic^n^j ' Tbe governor 
has not a feat in t^e legillacure ; but as a member 
of the council of revifion apd council of appoint^ 
me_nt, he has a vafl; influence in tWftate. , 

The council of revifion is compofed of.tbe cK^n- 
cellor, the judgf s of thf fupreme tjpait, or any of 
them, antj the governor. ^This cpimcJl is. empower- 
ed TO revife all bills which have pailed^ the two 
houfes of the l^Iilapire, aiid if it. fliaU 'appear t(j 

(he, council that jjjch btlk ough( ixot ti) pafs mto 
v' •:'■■:■.■. ■:■■■; - ■ : i: ' ■• j/Ga*?! :r:!r.nov f-.riMujijT- 


J 24 Conftiiution of Ntw Xi^h 


lawy, they muft be returned to the houfe in which 
they originated^ with the objedtions of the iCOuncUk 
The houfe muft then proceed to reconiicter the 
bills^ with the obje£tionSj and if, «^r . t^is> 
two<-thirds of the houie agree to the faill^ th^ 
are to be fent te the other houfe^ YJ^erq jdbfejr 
muft be reconfidered, and the afeut pf,t?wc^th^fdt 
of the members pafs them into laws. But iljja ^jjll 
is not returned in ten d^ys^ it^ beccnmi^'a la^.^ coC 

The fubordinate officers of the ftate, are. f^S9i&tr . 

•d by the ctmndl of appointment ^ ^^i^^ ^^j^Rf^HPff^^^i 
of one fenator from e^idi diftrift, (a be . pty^j^iji^^; 
nually by the legiiUture, with. the^gpyefiy^^r^, ^1:^.4^^^ 
hisabfence, the lieucedaDtrgovier^c^^f>|^ft]hf^4>r^(^^ 
lient of the fenate> who has a cafting yote ofisly* . 

All military officers hold their como^iifioas dur« 
ing pleafure. The chancellor, the judges of the 
fupreme court, and the firft judge Qf each. CQuxx^yf. 
court, hold their offices during good behaviouu"* 
The officers can hold no other office at the ,^rnc 
time, except that of delegate to congrefs. 

Sheriffs and coroners aire appointed annually, 
and can ferve but four years fucceffiycly. 

A court of errors and impeachment is inftituted, 
compofed of the prcfident of the fenate, the fenators, 
chan,cel|pr, and judges .of, the fupreme, .po^ti^,-ror 
ilje^m^or part of thejp, under,thtr^v*«,tw^.i>fj(hp; 
^?eA^~twe. , T^e P0W9: of ittxpt^hm^^ 


ultlie hoiife of repreientatives, and die membess^oa 

tj4atTOuft be iworn. ?. .. - .;:, 

- 'Belidcs the court of errprs: and unpeacbmcrit^ 
tiierc is; Firft, a court vf cbameryy confifling of a chaw' 
£^i6r» appointed by die couiicil of appomtmenc^ whor 
hcMs his office during good behsviour, or until he 
arrive at the age of fiity yrars. Secondly^ 2Ljkpr^meL 
4i3*r/, tHe judges of which are appointed in the famrf> 
rintantiei') and fbr the fame time, as the ckanceiloi^ 
This is a circuit court, — Thirdly, cvunty caurts^ \k^\^ 
ift^ eae& eouhty, die judges of which aitaPi^^inted in 
tke TMiiner above mentxon^d^ %iiVd th<^"^^ JM^^f 
h<adi hii office dunhg go**l3chai^ioi;ii-; i:)^fidS^ 
tikefe^, thert are the}ul^^)i&'t@duf€^i^^a^4;rf'p^otia 
cothtbf admiralty, <SStSt^^«f^««dleqU^ 
oyer a/lfl tcrminet* • &d^ gtiiew^ gdal id\il<)i«j^ ^«ttl 
courts-'oftluiStcrreHiani.^^^ iiA 

• -TKe praAide in thi* foj^rbrttd C6«rt, • «d'4*i4i^«^ 
ap^ life from the-eduWbfcl6vs^i is ih ^lmit«tei*vj^ 
riteSljourts of ''cJoftiittoh "ple^ arid^ Itliigidi • bench •*» 

Efigfarid; •■ •■'*^'-- --■ ^'''<^^ ^^*'- '-'^i^^: ^>aT- 

i^e^:'-'-;'- ."^T"'^" :^r-r'r" ■•?~"~^"^: •:!;•■: ^ A 

'^THE goveromentis vefted in a governs, te^' 
Htiv* ccmncil/and gcttJOT^^ ^he 'gbveVir^ 

Ao^ii ataoany chofin by tkc ct)um:a W afletablf 

%f / Jointly^r 

."1 " 

52^ OmfiHuikA\f'Mmy^ 

joxndf , and is ftyled pvirf$^ kid mfmkind^ h-^ibi^ 
in and over thefiatt ofNeW^yerJ^faHdiheWrtiSif^ 
tberitmto ieitmgingy-^lmMirlhrmd^drdifMf^ 
Tbe legiflativc council ii (omplifed^of dtM^hiiifidA^' 
fom esch county^ chbfen «mitiaHjF;by tlie pmp}ti^ 
They^uft he worth oiMi^ith&u&iki^ptaitd9%g^i^^ 
and perfohii eftate witMnpth«''COUttty^' i^^U^t^ 
bc^' freehdkkrs 'Olid inhabitaiitGi ^^f the^ i^iiidtd - 
thtf' reprefefit&r one yeaur^ The gen^i^a^aiBR^blf^ 
is: compofed pf three metiibers^^fttimi eacli-^^^cnlMyi'' 
chofen as, idxyve } each af/iihem ;»u(ir b6'^«^rt!h JiW"^ 
himdrtd^'pefunds^ ia real; iahdppferfiiilat ^elltto' wkhilii 
the county 9 and havebten^fiNeHoldfei^'tfjtkf jfibiitii^i 
ants as abofve^f AH thefe^ on :ta]^iiig th^irleSt^^n 
thekgifiatare^ilidSbfwrar^^^i^^ h^ wiU^ m>t afie^e^^ 
"rco anyriatT) yatCy:ocj^(Kce^isgi^whkl^yi^'ap'^' 
^^:pear to i&m injurious to the frtibiici \vtlfere\ <^ th^^ 
*■ ftate, or that ihall annul or repeal that pdrt oSf the -' 
• * , confti tution: which eftabliUves annual ^ ^ledabiis, 
"inoEr- that part rcfpe&ihg: itrial by jury, nor that - 
^*i^artwhidi:fecures liberty of confcience.** 

<Tite, governor fits in> and prefidesovtr the le^ 
giilative council, and has a taftmg vote iri thtft^ 
d^battt^. :'}Hi8 pii^^y. or executive council^ is^cditi. 
pcdfed, of any three members of the legiflatiyetfcftiri* ^ 
cit^ andi the governor and any (even metiibers^^f 
thevjk6oiKUij|>re^;Couit;of appeals in the4aift i^fdf^y 
as to points of law in civil caiesj andpoin^fs a pbv^et- 
of^gtird)9Qthg criminals in all cafes whatfoever. The 

a council 


•.- » ^, 

G$HfiUutioH of Nrtv jfirf^. S^f 

opvincil chufe one of their meoibers to be Vice pre-^ 
(idleA^y whp^ whei\ the goirernor is abient from the 
f^Cj pofifs^es the fupneme executive power. Thr. 
cf>M^Umay origiiiMe jiny hills^ excepting prepar-^ 
ingr^^ akerin g any ^noney. billy which is the folicr 
IR^og^tiv^ of the aflemblyi In every other rcr? 
i^c<3;fthfk powers are <equiU«; Every hill is read: 
tti$w tiroes in cach.hcmftr. None of the judgca- 
o^llhfe'fupKme'Comtt, or mother courts^ iherijSs^ 
of/RPy perfian p<Kflefl<^ oifany poft of profit under . 
th^:g(^t^nor^ eKccptJMfticcs o£ the peace^ is ehti^ } 
t\f (i^ AC) ■ afcat in< the a^etnUy^ ^ The eftate <of a (m* ? 
cidjp is iJiot forfeited fwrhir offence*; : ^ :i 

♦ iTh? courts ofjttftice in ihis iftate tore, Firft^- 
JHfikth €<mrt^^ A; competent 'iuimber of perfbni: 
are appointed jn each: county by the council' and' 
a^eaibly, in joint meeting, who are called juftices 
of ;tjie> peace, and continue in office five years. 
Thefc> , befides - being confecvators 'Of : the : peace, ' 
agreeably to the EngUfliJaws,. are.authDtiaed^co'' 
hold courts for the trial of caufes . lindcr twciizie^ ' 
poqncjs. From this court, peifons aggnevei^,iffijry 
appeal to thg.qaarterieffiond. ; :- / jii:.::; -v.?;.rn;^ 
Secondly, CPMils jofuqjnfr/gr /effims: o/Hie fmsepb 
are l>eid qqatterjy mevcryxauntyjiby^atleajftihrrttq 
^f:|hcjuftj^eSv\. This rcooxt: tafccs^^-«Rgmi2aface pfi^ 
breaoj^^ gf the peacei,ia»dii;gencralfyxegiihttedi>jr/.: 

tbfpL^ruJgS/i^ilhe '^gli(hiawJ: / ;:• >ii - r* to ?:::ijq o: ir 

qutrtcBlf , ^i^^ai^^apfqjM^cAdit^fi^^S^ 
OHlnnfiimibafMnMt tt wjiift i fcf H)ftto Vfmism^ 
^FlKraafcxoMttdDl|ai£tkQtniuai^^ JWld^bpI(U|^ 
<Wi lioi i Ja ctoftrff;ytia>»T»:1SlMfc'h^ta»i^ 

to any amount, and is conftruAed on, and govjfig^ 

ilMMi *-irflBir, at.irTcrUi6n»;l>ydShifilbd|M4dl^ #ieP9^fit?t 
ed for that purpofe, who hold their offices ihg^ 

aAicPis»^'bttlL^chtilsafid crila4^fi}c; tI^<Higj^^ 
ftaM^'lMiniig the «meid^.mthoikf!<^ IJ^tfit c«itf|t^ 
Ifeng^ Beocfa^ Qmubob Piea^ mn^ ::ftiH:li«qv|or u> 
England^ The courts of: oj^en and. (^gwitHF i^td 
Aifi^pfiue; iX)tmnonly.bddtQace.aye«^<K>ua^ 
tf ^ for ihlcxrizi of canfes aiifing in the M!Ui\ty^-aAd 
Inroeght OKifiue in theXt:prctQe CQurt, jyre <^r<^p^|jg 
branches of this ccmrtvaodrare.hek) by^j^e^of t^ie 
jodges of it, except that in the courts of oyer and 
terminer, feme of the '^eflrWflltn uf the county arc 
alwmys added in che coipmii&on, as jiQifliants to the 
jodg^; but they cannot hold the court without 
liinu — 

FiftMyi Orphdffr ronrts, lately i?ft«bKftfe# fe^la 
of ":^emt)i5ri b hdd b3r:.t*e j^iages^PlSe ik^efk^ 

icaointani plcis, » fffiHo^ tnd have cofpiizjriicettf all 
iMeccers rclidDg to-wilt^ aiiminaihgtioM^ flic. -^ 

inr^])fcj^, iiwvfso^iu Icitacooitof k«r aodequi^ 
^ fetttded -on the fkme priac^^i >u^ gw a j u eA 
l)y the Aioe ralet as the codtt of chan^erf ui Eogr: 

Seventhly, iK^& r 9»r/ ^ «rrdrj dfufa^aalr^ compo-y 
Ted of the governor^ and feven of the comicil^ and 
h « court of appeals in the laft refort^ iaallcafi:* 

#Iaw; • . .. V 

All ihi EnglHh laws which hadbtenpca^ifed 
tipon in the ftate^ and which were not scfaigna^ 
tb^ revolution principles) were adopted by the con- 
f^tution^ and very few ditecations of confequcfice. 
have fince been made^ except in the defcem of re^ 
«ftateS) which) inftead of defoending to the ddeil 
fdn^ agreeably to the old feudal fyfteoi) as foraierljji 
are now divided (where there is no will) equally 
among the children, both male and female^: except 
that the eldeft fon has two iSiares. ^ . rf 



■ STATfe OP PENNSYLVANTAj. - 'i*'"- 

Constitution. * : 

THE legislative powers are wholly veiled ia^uii- 
giU body of men % led The general affembly <iif^T^ej&{ - 
mm)€j iff the freemen of Pemfyhaniai TThe qiialmca- 
Voi^# It* Mm tion 

53<) CoHfiitutiM of Pemfylvania. 

tion required to render a pcrfon eligible to this af- 
fembly is^ two yciars irefidcnce in the ciry or coun- 
ttfor which he i% ^ho&n. No member df the Wiife 
can hold any other cJffice,^ except iA th6 militia. ' 

The qualificariora of th^ eleftors, are^ fiill iige, 
and one year's icfidence in thfc ftate, with paynieht' 
of public taxes during that time; But the fons of" 
freeholders are ihtitled to vote for reprefentativcSi 
without any qualification, except full age- 
No man can be ekfted as a member of the af-' 
lembly more than/o^r years in /even. ^ 

The reprefentatiVtfs are choferi ahhuaily bri the ' 
fecond Tuefday in 0(3:ober, arid they meet on thc^ 
fourth Monday of the" fame month. A' quorum! 
of the boiife confifts of two thirds of the hiVnciber of 
members elefted ; and the members," "before they 
take their feats, are obliged to take an oath or af- " 
firmation of fidelity to the ftate ; and alfo fubfcribc 
a declaration. or teft, acknowledging their "belief 
in one God, and the infpiration of the fcripturie?, 
of the Old and New Teftament. The'houfe^'chufe ' 
their own fpeaker, who, iii the tranfaclion of burr-" 
nefs, never leaves the chair, A journal of the prb^ 
ceedings of the aflembly is publilhed regularly, and 
any member may infert the reafons of his vote up- 
on the minutes of the houfe. To prevent bafly ' 
determinations on mattei-s of importance, all bifls 
of a public nature are printed before the laft'read"- 
ing, and, except in cafes of neceffity, are hot pafled ' 


tdfiftitkiim of'Pentfytvdhid. ' j^t 

ip^gg^/cHjfjient is vefted in. the generati aflefp^t^y^ ,^;, ,,, 

The fupreqie ci^ecutiv6 power is lodgeij in a pr0* , 
fideri^t^jaQd a council coiififting, of jl rhettifcer .fi-c^ 
i>y tt 

From the mcmbcris of council; A vice ptT^^dtnt 
IS chofen at the fame tirfiei 

The xrouniellors are chofen by the ff^6ferrl(Jn, eye-' 
ry third year, arid having ferved. three years, theV",. 
are ineligible for the four fucceedirig yeajTs. The ap- 
P9intments of one third only of the mempers .e^pirei 
every year, by which rotation no moxe th^ln pne-third 
tan be new members. A counfellor is^ by his dfficei a 
juftice of the peace for the whole ftate, Theprefident 
and council form a court for the trial of impeachmetitSi 

The council meet at the fame time and place 
with.the general affcmbly. 

The prefident and council appoint arid, commif- 
fion judges of courts, naval officers, judge of the ad- - 
mirality, attorney general, and other officers^ the 
appointment of whom is not exprefsly vefted iri 
the people or general aflembly. But the freerhfeh ' 
chufe thejuftices of peace j the colonels of militia^ 
and the inferior military officers, and make a re- 
tufiiof the perfons eleAed, to the prefident and 
council, who are irapowered to commiffiori them* 
Thejufticcs of peace hold their commiffions forfe- 
vcn years, removeable however foi: mifcondufl: by 
the general aflembly. A juftice, while in office, 

M m ^ cannot 

fyt Cui/htuiim if Ptimj^Mt. 

«fca(K» ireprcfcnutivcinaffcmbly, nortalt* an|' 
iff^s but fuch IS (hall be allowed by the legAalurei 
<((;- The judges of the iuprenie.couri hqld their office 
for feven years, and at t^e end of that term, may 
fes rc,-appoirued. They have a fixed lalary, atid 
' .*« ^t permuted to take any fees or pcrq^uimes^ 

isgKcvyigefi? l?9ni^g,(J5 yj^^.^f tMatCj^agajfW 
^ATfi ^,^e,j)pifofi^^c^«gafe^,o£^b^r|jwT^c^are^«^ 

^b■§Wp§"S;^dW.9nc|:^-W^,cl)C5jfcn annually by the 
feQ^enj|;Jtxti(,thc^.can.,i'^_r,Yj5jbut three fucceffive 
Xefflrs,f|attii^;end_J3f.wb«^;lilv^ are inelig^iblc Uur- 

":. A>^Si^5f5'^ piicji,^fqr._i|^^g_ro^le ^pf will's^'an'a 
grj»Riiipg,il£Wer3;of-jadmiri_iftr^^i6tfi^ and an ofice idr . 

fembly, remox5a,t|l9 a ^|?f\fjg*^^%?* ^P'i^cq^mif- 
fioned by the prefident and cotinciH 

The conftitution of this ftate ordainsy that the 
legiflature fhall regulate entails in fuch a manner, 
as to prevent pefpctuities. 

- ■ Any foreigner of p gtxM cbaradVsr may purchafef 


CaiJiitulioH of Penn^hatu*. 535 

and hpW lands and other property, having firft ta- 
Ke'n [fie oarti of allegiance; and a years'refi3*S*fc 
«niitleshim to the privileges of a natural .b^flfeW 
jeil"; except that of being eligible to'ileiit^iStiie 
Jeginarure. / •; ' "-''''^- -°^ 

A coumJ of ffnfijrs, cotnpofed of two JiifeSibift 
irom each county, choferi by the freemSii, W Jl* 
fecond Tucfday ofOiftober every Teventh* ytfc'/fc 
inftituted for the purpofe of enquiring whctht*-the 
confticution has been p'rerenPcd inVtoUte-'iWlfi* 
'thcr ^the ditCerfeJic branctrcs'Ofgotefliiia«it'''ffiive 
Mrformea kcif^ciuW^ai ■ gb'JiWiahs «f iBtl pedp4«Fiil- 
^^^aiiw'tijt^pubffc lie^jttlliy'Mff ftJMl 

^hc^tcd^'aoii iq'*iiai„IAatnfcrt)ie iwtlrtitjf^ldvt 
'Ijclen "diipofed'of— atfii'Mf(r*beftfirf-aff fe^ hlft^ 
been dqly csecuted. For thefc purjpbfesj" tlt^ 
iaiye power fdftntf'forptWbnjf; papers, and r*c6rds 
^'^o^'p^fs »utiH<i'''<^fifiWesi'^ brdct^' ia^pEacbifeiJHS, 
ainiJ to^r'«difitoe«d'fe'tHt'lt!^ilStirc'thi' ^epe^'^if 
,laws which they deem unconftitutionAli'^TRiriy^ltfM; 
powif alio 'to 6r"der W ciirfveHtionfbV t'hi'p^il^ofc of 
amencfeogthe conftiiijtii(a;''piibMtiiy 1i!hs'ai'tiel& 
OTMoiccT ti) bis ahiiiiiiifcr fii nitni^hs "afi^i^^^A; 
ct-effion'^ tVe deie^aKi.'l'JThfefe p3*^ctiiftinttt 
i'Wfe'<^otittdt6rcefcfiii &i^V^.^'''''" ^'^■'■''"'^ 

. Mcip 3 i<j i-jngiaio"! ^aK^ 

cc: --...=-- :-- -■ . ■■■ ■■ ^. 

c .53i y 

IL.V.''. ,■!.' 'Jn; .~i •■ " '■• :!i • ..•■.. ..■■... •'•.• /iK-j /'. 


THE IfgiflaKi'rcis divided into two difHttdtbk-aiitH- 
H,- a iwufe of ajfefhhfy and a cottncily Whlih to^hcp 

bhtfe -f ajmi^fy corifilfe-Ziyf 27 merfibei^^^ereft-iiF 
^?^th'i(rfe dibfeh by'Hch"*of tTie-* tiircc' co^^^ 'bf 
Nett^fl!lc»i»^t5ht, and SriflWe; ^^rRtch "compbft-tHc 
ftattV 'ThiHb'membeh* are^Khoftft^'^inhti^t^tTfe- 
ffe^Woldefir^Ha- mitft *e *t^diae«''-tf^^ 
'nie^i-drt;ih/6oiiflff^ of iiihe'-WtHTi'B^re;''tW fit^^^&h 
cduhry, who' ^rtitifr bc^ frt?eH«iatW; * t^t^h^y-fivpyeats 
of^ge, and eleafed by^ thi fit^HoWefs^. -'>A^i^t5«ft 
of' ttiembcrs- 'is eftaWtflitrf'^ bf^tethtS^^ tmf yftaf 
dhe'tnennbcr/ who -nri'iy fcoire\rttK*W^re-e^^ or 

^'rrother chofen at the difcrttfeii 6f theelfeftors. 

All money bills' ttiuft originate' in the hotife of af- 
fembly/burthcynray beajtered; aitrcndcd or rejeft- 
ed by the iegiflative coiihtil. ' ' 

" A prefident or chief m^giftrate is chofen by' the 
joint ballot of bbth houfes, arid continues' iii'' office 
three years; at th'e^ expiration of vrfiich pcribdpHe is 
ineligible the three fucceeding yeafi. , If his"^ office 
becomes vacanf during the* recefs cif the legiftaitiirej 
or he is unable to attend to bufinefsj the fpeaker of 
the legiflative council is vice-prefident for the trnie i 
and in his abfcnce, the powers of the prefident de- 
volve upon the fpeaker of the affembly. 

A privy 

Cmflituikn af DeU'ttart^ 5 3 ;5 

A privy council, confifting of four members, twq 
from each houfe, chofen by ballot, is confticu ted tc( 
affift the chief magiftrate in the adminiftiation of the 
governmei^t. .,..,..;»...:.. 

, Th<s three juftices of the fujjr^mc court, a judges 
^f admiralty, and four juftijpes. of the Q^mmon pkai 
mid orphans ppurts, are appointed by die joint baU 
Ipt of the prefident andgenerisil affemhly, and wm^ 
miflioned by thf .preftdwt^ tliey hpld their offices 
during ggpd behaviqur... Xhq. pr^fidem lapd privy 
council af^iot the. .fea?cta;y, -tb^ ^t;iQrney-igcncral| 
regifters fyv the. probata of. willsj regittersin chance** 
ry, clerks pf the commoo pleas, and orphans courts, 
^1^ clerks of the; pe^afT^, w4)p, hold their Q^ces during 
five years, uiijjefs {ppncf rcnioved for ma-l-condud. . 
The houfe of aflembjy name twenty-foui: perfons 
in each county for juftices of peace, from Vhich 
number the prefident;, with the advice of his council, 
appoints and commiflioxis twelve^ who frrye for fe- 
ven years, uqlefs fooner difmifled for mal-admini- 
ftration. The merpbers of the legifladvc and privy 
councils ar^ juftices of the peace fqr the whole ftate,: 
. The courts of con>moi> pl.^as aja4 orphans courts 
baTe, power to hold. chancery puurtsin certain cafes. 

• The clerk of the fupreme court is appointed by 
the chief juftice, and the recorders of deeds, by the 
juftices of the common pleas, Jfor five years, ynlefe 
fooner difmified,. 

Min4 AH 

by the ^'Miftli ifljif ihpiyT" c iivo vn^ i>!oif ^3/:dmYoIq 
The r^«r/ ^ appeals eonfifts of fcvcn pcrfons — the 
prefident, who \% a mrxaWr^, ''nd prrfidcs by virtue; 
of his office^ and fix others, three to be choien by the 
kgifladyc c««il^wiAtec«ity3te^"teufc of affcm- 
bly. To this court appeals lie from the ftiprcm^ 
court in all mactftS^dBi#-ir^^ The judges 

96Ki ^uitVL^mSx (TOftng'Mdd licliaviwifiS^* -cirik 

the privy council, fe<^^^tyEb<^^lftt^4di!?&A^ 
'flfeAfrofufe *c6mfliii{i plWsy' Itfld tnr jpcirofirtoncTni--* 

tuts test, tnuit T2CICC tBtr oatli of^ jolegianccr, asa''itn>« 

rR«Be^^-^irrfi«fe%fi^fcfenl^hHeK^fQ^ thb 

ploymcnty hold any civil oSm in^^rtufAnic^ v>i '4 
THE le^ilj^9i^4j bcef^Pfifc*. 9^.m^:4f^^ 

for county delegate?,, .J;^ 4]|C^i^ f^'j^ijf^f^pQliy, 

,^ftlR?3|w^wf 9f.t.b.4r 4w^,JMd 9^; fimt^c 

have refided ii» the ftat(:;ipp|9!th*n;tlj|^$,ft^t 
grefi^^diflg. thft. ^}^m*, %a^ . hm ffih ^i B?f ^nal 

c^^jaiT^eath, re£giu^tiop;^ pr inability of a fenatpr. 


Aimgtbftfivc years for which lie is cleftct!, -iJie 
\2Lizttcj is filled' by the fenatc. The itmve'hiiif 
dr%inatc-any bills, except money bilft, tb whieh 
&ey can only give their affent dr dilTent. - ^^^^ : > 
'^Th^-ienate chufe theii- prefident by baHotV " "^^^- 
» The hoiife of delegates is compofed <tf fbiif ittevci. 
bfers for each county^ cbofen annually^ ^ oh tlje^firfif 
Monday in 06tober.^ ^he cley^bf Anna{k)lxs attd- 
t<y#n of Hitftiiffore fend^'^ch t^ Vk»!egates, ^'^Tfhe 
^[oitUficitioM^ff a delegare j art, fell-^ge, orfe yeaW 
refidencein the county Whcre^lw^ IS 'thbfih, ihd 
r€A<yt perfoiial property ^nfibove thevalfle of fivo' 
ku'rtdred poiind^; ' ■ *' *•- '■"-*'* - - i- - ':'*'.:^ 

Both houfes chufe their own officers, and j«dge 
of the eleftiaft^^ •th^ii' mfembei^.' -A^majdHty of 
cafch i^ aquorum: '■' •' '■ ^' -. ' ^•' * '• ^'' --• 
• The eleftioh of ienators artddelegates is ^wa ^<?- 
cs, and flieriffs the rctoming officewi except inrBal- 
timore town, where the conimiffi6n'&al fuperintend 
the cledHons and trtate return?. The ftatedTeffioii 
of the'lc^illatare is on the ^firft Monday in Novem* 
ber, - .-. ^.. 

The 'quilificaitlohs ' of tc freehtan arc full^ stge^, a 
freehold -elfetfe of fifty acres of land, "aftd ^ftual re-^ 
fidence in i'he cvwityw^here ^t offers tb w/^,-i^prOper- 
ty to the value of thirty pounds in any part of the 
ftate^ dtid'ayear'i /efidencc iri the coUnty where he 
oifers to vote. 

On the itcoml M<^n3ay 4n Noveni^ber^ arnmally, 
/ • ' -' a gQ- 

a^ovcpiK)^ is appqinted by .t}>e jpmt baMQtiqf,.t^Qt&i 
I^9\^es,7 tjikpn in each .^bojafe. juefpe^tiyielyt ^n4 4eT 
pql^jgd ill a inference rpom ; where th^ box^^ ^Jr?; 
examined by ^ joint cgijjjnittef pfitjQth houfi?s, ^x^ 
the number of rotes feverally repqrted^^ The go- 
ver^or (;^^nqt CQnti,nue ia office linger tb^n fhfec 
yqiys fticc^flivqly, J^or be plefte4 until the ^^irj^^ 
tjqt). of four year$ afjt^r h^has bpqn out of offi^^e.,,!/; 
/yhe qu^ifiq^tiQps for the, chief p)agifl:racy,ajr^-j^ 
twenty-fiv.e ye^trs of agp, 4iye y^x% rpfid.ence j^;4>^ 
ft^tp, next preceding. the eledion, and real an4; 
perfoual eftate above the valwe of five thoufand 
pounds, one thoufand of which n:mft be freeh.QjlfJf 

eftate, ; . •. . ,-,.:. ^ , ■ ^ . • '^.if 

> On^the fecond Tu^fday> of November, annually), 
the fenators and delegates eledl by joint ballot, fiy^e 
able^^ difcrjeet wen^^^boye twea^ty-ftve y^s^^s of Pge, 
refi#efitS;in the ft^tJ? lihree years ne^t pp?9cding jthp 
ele<9:ion,. ^nd poflTc^ng a^ freehold pf la^4?^^^ 1??t. 
nemeAts,a^bqve^be v^uq of a.j:l^puftpfippurwi$^ Iff, 
be a cp!iHicfl for aifvfting the governpr inifh^.duti% 
of his office. ' i^,^ 

, Sen;^tors, delegates, ^nd mfifl:^}][era^ if)|; 9oyflifil, 
vvbile fuc^,; 9an hp]d iio 9tl?^r officp qj^^.j^jr^Jlt^^.^qip, 
receiye.fhe prpf^ts p£ any office ^^^erQ^4/tjy.ftfltrti 

Miniftcrs of the. gofpel.^re e^cclMded frpl^f civil;, 

offices. ..'.•'' \ Jt: 

The governor, with , the acivj^ • P.^ \^}P f fi^P^^^ * 


^delegates, at Anna^oli^^ ^rtf*-. m^rT. Um. 

KI'tiL J 


THE Icg'iflative powers aire vefted in a houfe of 
defecates and'afenate," which together ibfin tti? 
^enefat anqrhhiiy of Virginia. The hoiife of ^|lc- 
gat<^ is copapot^d of two mcml^Iers from each cciui^r^ 
Vj'y ' chd'fen annually l>y"tliecitizej;is pofltri^g an 
etfate^for tife in' 106 acres of. unhabitcd lana^ or 
2K acres with i noufe on it; or having a ^noufefOjr 
Jot m^Ipme town J ' The fciiate confefti of t^e&v- 
four membei^s who hold their leats foj fo^r yeais., 
fix of them bcihg changed every year. T^e elec- 

ift ilitfete o£}Ae eiftimillatas the itegiflatttrie Is called thi'^'iftMS 


•Sftftflti ctae thedekgatss'dhufe'aiifo Hii feiiateiSJ 
am*t=iP tiiit^'iiriia-ctfAideit iMii'Mim}' 

aanually the governor (who can fill that ^m^e oi^y 
Hfi^t^ii^ti^ov^ffidi^i^ 'iud t&fe 'delegates to'^cbiTgra^^^ 



Thete are three fuperior courts, to which ap- 
peals U<f-rr«SSRfl'cD0rH'bdld*V-t6-^Jtt/yii high, 
court; of chancery, the eeneraL-,court, and court 

of 4flmiralty. , Ttie "firlt aiii^ fccond of tliete 
,p-^li'-'Ori i; ti! J)-'t)3V ,-•■ , ,r J 

ceive aprieais Jromtlie coumy coans, and alfo ii 

original jurifaiCTi,QB ulicre ihe-Uibjcct of contro- 

deive'api^eaisjfrom^tly; coumy coans, and alfo have 
verTy is' offfic- \x\\tQ uf ren pounds' flerling, or' 


wiiere i[ coiucmi^ ihe tulc or bounds of land. The* . 
jurifiiiftion ol the aumirahy is original aUogether. 
Tiie Iiigh court of cli:mi;i.ry is compofed of three 
judges, the geuerai court of five, anJ^the court df^ 
adniinilty of three. The tvyo iiilt Iiold .their fef-, 
(Sbhs at 'K^ichmond at ftated times, the chancent. 
twice in tne year, and the generaP court twice for 
bHJla<e^ idyirjasd;!C&inLOalyt:%iHlnf»^i£iQomots:ifer 
critninjl wnljr, -'l^ccain^ofadwSnritJoflt'pVWlH'^ 
iiamlburg whenever a controverfy ariieS- *''"'' ^'"''^ 

rwrddififft aflemtjling't«i^iefc a year it ttateStirfJel'at 
fothmoB^. 'Thii' c'6urt -fetciyes app6aJf i»''^^i:M' 
cafes from each of the (uperior courtt, * khtf^dietfeV-' 
triifies iEKeifefti«my; Biitlt^Iiis -hd orTginal jdfriiSMiLL 
a-'Mlidh* irf kman<Je''wiiH''thc=tJHi^i^'«aia','^if Sjj ' 
cfccWat By YKe "ddAfut Br iMr'^fet'e/'iV* ff "bj^ti' 
pAWes chufe it, by tlic bWiniry ' courts of jtii^^^ 

If one of the parties onljr be fuc'K a fofdgher/ 
it h triable before tine coiirts of juftice ^of the 

coiifttry; 'But if the dSufe flialTftdve befeii ihfiit'uted 
in a county courts the foreigner,' ttiay ^HiiioVe?t'' 
into thd 'gftn^fal court et^^tbiift" of chincfer^, who 
are to detefrhlntj it at their firft feffions, as they 
miiftalfo' do if it be originally commenced before 
thetft.' Ill cafes of life and death, fuCh foreigners 
have a fight to be tried by a jury, the one half fo- 
te^het-^, rheother natives. 

All pobfi<^ addouhts arc Tettled with a boarcf'of 
auditorB; t?tJAf?ftrrig bf three mcfmbers, Appointed 
by thfe g^nei-al aflemb!y, any two of wh6m may adt. 
But an individual, diflatisfied with the determina- 
tion of ^hat baard^ nxay carry his cafe into the piro; 
perJor court- 
In 1 66 1, the laws of England were expVelsly 
adopted by an aft of the alTembly of Virginia, ^i- * 
cept fo far as a difference of condition rcfhdtred' '* 
them ifiSpplicable. To thefe were added a num- 

hfir of afts of affembly, palled during the monitr-t* 
chy, and ordinances of convention, and aflis of afr-; 
fcmbly, fiocc <he eftablilhmelit of the republic, » 
The fpltewing variations from the Britifli model arw 
worthy of notice. • i - * ,■ - ^..^ 

* Rotors xMiable to pay their ^bts, and makihg;j 
faithful dejivrty of their whole tffiSb, arc rcleaf^d 
from their con^nemcrltj, - and their perfons for ever 
difcharged from reftraiiit for' fuch previous debts :: 
but any property they njiay afterwards acquire will: 
be fubjeft to their creditors. i - 

^ The poor, unable to fupport themfelves, are 
maintained by an alTeffmenton th^ titheable per-» 
fons in their parifh *.. . •. / 

' A foreigner of any nation, not in open war 
with us, becomes naturalized by removing to thc;,, 
ftate to refide, and taking an oath of fidelity ; and : 
thereupon acquires every right of a native citizen* :.; 

' Slaves pa(s by defcent and dower aS: landls. do. . ;i 

' Slaves, as well as lands, were entailable during[. ; 
the monarchy : but, by an .aft of the firft rqpubl^-' 
can aflembly, all donees in tail, prefent^and fuiur<3,,,j, 
were veiled with the abfolute dominion of the en-^.- ^ 
tailed fubjeft. . j^i 

^Gaming debts are m^de void) and monies adr.;: 
tually paid to difcharge fuch debts (if they exceed-. ; 
ed 40 (hillings) may be . recovered^ by the p?.yQ| 

* This is furcly TOuformabie ta,; aad-rioi*'a'¥arla(k)fi-fr<Krt"t^^ *- 
Briufli modeL - - _.::.:••.!. s .i ii : .■: :';.;-^ 

■y- .■ , •, ». x. l ..!»..■•.•. .v: <-.■■.'. 1 1 1*1,. I- . 

• ' - - rf . 


pmint^ ttaftb» hd^/tBtA bf ^pn piikif m$4 
pMBCtdt bcfoK chcf call be esporttid/ . 

In tj»Sf the i^fcmbly tMAcd^ thw itt iniiii 
Jknild be compeUed to 4)I1»wt inf idUq^^ wot« 
ftiipi {dftee^orntnftw wbiufomr^ Mr br «AiiMr«e4 
itftniMdj sBolefted^ «r. bardcned ttiikJftbcidjrQr 
aoods^ jHstt otbenrilfe/ttffqir en iiccpuiit of bb ireli* 
4POU& opmioiia or beUef i .b»i thtt »U mtm iboul4 
be free to profefi^ end by ergtiment to mMUxttin^ 
their opioioft bit fluuers of Kligioa; f^ diet Jiic 
£une Ibouki in no wife diouiulbf <mUrge| or tAbft^ 
their civil eapecftie». 

In o&ober 1 786^ an ^ was puflad by the efleoiV 
bly, prohibiting the importation of fl&ves into the 
commonwealth 9 upon penalty of the forfeiture of 
the fum of £. 1 000 for every flavc; And cv^xy flav 
imported contrary to the true intent md meaning 
of this n&s becomes free. 


BY the conftitution of this ftate, which was riti- 
fi^ii in Dccetnber, 1776, atl legiflative authority is 
vefted in two diftind branches^ both dependent on 

" thd 

(^ftitution of North Carolina. 545 

the pec^ple^ VIZ. A SeMte and Ifoufi of CommnSf 

Cental AJfembly. .^irupr 

»iiTlMiiiliiiinus ^Mqaipoffijbdi ripBi^HMMMT ^a« 

The houi^MtnpaoKi o»3fi(ftt:>»#Tn|wi ^ikmum§ 
«]MifeoainiriB9 fi|te^^««f ^^tap^ eaMki qMMpiy^ find 

«UfiftiU}^re&lj»l iiKb*^4^ heisr'die&Ki^ 

ene fear immediately preceding! imjafeftiony r4unl 
tiMrik months fiiUl^ha^ p^fiefledi^ jand^cottutilr to 
^)>bfi€ra^ in the doiintf ii^icli he -reiirefeBts^ not itfs 
VSum^ioo acreisr of knd -tn fM> oc foe ihe ternfof^is 

.% ' A* freemain of at years of age^ >Kfii<>*hai toctiHtti 
inhabitant in the Hate twdhre tfitoths^ iqwodwitely 

preceding the day o f any eleftion, and who had 
poflefled a freehold oFfifty acres of land within the 
coimty for fix months next befi^lsifc^ a&d «r the day 
of election, is entitled to vote ficir a member of the 

iUl ^ejemen.of ai years, of age, wEo Ijayie been 
jii?hai?JLtaiJts, of ,t)>e ftatcA«.Tc^,i»ext^W^tKc 
^.f.VoL. II. Nn election. 

j[#6 mtjtitutidn of Ncrib TCart^. 

^dftidn,' affdha^ paid public iix&'/tta'f'i^f&t 
ikliShabcrtr df 'the houfc of eofriMnohs. «^ - - 'rki- ■ '< s-^ Ji f «' - 
"•'The fenate and houfe of commons,' wheft'dibHi 
i^cd, elibt)fe«tiehtheit«bwb fp^k^ry>tMd'iffiJ^es 
of the qiiittficationiVand''dbaJdrift 6f-th«t^^«H{8@Rr< 
•Iliiey joitttlf , by baIlot'~at>their firft'hi**ti^giaite» 
iajdHi atiiftfit deftkw, trhoofe a'govtiirhbr fb^ *6rtd y tilit^i 
^ 1i^ riot aH^fc to thfieoffieis IbiJgd'-tUtttiith^ete 

a freehold of more than ;£^<ibi^> ^iid-'b^e-b^i sA 
inhabitant of the ftatc above five years. They, in 
th& fame manner and at the fame time, eleft feven 
perfons to be a council of ftate for one year, to 
lEdvife the governor in the execution of his office. 
They appoint a'tWiifart^ dHterfdreW foi^ the ftate. 
They trienially cboofe .a ftatr-^ecretary. They 
jointly appoint judges of the fupreme. courts of law 
and equity ; judges of admiralty, and the attorney-, 
general, who are commiffioned/by the governor, 
and hold their offices during good behaviour. 
They prepare bills, which muft be read three times 
ijj each houfe, and be figned by the fpeakerofWth 
houfes> before they pafs into laws. , 

. Judges of the fupreme court; members of cgrin- 
.cil ; judges of admiralty ; treafurers ; fecfeiaries ; 
.attx)rney- generals for the ftate ; clerks of recofa j 
clergymeii; perfons denying the Being of a God, 
the truth of the proteftapt religion, or the" divine 
authority of the Old or New Teftament : receivers 

- •■ '' ■'■■■• of 

^^pi;^ijikm<Hue9>whore^ccounts are Aii^]tri€<ij ^^j;^ 
military officers ia*^uai fervi^e^^ ai;^ ^U i^eligil^ 
to ^fe^ either in the fcnate or houfe of comm^oi^ 
^fticea of the pcwei, being ,reqojiuiieA4pd .1?3^^^^ 
repre(emative$,ar€hcpiwnil&o|i€;d.;i)y;.thc govern 
ai;}4i hold their officios duringgoiodbehay^ rl^ 
poftftitmtioifc ^ws-off w^^.peJigift^Ji pftalp^ 
,^etlf;gi(lati^e.4$ f^i«hoBiZp4 tP .jregHiftte,-,entai^^ 
A&,tp pr^v^t pe^p^tujties t a 

»,dolH?fiAcCs.,,,;t ; n,f> ... i... i-'^iIb 

Kvyr-iK r-)..: . ; ji ^ :>jrn.r>t jfiJ :;^ :.«>r . "-i../- .. r - ~ .-.ifji 

■ I . . t .. 

THJL leeiflative ' autitbnty is Vefted ' in a TeiiSVe 
and houfe of repfeferitatives, forming togetH^?'^k 
General Aitembly. In this affembly is chofeAliy 
ballot a governor and lieutenant-governor, b^Vh 
to continue in pfBce for two years, and' a privy- 
council, confiftihg of the lieutenant-gbverhoFaftii 
eight other perfons,'alI of tHe-prdteftant religibiiV 
"The governor andlieutehant-goverrior itiviff have 
been reficients in the ftate for ib years, and tlie 
members of the privy-council 5 years, prececfiHrg 
their eleftion, and poffefs a freehold in the ftat<^'6f 
tlie value of at leaft ^en thoufand pounds currency, 

dear of dfebr. 

N n 2 The 

54^ C^itutim tfSMttb^Cmttindi. 


• ^« '- ... 

The fenat e sre chofen bf boBoi;, biKWikil^^ ott 
^ kft . Mondsy in November— ^htcteca loake a 
qtioruni. A ifonator muft be of itic pFoce&uit'^ve- 
^on ; Dsuft bave attained the i^ : of j^^ jcetTs ; 
Wpfl: bare beeiF a re&knt in fk^ ftate fXr leaft 5. 
jreafs ; and muft poffefs a freebold in the pariib 9r^ 
diSrid for which he is ele&ed> of «^ l^ift j^ia^>oa 
currency, clear of debt. 

The kft Monday in November, biennially^ twa 
hundred and two perfons are to be choCea m dif- 
ferent parts of the date (equalijf:proportion€d) to 
reprefent the freemen of ^ the . fhate . ia th^ general 
aifembly, who are %p meet, wiiJxthjs fenate, anivuaHy, 
at,the feat-, of government, on the firfl Monday in 
January. . 

All free whitemen of 21 years of age, of one 
year's refidence in the ftate, aixi poffefling freehold?' 
of 50 acres of land each, or what ftiall be deemed 
equal thereto, are qualified to eledt reprefeatatiy^s. 

Every fourteen years the reprefentation. of ,the . 
whole ftate is to be proportioned in the nK>ft. e^ual 
and juft manner, according to the particular '^?id 
con^parative ftrength and taxable property qf the 
different parts of the fame. - ' . » 

All money bills for the fupp^rt of governiOTnt, 
muft originate in the lioufe of reprefentatiyes^ and , 
: -1 ... Ihall 

ConJfUiiiioH if SoW'Carbmi.^ ^^ 

(hair Aft:"lie iltgreffbr amended bjr the-IBiiit^iW 

ittayberejededbj^therrf."* * - >—.. rr.t 

Minifters of the gofpel are ineligible to any tJF 

the civil offices oFthcftite. * ' ' ^\' "*-"'' "- 

- The poWtJf of- iihpeadiing «5ffidiifw'<§l''tFw-ftaf<? 

is vefted \h the -houfe <Jf ri^Hffetfftf iVbC"- ' " ^ ^ "^ 

The 14eutcnatt«-go^im&p,«nd atnajofftyorffiif 

privy-coohcil; c3t€rcife the *power§ df a'ttourt'dF 
chancery. - . . ^ .: %- -;.. ri;. -.c^v 

Jofticefe' 6f the peace are nomrnatfed by the fenate 
and reprefentatives, jointly, and commifRohed by^ 
th^ governor during pleafiire. * 

All other judicial officers are chofctrby the fe- 
nate and reprefentatives, jointly, and (except the 
judges of the court of chancery) commiffioned by 
the governor during good behaviour. 

All religious focieties, who acknowledge that 
there is one God, a future ftate of rewards and pu« 
nifhments, and that God is to be publicly wor- 
Ihipped, are freely tolerated. 

The liberty of the prefs is tobe preferved inviolate; 

No part of this conftitution is to be altered, with- 
out a notice of ninety days being previoufly giveA, 
nor then, without the confent of a majority of thti 
members of the fenate and houfe of reprefentativei; 

By the laws of this ftate the evidence of a ilaV* 

cannot be taken agamft a white man ; and a mafter ' 

who kills his flave, is only puniflnablc by a mulft, 

aikl twelve months imprifbnment. 


r • 

( 550 ) 

?f( :•••;■: ••:,;il v} • ., : •'. .:,! -.1 ?;fi •hi'^tf} 



. pTi'HS inhiibica^ts of YermoAt, by thoiir reprdfeirir 
t^ktives in cQnycntipn, at .Windfgr,. .qn xhpi2$ik]^- 
I^^embeTi 1 777^ declarc;d that; tlietp^^tpfy paUi^j 
ye^oioat>.wa$y;.and of right ipugbt to b)e;4i^ee.^ij^, 
independent Aate ; arid for the purpofe pf m^i^i^-^ 
i9g rcgulai: . government in tl^c. fanpe, ^bfiy. ma4? ;^, 
f<^9ii9^ d^ar^on of. their rights, . ^nd ratified, ^. 
confticution^ of which.the^foUowing.-/&^ ^&xaJ^^ 
. I Their declaration, which xuakcs a part of tbf ir 
QGnftitgiipn, and , i$. . fimiUr to . thofe. pf . %k^ otb^f . 
Jfecps, * aflerts th4t,^U fl>€;% ^^.Jborn, c^qua^y :ff)ec^ , 
4nd with equal righf^ j jtn4, ought to enjoy. li|)erty. 
of confcience, freedom of the prefs, trial by jury^ 
power to form new ftates in vacant countries, and 
to regulate their own internal police ; that all elec^^ 
tions ought to be free ; that all power is originally 
in the people ; that government ought to be inftitu- 
ted for the common benefit of the community; 
and that the community have a right to reform pr 
abolifti government : that every member of fociety 
hath a riglit to protcdioa of life, liberty, . and pro- 
perty ; and in return is bound to contribute .his 
proportion of the expence of that proteftion^ and 

• The ftates which, "hcfides Termofit and MaffachufettSy hafvemade 
declarations of rights, arc PennJyhbAnia, DJaware, Maryland^ Fir-' 
^iKtai and North Carolina, 


Ccnjiitktion of. Vetmont.^ 5 5 r 

yield his ptrfonal fcrvice when ncccflary : that hc» 
fhall not be obli'geA'tb give evidence againft him^ 
felf; that the people have aright to bear arms? 
but no (landing armies fhall be maintained in timo 
of -^eide: th^t-the ptopfeirf^ea ri^ to'hold tHdm-v 
fHvesi their 'houfei, pat)ers, andpoffeffions, frttS 
frbiii^-feaiditiHmure j'^hd'i^ 
otrt^oathi.-firft' madfey trfFoiSJmg fuffitient- fbunldatidt^ 
fiar thbn, are Cdtttraty^^ «iiafc^ht,-ahdf ought lidlJ 
to hi' granted.' Tfiat- h6 pfcrfortttett ^bo liiifbte- to W 
u'a1ifp6ned'"otit <rf^ tlrii ft^^ fo^-ti^ial i&t,^9»y oSimt' 
committtd^thih^fHis^^at^^^ • •- - • - 

By the fram6off^t)ft^erhment, thefiipw 
lative power is ^reftfed in a hpufe of reprefentatives' 
oPthe frc^mc!n-df thaftateof Vermont^ to bechofeft 
anniiilly bf the frefemen'oa the firft TUeOayia 
September, ihd to ttiertf the feeond Thurftiay of the 
Iticcecding OQiober, ' This body is veft^yd with alt, 
the-potineri heceffary for the legifl^ture of a^ fiteH 
ftatc;^' and two-thirds of the whole nvmb^of re* 
prefentattvei elefted, make « quorum* ^ * 

» Ertstch inhabited town throughout the ftaie,^ hagi-^^ 
right tt> fend one r^prefentative t<>^the aSetiibly* -•- 

TheTiipreme executive power is veftedi^ a -go^^^ 
vernor, lieutenant-governor, and twelve c6uAfd}l6ra; " 
to be chofen annually in the fame inahner, and\ 
vefted with the fame powers^ ad in Conttedticiit* • **^ 

Every pcrfon of the age of .2,^ years^ who has re-, 
fided in the. ftoLte.^ ne*t before; the 


5^52 Cbnftitution of Vermont. 

dedioh of reprefentathres, and is of a quiet, peace- 
able behaviour, and will bind himfelf by his oath^ 
ID do wli^iheihali'in.cimfcience judge to be mofl: 
conducive^.tb the belt good of the ftate,N(haU be 
entitled co'all the privileged of a freeoian c£: this 

Each member of the houfeof . reprfcfieni stives be*. 
fere- he tak^s hik feat, rnvR: declare his :belief in one^ 
God^ :in ' (fiituf e. rewisrdsi ! and punifbrnents, r . ainl id: 
die divimty of the fcriptures of the Old rand Ne\r 
TeftaiBtetfi; '^nd muft profefs the proteftarit religion^ 

Courts of juftice are to be .eftayifhed in every 
county throu^oiu the ftate* 

The fopreme court, 'and the ftveral courts of 
common pleas of thisftate, befides the powers ufiially 
^xertifed f)y fuch courts, have the powers of a court 
of chancery, fo far as relates to perpetuating tef- 
timony, obtaining evidence from places not within 
the ftate, and the care of the perfons and eftates of 
thofe who are non compotes mentis^ &c. : Ail profe- 
cutions arc to be commenced in the name, and by 
the authority of the freemen of the states of Ver- 
mont. The legiflature is to regulate entails fo as 
to prevent perpetuities, 

AH field and ftaff-officers, and commiflSoned of- 
ficers of the army, and all general officers of the 
militia, (hall be chofen by the general affembly, 
and be commiffioncd by the governor. 

Every feventh year, beginning with the year 1 785, 

. thirteen 

Conftitution of Vemmt. 553 

thirteen perfons (none of whom are to be of the 
council or aflembly) (hall be chofen by the free-p 
men, and be called the council of cenfors whofe duty 
it (hall be to enquire whether the conftitution has 
been preferved inviolate in every part— whether the 
legiflative and executive powers have been properly 
exercifed — taxes juftiy laid and coUefted— ^he pub- 
lic monies rightly difpofed of — ^and the laws duly 
executed* For thefe purpofes, they (hall have 
power to fend for perfons, papers, &c. — to pafs 
public cenfures'-^to order impeachments, and to 
recommend the repeal of all laws enacted contrary 
to the principles of the conftitution. They are to 
be veiled with thefe powers for one year only, after 
the day of their eleftion. 

The council of cenfors, when neceffary, may call 
a convention, to meet within two years after their 
fitting, to alter the conftitution : but the propofed 
alterations muft be publiflied at leaft fix months 
before the cleftion of delegates to fuch convention. 


Vol. n. O o